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The Tourist Destination Marketing Dimension of Tourism Development Sustainability

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Provides and overview of the main challenges, conditioners and opportunities for Destination Marketing Management by debating strategies used by successful destinations in light of current theories.

Provides and overview of the main challenges, conditioners and opportunities for Destination Marketing Management by debating strategies used by successful destinations in light of current theories.

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  • Economic ImpactsMultiplier effectService Intensive – Job GeneratingInvisible Export (International Inbound Tourism) and Invisible Export (International Outbound Tourism)Geographical Redistribution of Currency and Currency Leakage to other regions
  • EconomicImpactsMultipliereffectService Intensive – JobGeneratingInvisibleExport (InternationalInboundTourism) andInvisibleExport (InternationalOutboundTourism)GeographicalRedistributionofCurrencyandCurrencyLeakagetootherregions
  • GlobalisationLevel of International Connectedness and therefore dependenceCreative Hubs / New TrendsCompetition with other industries

The Tourist Destination Marketing Dimension of Tourism Development Sustainability The Tourist Destination Marketing Dimension of Tourism Development Sustainability Presentation Transcript

  • GUEST LECTURE FOR THE SUBJECT MARKETING TURÍSTICO II UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SÃO CARLOS OF THE BACHELOR OF TOURISM UNDERGRADUATE COURSE Current Theories and International Cases THE TOURIST DESTINATION MARKETING DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM INSTITUTO FEDERAL DE EDUCAÇÃO, LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE SÃO PAULO DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES27/04/11
  • Presentation Overview Objective Provide an overview of the main challenges, conditioners and opportunities to Destination Marketing in order to debate how appropriate the different strategies currently used by successful destinations are. Contents 1. Researcher Background 2. Tourism Development and Competitiveness 3. Sustainability and Destination Marketing 4. Current Theories 5. International Case Studies MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM 6. Conclusions DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Why is Tourism Relevant? • In 2011, it is forecasted to be directly responsible for: – 2.8% of World GDP (2.9% in 2021) – 3.4% of World Employment (3.6% in 2021) • Considering its multiplying effect on the economy, its importance raises to: – 9.1% of World GDP (9.6% in 2021) – 8.8% of World Employment (9.7% in 2021) (WTTC, 2011c) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Why is Tourism Relevant? Direct Travel & Tourism Contribution •Commodities •Accommodation •Transportation •Entertainment •Attractions Indirect Travel & Induced •Industries Tourism Contribution •Hotels and Contribution (spending of Catering direct and •Retail • T&T investment indirect •Transportation spending employees) services • Government •Business services collective T&T • Food & beverages •Sources of spending • Recreation Spending • Impact of • Clothing •Residents’ purchases from • Housing domestic T&T suppliers • Household goods Spending •Businesses’ domestic travel spending •Visitor exports •Individual MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM government T&T spending DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY (WTTC, 2011c)LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Brasil BRASIL MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Brasil (IBGE, 2010) Brasil Area 8,514,877 sq km Capital Brasília Pop. 193,733,795 States 26 (+ 1 FD) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM Birth 1500 AD DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Brasil (WTTC, 2011b; MTur, 2011f) Tourism Performance Indicators Exchange Rate AUD 1.00 ≈ BRL 1.65 International Tourists 2010 ≈ 7.9 million % of GDP (Direct) 3.3% % of GDP (+Multiplier Effect) 9.1% Employment (Total) 8,145,000 % of Total Employment 8.3% WTTC Tourism Economy Ranking 6th (Total Contr. GDP) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Inbound Tourism as Export 2009-10 2008-09 (AUD to Rank Export Item (DFAT, 2010) million) 2009-10 1 Coal 36,445 -33.4% 2 Iron Ore & Concentrates 35,090 2.5% 3 Education-Related Travel Serv. 18,507 10.6% 4 Gold 14,301 -18.3% 5 Personal Travel (excl ed) Serv. 12,121 3.9% 5.9 million visitor arrivals in 2010 (Tourism Australia, 2011) 6 Crude Petroleum 8,955 8.5% 7th position in the WTTC WorldTourism Economy Ranking (2011a) 7 Natural Gas 7,789 -22.7% MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Technical Definitions of Tourism UNWTO: • “Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes” (McIntosh et al, 1995). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Holistic Definitions of Tourism Hunkizer and Krapf (1943): • “Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected to any earning activity” (Burkart, 1981). