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Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch09

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Nutrition Basics Chapter 9
    • 2. Nutritional Requirements: Components of A Healthy Diet
      • 45 Essential nutrients
        • Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals and Water.
      • Fuel Potential. Kilocalories (kcalorie).
          • 1 Kcalorie = amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter of fluid 1 degree of centigrade.
          • 2000 kcalorie or calories per day meets a person needs.
          • 1000 calories = 1 kcalorie.
          • 3 supply energy
            • Fat = 9 calories per gram
            • Protein = 4 calories per gram
            • Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram
    • 3.  
    • 4. Proteins
      • Forms muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, hormones and cell membrane.
        • Twenty common amino acids
          • Nine essential amino acids.
          • Eleven nonessential amino acids
        • Complete proteins provide all essential amino acids.
          • Most animal proteins.
          • Most plant proteins are incomplete.
            • Combine 2 vegetables to make up missing amino acids.
        • Recommended amount
          • 0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight
          • 10-35% of total calorie intake
            • Average is 15-16%
    • 5. Fats or Lipids
      • Most concentrated source of energy
        • stored energy and provides insulation and support for body organs
        • Two fats
          • Linoleic acid
          • Alpha-linoleic acid
        • 10% from saturated fats
        • Triglycerides - glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids
      • Saturated Fat
      • Mono-unsaturated
      • Poly-unsaturated
      • Hydrogenation
      • Trans fatty acids
    • 6. Fats and Health
      • Cholesterol
        • High Density Lipo-Protein (HDL’s) – good cholesterol
        • Low Density Lipo-Protein (LDL’s) – bad cholesterol
      • Absorbs Fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E & K)
        • Make up 25%-35% of total daily calories
          • 7% from saturated fat
          • 10% from polyunsaturated fat
          • 20% from monounsaturated fat
      • Omega-3 fatty acids – AMDR -5-10%
      • Omega-6 fatty acids – AMDR – 0.6-1.2%
      • Recommended Intake
        • Adults
          • Men 17 grams per day of linoleic and 1.6 grams of alpha-linoleic
          • Women 12 grams per day of linoleic and 1.1 grams of alpha-linoleic
        • Only 3-4 teaspoons (15-20 grams) of vegetable oil per day
        • AMDRs for total fat 20-35%
    • 7.  
    • 8. Carbohydrates
      • Supply energy for the body cells
      • Two groups
        • Simple Carbs: One or two sugar units
          • Fruit, sugar, honey, malt, and milk
        • Complex Carbs: Multiple sugar units
          • Starches and fiber
            • Grains – wheat, rye, rice, oats, barley, and millet
            • Legumes – dry beans, peas, and lentils
            • Tubers – potatoes and yams
        • Digestion
          • Mouth and small intestines
          • Break down to glucose
    • 9. Refined Carbohydrates Versus Whole Grains
      • All grains before processing
        • Inner layer, germ
        • Middle layer, endosperm
        • Outer layer, bran
      • During processing
        • Germ and bran are removed leaving just the starch of the endosperm
    • 10. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Response
      • Insulin and glucose levels
      • Quick rise in glucose and insulin levels = high glycemic index
        • Eating high glycemic index foods may increase appetite
        • May increase risk of diabetes and heart disease
        • Unrefined grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes – relatively low glycemic index
    • 11. Recommended Carbohydrate Intake
      • Average American – 200-300 grams
      • 130 grams needed to meet the body’s requirements for essential carbohydrates
      • Adults – 45-65% of total daily calories or 225-325 grams
    • 12. Fiber – A Closer Look
      • Food and Nutrition Board
        • Dietary fiber nondigestible carbohydrate that is present naturally
        • Functional fiber nondigestible carbohydrate that has been isolated or synthesized
        • Total fiber is the sum of both
      • Sources
        • All plant substances
      • Recommended intake
        • 38 grams for adult men
        • 25 grams for adult women
        • Needs to come from foods not supplements
    • 13. Vitamins
      • Organic (carbon-containing) substances required in small amounts to promote specific chemical reactions (catalyst) within a living cell.
      • Thirteen vitamins:
        • Four Fat Soluble: A, D, E, and K.
        • Nine Water Soluble: C and 8 B-complex vitamins. Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), Folate, B-12, Biotin and Pantothenic acid.
      • Sources:
        • Human body does not manufacture most vitamins
        • Abundant in fruits, vegetables and grains
    • 14. Minerals
      • Inorganic compounds.
      • Helps to regulate body functions,aid in growth,maintenance of body tissues, and a catalyst for energy release.
      • 17 essential minerals.
        • Major minerals - 100 milligrams or more.
          • calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, sodium, potassium and chloride.
        • Trace minerals – minute amounts.
