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Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch05
 

Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch05

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    Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch05 Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch05 Presentation Transcript

    • Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Chapter 5
    • Sexuality
      • Components
        • Biological, gender, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexual functioning and practices, and sexual interactions.
      • Acceptable versus unacceptable behaviors
    • Reproductive Anatomy
      • External Female Genitals (Vulva)
        • Mons pubis
        • Labia majora
        • Labia minora
        • Prepuce
        • Clitoris
        • Urethral opening
        • Vagina
      • Internal Female Genitals
        • Uterus
        • Endometrium
        • Cervix
        • Ovaries
        • Fallopian tubes
        • Hymen
    •  
    • Reproductive Anatomy
      • Male Sex Organs: Two components
        • Penis
          • The Glans
          • Corpus spongiosum
        • Scrotum
          • Function (Temperature 93.6 degrees F)
          • Testes
          • Epididymis
          • Seminiferous tubules within the Testes
          • Vas Deferens
          • Prostate
          • Cowper’s glands
          • Seminal vesicle
    •  
    • Hormones and The Reproductive Life Cycle
      • Hormones: Endocrine glands
        • Testes produce androgens - testosterone
        • Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone
        • Cortex of the Adrenal gland produces androgens in both males and females
        • Pituitary gland
        • Hypothalamus
    • Female Sexual Maturation
      • Begins around 8-13 with breast development and rapid body growth between 9 and 15.
      • Physical maturation.
      • Menstrual Cycle - four phases.
        • Menses.
          • Days 1-5
        • Estrogenic phase.
          • Days 6-13
        • Ovulation phase.
          • Day 14
        • Progestational phase.
          • Days 15-27
    • Menstrual Problems
      • Dysmenorrhea
        • Some symptoms caused from prostaglandins
      • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
      • Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
        • Cause
        • Pharmacological treatment
      • Lifestyle changes to reduce symptoms
        • Limit salt intake
        • Exercise
        • Don’t use alcohol or tobacco
        • Eat a nutritious diet
        • Relax
    • Male Sexual Maturation
      • 2 years later than girls
      • Begins about 10 or 11 years old
      • Physical changes.
    • Aging and Human Sexuality
      • Menopause
        • Ovaries gradually cease functioning
        • Decreasing estrogen
        • Increase risk of disease
      • Males
        • Gradual decrease of testosterone
    • Sexual Function
      • Sexual stimulation
      • Physical stimulation
      • Psychological stimulation
    • Sexual Response Cycle
      • Physiological mechanisms
        • Vasocongestion
        • Myotonia
      • Excitement phase
      • Plateau phase
      • Orgasmic phase
        • Males (refractory phase)
      • Resolution phase
    • Sexual Health Problems
      • Biological and psychological conditions:
        • Women :
          • Vaginitis
          • Endometriosis
          • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
        • Men :
          • Prostatitis
          • Testicular cancer
    • Sexual Dysfunctions
      • Common sexual dysfunctions:
        • Male – erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and retarded ejaculation
        • Women – vaginismus and orgasmic dysfunction
      • Treatment
        • Psychosocial - troubled relationships
        • Behavioral
        • Relaxation and massage techniques
    • Sexual Orientation
      • Person’s preference in sex partners
        • Heterosexual
        • Homosexual couples
        • Bisexuals
      • Origins of Sexual Orientation
        • Biological and genetic factors
        • Freudian psychoanalysis - Oedipus complex
        • Learning theory
        • Complex series of biological and psychological interactions
    • Varieties of Human Sexual Behavior
      • Celibacy
      • Autoeroticism and masturbation
      • Touching and foreplay
      • Oral-Genital stimulation
      • Anal intercourse
      • Sexual intercourse
    • Atypical and Problematic Sexual Behaviors
      • Conflicting feelings about sexuality
      • Societies attitude toward sexual explicit material and prostitution
      • Commercial sex
        • Pornography
        • Prostitution
    • Responsible Sexual Behavior
      • Careful decision making
      • Open, honest communication about intentions
      • Sexual activities that both partners agree upon
      • Sexual privacy
      • The use of Contraception
      • Safer sex
      • Sober sex
      • Taking responsibility for the consequences
    • Understanding Fertility
      • Conception involves the fertilization of a women’s egg by a man’s sperm
        • Each month a women’s ovaries release an egg
          • 24 hours if not fertilized
        • 3-4 days - the egg travels through the fallopian tubes
        • Egg not fertilized
        • Millions of sperm