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Leiper’s (1979) Tourism ModelThe three basic elements ofLeiper’s Model:• Tourists• Geographical Elements• Tourism IndustryIt lacks to acknowledge:• Locals• Other regions of the globe MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Tourism Impacts and Meta Impacts Impacts Economic Social Positive Multiplier Effect Decrease of Social Service Intensive (Jobs) Differences Invisible Export (Inbound) Sense of Community Spatial Redistribution of New social structures Currency Local Development Wider Access to Products Negative Invisible Import Increase of Social (Outbound) Differences Currency Leakage Crime Rates, Diseases, etc Inflation Sense of Community Competition with New Social Structures traditional industries Neo Colonialism Impacts Environmental (Meta) Cultural Positive Help Protect and Identity Recall Conserve Heritage Value Help Change Mindset and Broadening of Global Behaviour Understading MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM Negative Help Damage and Destroy Demonstration DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY Help Change Priorities Xenophobism and Behaviour Staged BehaviourLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Tourist Psychographic Personality Profiles (Plog, 2001)Venturers: more independent,intellectually curious, willing totake risks and to be challengedand that would require a lot ofself-confidence, quick decisionsand their own personal judgementDependables: seek experiencesthat are more familiar, somehowconservative and passive, morepredictive and well-thought of,more popular and well-established MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Tourist Area Life Cycle (Butler, 1980)Of key importance is the intervention ofmanagement to prevent developmentexceeding the inherent capacity of thedestination (capacity defined in terms oflimits of economic, social, environmentaland physical parameters), on the basisthat if capacity levels were exceeded,decline in quality of visitor and residentexperiences would result, along withenvironmental and other problems, andthese would result in a decline invisitation and thus also touristexpenditure and funds for reinvestmentin the destination (Butler, 2009, p. 348). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Managing Limits to Tourism FlowsDimensions of Carrying • Miguel Cifuentes – CC (Wearing, 1999)Capacity (CC): • Visitor Impact Management – VIM (Farrell,• Ecological 2002)• Social • Limits of Acceptable Change – LAC (Stankey, 1985)• Cultural • Visitor Activity Management Process – VAMP• Economic (Eagles, 2002)• Psychological • Tourism Optimization Model – TOMM (ibid)• Physical • Recreation Opportunity Spectrum – ROS (ibid)• Tourist • Visitor Experience and Resources Protection - VERP (US Department of Interior, 1997) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • What is being offered to tourists and being bought by them, anyway? • Suppliers’ point of view • Consumers’ point of view • Economic point of view MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • The Progression of Economic Value (Pine, 1999, p. 166) DIFFERENTIATED RELEVANT TOPine (1999) argues that 5 different types of Transformations Experiences COMPETITIVE POSITIONeconomic offering can be NEEDS OF CUSTOMERS Servicesidentified and organised according to theirperceived value and level Goods of customisation and Commodities commoditisation. UNDIFFERENTIATED IRRELEVANT TO MARKET PRICE PREMIUM MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Economic Distinctions (Pine, 1999) Economic Commodities Goods Services Experiences Transformations Offerings Economy Agrarian Industrial Service Experience Transformation Economic Extract Make Deliver Stage Guide Function “Transformations Nature of Fungible Tangible Intangible Memorable Effectual Offering are as distinct from Key experiences as Attribute Natural Standardised Customised Personal Individual experiences are Method of Inventoried Delivered Revealed Sustained Stored in bulk after over a from services” Supply production on demand duration through time Seller Trader Manufacturer Provider Stager Elicitor(Pine, 1999, pp. 170-1) Buyer Market Customer Client Guest Aspirant MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT Features Factors of Demand Characteristics SUSTAINABILITY Benefits Sensations TraitsLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • The Experience Realms (Pine, 1999, p. 30) ABSORPTION “The richest ENTERTAINMENT EDUCATIONAL experiences PARTICIPATION PARTICIPATION encompass aspects PASSIVE ACTIVE SWEET of all four realms.” SPOT (Pine, 1999, p. 39) ESTHETIC ESCAPIST MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM IMERSION DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Authenticity (Gilmore, 2007) “People tend to FRAMING THE LANDSCAPE OF AUTHENTICITY perceive as authentic Commodities Natural Authenticity that which exists in its natural state in or of Goods the earth, remaining Services untouched by human hands; not artificial or Experiences