          • Cobalt, copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium,
          • and zinc
    • 15. Water
      • Composed of about 50-60% water
      • Can live up to 50 days without food , but only a few days without water
      • Water and other beverages make-up 80-90% of your daily water intake
      • Men – 3.7 total liters of water, with 3.0 liters (13 cups) coming from beverages
      • Women – 2.7 total liters of water, with 2.2 (9 cups) coming from beverages
    • 16. Other Substances in Food
      • Antioxidants –
        • Reduction in cancers
        • Vitamin C & E, selenium, carotenoids
      • Phytochemicals
        • Soy foods may help lower cholesterol levels
        • Cruciferous vegetables render some carcinogenic compounds harmless
        • Allyl sulfides (garlic and onions) boosts the cancer-fighting immune cells
    • 17. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
      • Set standards by Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences - developed RDAs and AI (adequate intake)
      • Include standards for both recommended and maximum intakes
      • Established standards for nutrient intake in order to prevent nutrient deficiencies
      • Should you take supplements?
        • DRIs guide you will the nutritional needs with food, rather than the use of supplements
      • Daily values – U.S. Food and Drug Administration use on food labels
        • Based on 2000 calorie diet
    • 18. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Eating a variety of nutrient-dense foods
      • Control calorie intake to manage healthy weight
      • Physically active every day
      • Plenty of grains, vegetables and fruits
      • Choose fats wisely
      • Choose carbohydrates wisely
      • Prepare foods with little salt and sugar
      • Moderation of alcohol consumption
      • Keep foods safe to eat
    • 19. Weight Management
      • Overweight and obesity are major public health problem
      • Americans need to reduce the amount of calories
      • Increase physical activity
      • Make wiser food choices
    • 20. Physical Activity
      • Aim to accumulate at least 30 minutes (adults) or 60 minutes (children) of moderate physical activity
      • Brisk walk at a pace of 3-4 mile per hour
      • Manage body weight engage in 60 minutes of moderately to vigorous intense activity
      • Sustain weight loss engage daily in at least 60-90 minutes of moderate activity
    • 21. Food Groups to Encourage
      • Fruits and vegetables
        • 41/2 cups or the equivalent of 9 servings each day
          • Dark green vegetables
          • Orange vegetables
          • Legumes
      • Whole grains
      • Low-Fat and Fat-free milk and milk products
    • 22. Fats
      • Fats and oils provide the essential fatty acids needed
      • Total fat: 20-35% of total daily calories
      • Saturated Fat: Less than 10% of total calories
      • Trans fat: as little as possible
      • Cholesterol: Less than 300 mg per day
    • 23. Carbohydrates
      • Important energy source
      • Fiber promotes healthy digestion and helps reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease
      • Consumption of foods and beverages high in added sugar should be avoided
    • 24. Food Safety
      • Foodborne disease affect 76 million Americans each year
      • Be careful around
        • Poultry
        • Meats
        • Eggs
        • Shellfish
        • Milk products
        • Fresh fruits and vegetables
    • 25. USDA’s MyPyramid
    • 26. Key Messages of MyPyramid
      • Remind consumers to make healthy food choices
      • Personalization
      • Daily physical activity
      • Moderation
      • Proportionality
      • Variety
      • Gradual improvement
    • 27.  
    • 28. Serving Sizes
      • Grains - 1 slice of bread,1 small muffin (2.5 diameter), 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes
      • Vegetable – 1 cup raw leafy vegetables, 1/2 cup cooked or raw vegetables, 1/2 cup of vegetable juice
      • Fruit – ½ cup fresh, canned, or frozen fruit, 1/2 cup 100% fruit juice,1 small whole fruit, 1/4 cup dried fruit, 3/4 cup fruit juice
    • 29. Serving Sizes
      • Milk/Dairy -1 cup milk or yogurt,1/2 cup ricotta cheese,1.5 oz natural cheese,2 oz. Processed cheese.
      • Meat and Beans – 1 ounce cooked lean meat,.1/4 cup cooked dry beans or tofu, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, ½ ounce nuts or seeds
      • Oils
      • Discretionary Calories, solid fats, and added sugars
    • 30. Vegetarians
      • Reasons
      • Types :
        • Vegans
        • Lacto-vegetarians
        • Lacto-ovo-vegetarians
        • Partial vegetarians
        • Pescovegetarians
        • Semivegetarians
      • A food plan for vegetarians
        • Vitamin B-12
        • Vitamin D
        • Calcium
        • Iron
        • Zinc
    • 31. Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups
      • Children and Teenagers
      • College Students
      • Older Adults
      • Athletes
      • People with Special Health Concerns
    • 32. Personal Plan: Making Informed Choices About Food
      • Reading Food Labels
      • Reading Dietary Supplement Labels
      • Evaluating Functional Foods
    • 33.  
    • 34.
      • Organic Foods
      • Additives in Food
      • Food Irradiation
      • Genetically Modified (GM) Foods
    • 35. Protecting yourself Against Foodborne Illness
      • Causes of Foodborne Illnesses
        • Campylobacter jejuni
        • Salmonella
        • Shigella
        • Escherichia coli
        • Listeria monocytogenes
        • Staphylococcus
        • Clostridium botulinum
        • Norovirus
      • Preventing and treating foodborne illnesses
      • Environmental Contaminants and organic foods
      • Food Allergies
    • 36. Food Allergies and Food Intolerances
      • Food allergies
        • Reaction of the body’s immune system
        • Affect 2% of the adult population
        • 4-6% of infants
        • 90% of food allergies
          • Cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish
      • Food intolerances
    • 37. Nutrition Basics Chapter 9