Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch05

930 views
832 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
930
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch05

  1. 1. Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Chapter 5
  2. 2. Sexuality <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological, gender, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexual functioning and practices, and sexual interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptable versus unacceptable behaviors </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reproductive Anatomy <ul><li>External Female Genitals (Vulva) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mons pubis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labia majora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labia minora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepuce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clitoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethral opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Female Genitals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fallopian tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hymen </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Reproductive Anatomy <ul><li>Male Sex Organs: Two components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Glans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus spongiosum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function (Temperature 93.6 degrees F) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seminiferous tubules within the Testes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vas Deferens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cowper’s glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Hormones and The Reproductive Life Cycle <ul><li>Hormones: Endocrine glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes produce androgens - testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex of the Adrenal gland produces androgens in both males and females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Female Sexual Maturation <ul><li>Begins around 8-13 with breast development and rapid body growth between 9 and 15. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical maturation. </li></ul><ul><li>Menstrual Cycle - four phases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Days 1-5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogenic phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Days 6-13 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovulation phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day 14 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progestational phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Days 15-27 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Menstrual Problems <ul><li>Dysmenorrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some symptoms caused from prostaglandins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder (PMDD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacological treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes to reduce symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit salt intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use alcohol or tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a nutritious diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Male Sexual Maturation <ul><li>2 years later than girls </li></ul><ul><li>Begins about 10 or 11 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Physical changes. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Aging and Human Sexuality <ul><li>Menopause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries gradually cease functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase risk of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual decrease of testosterone </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Sexual Function <ul><li>Sexual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Physical stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological stimulation </li></ul>
  11. 13. Sexual Response Cycle <ul><li>Physiological mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasocongestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myotonia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excitement phase </li></ul><ul><li>Plateau phase </li></ul><ul><li>Orgasmic phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males (refractory phase) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution phase </li></ul>
  12. 14. Sexual Health Problems <ul><li>Biological and psychological conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endometriosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prostatitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testicular cancer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Sexual Dysfunctions <ul><li>Common sexual dysfunctions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male – erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and retarded ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women – vaginismus and orgasmic dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosocial - troubled relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation and massage techniques </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Person’s preference in sex partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexual couples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bisexuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origins of Sexual Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological and genetic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freudian psychoanalysis - Oedipus complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex series of biological and psychological interactions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Varieties of Human Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Celibacy </li></ul><ul><li>Autoeroticism and masturbation </li></ul><ul><li>Touching and foreplay </li></ul><ul><li>Oral-Genital stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Anal intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse </li></ul>
  16. 18. Atypical and Problematic Sexual Behaviors <ul><li>Conflicting feelings about sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Societies attitude toward sexual explicit material and prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostitution </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Responsible Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Careful decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Open, honest communication about intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual activities that both partners agree upon </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual privacy </li></ul><ul><li>The use of Contraception </li></ul><ul><li>Safer sex </li></ul><ul><li>Sober sex </li></ul><ul><li>Taking responsibility for the consequences </li></ul>
  18. 20. Understanding Fertility <ul><li>Conception involves the fertilization of a women’s egg by a man’s sperm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each month a women’s ovaries release an egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 hours if not fertilized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-4 days - the egg travels through the fallopian tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg not fertilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm release an enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg and sperm each carry 23 chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovum, blastocyst, embryo, fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fraternal twins and identical twins </li></ul>
  19. 21. Infertility <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocked fallopian tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic Inflamm. Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometriosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal imbalance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine Growths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic responses to sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic chemicals or radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low sperm count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor motility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocked passageways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testicular injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Temperatures </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Treating Infertility <ul><li>Intrauterine insemination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial intrauterine insemination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IVF,GIFT, and ZIFT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In vitro fertilization (IVF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygote intrafallopian transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surrogate Motherhood </li></ul>
  21. 23. Pregnancy <ul><li>13 week trimesters </li></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two weeks after fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missed menstrual period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Softening of the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hager’s sign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleepiness, fatigue and emotional upset </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Fetal Development <ul><li>First Trimester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blastocyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner cells divide into three layers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One layer – inner body parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer – muscle, bone, blood, kidneys, and sex glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third layer – skin, hair, and nervous tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo - End of second week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All major body structures are formed between 2nd and 9th week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd Month - Fetus </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Fetal Development <ul><li>Second Trimester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetus grows to about 14 inches and 2 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Trimester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetus gains protective fat layers, Respiratory and Digestive organs develop </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Diagnosing Fetal Abnormalities <ul><li>Ultrasonography (Ultrasound) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High frequency sound waves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amniocentesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid removal from the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chorionic Villus sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of tiny section of chorionic villi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triple marker screen (TMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal blood test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetal programming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amniocentesis, CVS, and TMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomal, genetic and other abnormalities </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. The Importance of Prenatal Care <ul><li>Regular medical checkups </li></ul><ul><li>Blood tests </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of drugs, and other environmental hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs and chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STD’s and other infections </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. The Importance of Prenatal Care <ul><li>Activity and exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 20 weeks avoid lying on your back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify the intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid any potential for mild abdominal trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid heat stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resume prepregnancy exercise gradually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kegal Exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparation for childbirth </li></ul>
  27. 30. Complications of Pregnancy and Pregnancy Loss <ul><li>Ectopic pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Abortion, or miscarriage </li></ul><ul><li>Preeclampsia/eclampsia </li></ul><ul><li>Low-birth Weight (LBW) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.5 LBS. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coping with loss </li></ul>
  28. 31. Childbirth <ul><li>Choices in childbirth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is going to assist with delivery? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the baby going to be delivered? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Labor and Delivery <ul><li>Entire process 2-36 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>First stage of Labor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 hours for a first birth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix is completely dilated (10 centimeters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractions. (30 seconds and occur every 15-20 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus plug is expelled and amniotic sac may rupture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Childbirth <ul><li>Second Stage of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby slowly pushed into birth canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby squeezes through pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head is usually delivered first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical cord is cut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Stage of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of the placenta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apgar Scale of the Baby </li></ul>
  31. 35. Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery <ul><li>Childbirth preparation courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing and relaxation techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamaze or Bradley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epidural </li></ul><ul><li>Narcotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fentanyl or demeral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide less pain relief than a epidural </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Cesarean Deliveries <ul><li>About 29% of babies born in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical removal of the baby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby’s head too large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother has a serious health condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother who is overweight or diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous infections </li></ul></ul>
  33. 37. Postpartum Period <ul><li>3 months following childbirth. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical family adjustment. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal delivery leave hospital 1-3 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Cesarean section 3-5 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just over 70% of mothers breast-feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactation begins about 3 days post childbirth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colostrum prior to lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postpartum depression. </li></ul>
  34. 38. Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Chapter 5

×