synthetic” (ibid, 49). Transformations MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Authenticity (Gilmore, 2007) FRAMING THE LANDSCAPE OF AUTHENTICITY“People tend to perceive as authentic that which Commodities Natural Authenticity possesses originality in Goods Original Authenticitydesign, being the first of its kind, never before Servicesseen by human eyes, not a copy or imitation” Experiences (ibid, 49). Transformations MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Authenticity (Gilmore, 2007) FRAMING THE LANDSCAPE OF AUTHENTICITY“People tend to perceive asauthentic that which is done Commodities Natural Authenticityexceptionally well, executed individually and Goods Original Authenticity extraordinarily by someonedemonstrating human care, Services Exceptional Authenticity not unfeelingly or disingenuously performed” Experiences (ibid, 49). Transformations MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Authenticity (Gilmore, 2007) “People tend to perceive FRAMING THE LANDSCAPE OF AUTHENTICITY as authentic that which Commodities Natural Authenticity refers to some other context, drawing Goods Original Authenticity inspiration from human history, and tapping into Services Exceptional Authenticityour shared memories and Experiences Referential Authenticitylongings; not derivative or trivial” (ibid, 50). Transformations MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Authenticity (Gilmore, 2007) FRAMING THE LANDSCAPE OF AUTHENTICITY“People tend to perceive asauthentic that which exerts Commodities Natural Authenticity influence on other entities, calling human Goods Original Authenticitybeings to a higher goal and providing a foretaste of a Services Exceptional Authenticity better way; notinconsequential or without Experiences Referential Authenticity meaning” (ibid, 50). Transformations Influential Authenticity MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Legendary Brands (Vincent 2002) Legendary Brands are (…) keys. They stand for concepts, values and objects that consumers use to interpret meaning in Factors of Emergence: their own lives. Consumer perceptions of• People with flexible Legendary Brands go beyond rational identities; understanding of quality, function and• The death of the monetary value. The brands are often dogma; described as representing the personality• The advent of the of the consumer. The oft-heard response is consumerism; that the Legendary Brand is “a lot like me”• Media saturation and or “a lot like people I admire (…). story-driven advertising Legendary Brands are based on narrative construction, and the narrative they tell is the basis of their OF TOURISM MARKET DIMENSION emphatic consumer affinity” (ibid, pp. 7-8). DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES • Sustentabilidade mercadológica e marketing de MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY destinos
  • Brand Mythology System (Vincent, 2002, p. 22) World View and Sacred Beliefs“Just as a hurricane gains its awesome strength from the reciprocal system that fuels it, Brand Brand Legendary Brands Culture Agentgenerate power through the Brand Mythology System” (ibid, p. 23). Brand Narrative MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Story, Narrative, Legend and Myth (Vincent, 2002, p. 63) and Come Walkabout (Tourism Australia, 2004) Storyteller First/Third Person Collective/Plural Story Legend • No clear point of • Created through view chain of storytellers Separable •Meaning is left •Meaning driven by Meaning/Emotional Context largely to the context, storyteller, audience and •Usually an objective ethnic/geographic voice characteristics Narrative Myth • Voice/opinion of • Story structure Inseparable the storyteller clearly rests in the collective linked unconscious • Narrator’s influence •Meaning linked to MARKET the story provides TOURISMmorals, on DIMENSION OF timeless meaning and principles, and DEVELOPMENTcontext emotional SUSTAINABILITY beliefs sharedLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Legendary Brands and Personal Narrative (Vincent, 2002, p. 82) Sequence Pre During Post Brand Selection Use Experience Phase “The linear construction of this Narrative Character Theme Aesthetics model is designed only Driver and Plot as a learning aid. In reality these three Consumer Role Evaluation / Performance phases occur Activites Preparation Feedback simultaneously” (ibid, p. 83). How we How the How we present our world Influence define our identity to responds to MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM identity the world our identity DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Competitive Advantage Porter (2004) argues thatthe differentiation in terms of price, innovation and focus are the sources ofcompetitive advantage for businesses and places. MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Clusters and Competitive Advantage Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, firms in related industries, and associated institutions (…) in particular fields that compete but also cooperate (Porter, 1998, p. 197). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Tourism Clustering The general assumption behind the clustering models is a step beyond the simple benefits to firms and communities that can be explained by economic specialization. Clustering is predicated by the notion that the co-location of like firms will produce a range of synergies, which if captured, may enhance the growth of market size, employment and product. (...) The Porterian model relies on the conventional notion that a co-location of like industries in a geographic concentration can produce multiplier effects (economic) and consequent social impactsTOURISM MARKET DIMENSION OF (externalities)” (Michael, 2007, p. 22). DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES • Sustentabilidade mercadológica e marketing de MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY destinos
  • Horizontal Clustering “Horizontal clustering is the most common and most easily recognised type of cluster formation. It occurs where similar or like Hotel firms from the stage in the value chain for A the same industry co-locate in a geographic area. These firms are competitors, selling like products using similar productive Hotel Horizontal Hotel D Clustering B resources. However, their co-location pools the potential customer base to increase total sales, and may sometimes create Hotel other advantages in terms of product C availability, labour supply, shared information and infrastructure, to reduce costs or the effects of OF TOURISM MARKET DIMENSION externalities” (Michael, 2007, SUSTAINABILITY DEVELOPMENT p. 25).LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES • Sustentabilidade mercadológica e marketing de MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY destinos
  • Bonito – Integrated Voucher System • Incorporated by the Public Sector in 1995 and previously used by the Private Sector • 4 prints (Guide, Attraction, Agency/ Operator and Government) – 32 Inbound Travel Agencies/Tour Operators – 80 Tour Guides (registered in the MTur) – 25 Attractions • Objectives include: statistics, formalisation of the economy, increase of tax collection (40,84% in 2003 with MARKET DIMENSION OFmethods). improved collection TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY Bonito, 1995) (COMTUR deLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Vertical Clustering “The co-location of firms operating at Distributer(s) different stages in an industry’s supply chain is referred to as vertical clustering. Here, there is an integrated linkage Hotel(s) between production stages and consumers that enhances specialization. The close Distributer(s) proximity between firms minimizes logistics and distributional costs, and may help to concentrate labour supply, workforce skills Producer(s) and market information” (Michael, 2007, p. 26). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES • Sustentabilidade mercadológica e marketing de MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY destinos
  • The Tourism Supply Chain Transport Guides Attractions TOURISM EXPERIENCE • Linen and Towels • Toiletries Accom. • Cleaning Products • Food and Beverages • Laundry Services Restaurants MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM Others DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Produção Associada ao Turismo (Tourism Associated Production) • First Stage: 18 Cities out of 57 cities • Focus on: – Special cheese producers, – Gems and jewelry producers, – Handcrafted cachaça producers – Craftsmen (Instituto Estrada Real, 2010b) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Diagonal Clustering “The clustering typology is expanded to recognize diagonal clustering, to identify an increasing concentration of complementary (or symbiotic) firms. Here, each firm adds value to Hotels the activity of others, even though their products may be quite distinct and clearly belong to other industry classifications. Diagonal Diagonal clustering occurs where firmsOthers F&B Clustering working together create a bundle of separate products and services that the consumer effectively purchases as a single item. (...) The Guides co-location of complementary providers adds value to the tourism experience; while, conversely, the absence of key services will probably limit the growth of existing firms” MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM (Michael, 2007, p. 26). DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES • Sustentabilidade mercadológica e marketing de MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY destinos