        • Sperm release an enzyme
        • Egg and sperm each carry 23 chromosomes
        • Ovum, blastocyst, embryo, fetus
      • Fraternal twins and identical twins
    • Infertility
      • Women
        • Blocked fallopian tubes
        • Pelvic Inflamm. Disease
        • Endometriosis
        • Hormonal imbalance
        • Uterine Growths
        • Allergic responses to sperm
        • Smoking
        • Alcohol
        • Toxic chemicals or radiation
      • Men
        • Low sperm count
        • Poor motility
        • Blocked passageways
        • Toxic substances
        • Smoking
        • Drugs
        • Testicular injury
        • Infections
        • Birth defects
        • High Temperatures
    • Treating Infertility
      • Intrauterine insemination
        • Artificial intrauterine insemination
      • IVF,GIFT, and ZIFT
        • In vitro fertilization (IVF)
        • Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
        • Zygote intrafallopian transfer
      • Surrogate Motherhood
    • Pregnancy
      • 13 week trimesters
      • Tests
        • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
        • Two weeks after fertilization
      • Early signs and symptoms
        • Missed menstrual period
        • Softening of the uterus
          • Hager’s sign
        • Slight bleeding
        • Nausea
        • Breast tenderness
        • Increased urination
        • Sleepiness, fatigue and emotional upset
    •  
    • Fetal Development
      • First Trimester
        • Blastocyst
          • Inner cells divide into three layers
          • One layer – inner body parts
          • Middle layer – muscle, bone, blood, kidneys, and sex glands
          • Third layer – skin, hair, and nervous tissue
        • Embryo - End of second week
        • All major body structures are formed between 2nd and 9th week
        • 2nd Month - Fetus
    • Fetal Development
      • Second Trimester
        • Fetus grows to about 14 inches and 2 pounds
      • Third Trimester
        • Fetus gains protective fat layers, Respiratory and Digestive organs develop
    • Diagnosing Fetal Abnormalities
      • Ultrasonography (Ultrasound)
        • High frequency sound waves
      • Amniocentesis
        • Fluid removal from the uterus
      • Chorionic Villus sampling
        • Removal of tiny section of chorionic villi
      • Triple marker screen (TMS)
        • Maternal blood test
      • Fetal programming
        • Amniocentesis, CVS, and TMS
        • Chromosomal, genetic and other abnormalities
    • The Importance of Prenatal Care
      • Regular medical checkups
      • Blood tests
      • Prenatal nutrition
      • Avoidance of drugs, and other environmental hazards
        • Alcohol
        • Tobacco
        • Caffeine
        • Drugs and chemicals
        • STD’s and other infections
    • The Importance of Prenatal Care
      • Activity and exercise
        • After 20 weeks avoid lying on your back
        • Modify the intensity
        • Avoid any potential for mild abdominal trauma
        • Avoid heat stress
        • Unusual symptoms
        • Resume prepregnancy exercise gradually
        • Kegal Exercises
      • Preparation for childbirth
    • Complications of Pregnancy and Pregnancy Loss
      • Ectopic pregnancy
      • Spontaneous Abortion, or miscarriage
      • Preeclampsia/eclampsia
      • Low-birth Weight (LBW)
        • 5.5 LBS.
      • Infant Mortality
        • SIDS
      • Coping with loss
    • Childbirth
      • Choices in childbirth
        • Who is going to assist with delivery?
        • Where is the baby going to be delivered?
    • Labor and Delivery
      • Entire process 2-36 hours.
      • First stage of Labor.
        • 13 hours for a first birth.
        • Cervix is completely dilated (10 centimeters)
        • Hormonal changes.
        • Contractions. (30 seconds and occur every 15-20 minutes)
        • Mucus plug is expelled and amniotic sac may rupture.
        • Transition.
    • Childbirth
      • Second Stage of Labor
        • Baby slowly pushed into birth canal
        • Baby squeezes through pelvis
        • Head is usually delivered first
        • Umbilical cord is cut
      • Third Stage of Labor
        • Delivery of the placenta
      • Apgar Scale of the Baby
    •  
    • Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery
      • Childbirth preparation courses
        • Breathing and relaxation techniques
        • Lamaze or Bradley
      • Epidural
      • Narcotics
        • Fentanyl or demeral
        • Provide less pain relief than a epidural
    • Cesarean Deliveries
      • About 29% of babies born in the U.S.
      • Surgical removal of the baby
        • Baby’s head too large
        • Mother has a serious health condition
        • Mother who is overweight or diabetes
        • Difficult labor
        • Fetal distress
        • Dangerous infections
    • Postpartum Period
      • 3 months following childbirth.
      • Critical family adjustment.
      • Vaginal delivery leave hospital 1-3 days.
      • Cesarean section 3-5 days.
      • Breastfeeding
        • Just over 70% of mothers breast-feed
        • Lactation begins about 3 days post childbirth
        • Colostrum prior to lactation
      • Postpartum depression.
    • Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Chapter 5