  • Potential Strategies • Regulation and enforcement, certification, classification, hierarchisation, selection, awards, and bidding processes. • Definition of the destination tourist carrying capacity and the implementation of visitor management strategies • Cooperativism e benchmarking • Development of a portfolio of experiences for each target market segment • Creation of Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO) • Advertising campaign focused in the offer of experiences and not products or services and based on the development of a brand mythology system • Integrated, interactive and synesthetic MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM information and communication multimedia systems DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Qualification of the Tourism Offer • globally: 7 World Natural Wonders (New Open World Corporation, 2010), World Cup and Olympics bidding• Regulation and processes (IOC, 2010), World Heritage enforcement; Listing Process (Unesco World• Certification; Heritage Centre, 2010);• Classification; • nationally: the identification of the “65• Hierarchisation; destinos indutores” (MTur, 2010b), the• Selection; new hotel classification matrix (MTur,• Awards; 2010c);• Bidding processes. • locally: the Fernando de Noronha bed and breakfast classification matrix (ADEFN, 2005). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • World Heritage and Authenticity “In determining which venues it places on its World Heritage List of protected sites, UNESCO issued ‘Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention’ – a set of rules for meeting the ‘test of authenticity’ based on ‘design, material, setting, workmanship’ as well as ‘use, tradition, and spirit/feeling.’ The rules follow the five genres of authenticity: ‘materials’(natural), ‘design’(original), ‘workmanship’ (exceptional), ‘setting’ (referential), and ‘spirit/feeling’ (influential)” (Gilmore, 2007, p. 50). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Ministry of Tourism (MTur, 2010e) • Tourism Offer Qualification Macro- Program – Tourism Normalisation Program – Tourism Certification Program – Tourism Professionals Qualification Program MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Carrying Capacity and Visitor Management • Lord Howe Island Group, Australia: tourist carrying capacity established as 400 beds (NSW, 2005). • Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil: carrying capacity of 450 simultaneous visitors, controlled through the average daily limit in any month of 130 tourists entering the island by plane, considering the average length of stay of 3.4 days per tourist recorded in 1999 (ADEFN, 2000); Atalaia beach: Limitation on the number of tourists allowed per day and restriction on the use of sunscreen in the coral pools; Sueste beach: snorkel with floating life MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM jacket and accredited guide only. DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Cooperativism e Benchmarking • cooperativism: Rotas Sustentáveis, a result of the Projeto Cooperativas no Turismo (ITCP-Coppe-UFRJ, 2010), a partnership between the MTur and the Incubadora Tecnológica de Cooperativas Populares of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; • benchmarking: Excelência em Turismo: aprendendo com as melhores experiências internacionais and Vivências Brasil: aprendendo com o MARKET DIMENSION(MTur, 2010a). turismo nacional OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Tourism Cooperatives Project • ITCP – COOPE – UFRJ (2010) • Ministry for Tourism• Tourism Prone Areas with Low Human Development Index• Incubator to Associations or Cooperatives• Local Production by Local Communities MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Experiences Portfolio per Target Market Segment • Multidestination strategy: Great Ocean Road Marketing (GOR Marketing, 2009), Great Southern Touring Route (GSTR, 2010) Estrada Real (Instituto Estrada Real, 2010a); • Multiple Destination Strategy: Tourism Victoria (Austrália) through its advertising campaign “You’ll Love Every Piece of Victoria” (Tourism Victoria, 2008); • Experiences portfolio development: Projeto Economia da Experiência from MTur, operated by Instituto Marca Brasil with the support of Sebrae Nacional (Instituto Marca Brasil, 2010). MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Complexo Estrada Real (1600 km) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Ministry of Tourism (MTur, 2010d) • Tourism Regionalization Macro- Program – Regionalization Planning and Management Program – Tourism Segmentation Program – Tourism Associated Production Program – PRODETUR MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • The Experience Economy Project • 200 Businesses in Five Destinations: – Região da Uva e do Vinho – RS – Bonito – MS – Petrópolis – RJ – Belém – PA – Costa do Descobrimento – BA • Focus groups and interviews with tourists, followed by training of operators (Instituto Marca Brasil, 2010) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES
  • Destination Brand Management Tourism Australia: 10 Year Plan for Tourism (Tourism White Paper) developed in cooperation with the Australian tourism business (Australian Government, 2003) – Partnership with the private sector to create a Tourist Marketing Organisation – Tourism Australia. Its target segment in the international market being defined as Experience Seekers (Tourism Australia, 2010). DIMENSION OF TOURISM MARKET DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Experience Seekers (Tourism Australia, 2011) • “They are experienced international travellers; • seek out and enjoy authentic personal experiences they can talk about; • involve themselves in holiday activities, are sociable and enjoy engaging with the locals;“ Show me what to do. • are active in their pursuits and come away having learnt something;Show me the people, • are somewhat adventurous and enjoy a variety ofthe look on their face – experiences on any single trip; • place high importance on value and hence criticallysomething where we go balance benefits with costs;‘I want to have that • place high value on contrasting experiences (i.e. different from their day-to-day lives) (...)experience’ ” • come from households that have higher than average household income; US, male. • are tertiary educated. • are open-minded and have an interest in world affairs. • are selective about their media consumption. • are opinion leaders within their peer and social groups. MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM • are not characterised by nationality, preferred holiday style/mode or age.” DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Experience Seekers (Tourism Australia, 2011) These people are avid users of technology and in both private and business capacities. They are selective TV viewers, but are higher“It’s not just about than average consumers of cable channels,collecting photos” and are predisposed to programmes that meet their lifestyle and motivation profiles. Japan, male Intellectual programmes and those with knowledge content are preferred. The“We don’t want to feel segment is well versed in global brandlike a tourist. We want communication, and as such would expect brand communication and content to beto settle in ...” available in many forms on a variety of Germany, female channels including digital. This audience is also well-connected and likes to learn from and shareDIMENSION OF TOURISM MARKET information with their peers. DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Experience Seekers (Tourism Australia, 2011) This segment constitutes around 30 to 50 per cent of all potential long haul outbound travellers from key source markets. MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Brand Mythology System for NZ • Tourism New Zealand, since 1999: World 100% Pure New Zealand (Tourism New View and Sacred Zealand, 2009). Beliefs • Narrative: “Youngest country on Brand Brand earth” Culture Agent • World View and Sacred Beliefs: Lifestyle Brand Narrative • Brand Agent: Lord of the Rings Trilogy (Vincent, 2002) • Brand Culture: YouTube, Twitter, Flickr and Facebook MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • 100% Pure New Zealand YouTube Channel (Tourism New Zealand, 2010d) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY•LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES mercadológica e marketing de Sustentabilidade MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • 100% Pure New Zealand Flickr (Tourism New Zealand, 2010c) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY•LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES mercadológica e marketing de Sustentabilidade MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • 100% Pure New Zealand Twitter (Tourism New Zealand, 2010b) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY•LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES mercadológica e marketing de Sustentabilidade MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • 100% Pure New Zealand Facebook Page (Tourism New Zealand, 2010a) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY•LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES mercadológica e marketing de Sustentabilidade MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Experiential Communication • Technological Convergence: – Mobility; – Communication (audio, images, video and data) through different types of networks (GSM, GPRS, EDGE, 3G, WiFi); – Location, Movement and Environment perception and registration: GPS, digital compass, digital capture of image and sound, accelerometers, proximity sensors, light sensors, three axis gyroscopes); • Social Networks and multimedia communication tools: – Facebook; – Twitter, – Skype, – Vimeo, YouTube, – Blogs, photologs, travelogs and travelpods • Apps • BioMapping (Nold, 2010) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM • Sensorial Brands, as proposed by Gobé (2001) DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY and Lindström (2005)LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Map of Senses – City of São Paulo • Website Survey on São Paulo’s tourist attractions and their relation to the five senses – 600 respondents and 2000 nominations • 20 places were tested with tourists and their sensations measured through BioMapping technology • Map was published in September 2009 • Some of its core elements are being used in the new brand for the destination MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM (São Paulo Turismo, 2009) DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • BioMapping (Nold, 2010) • Lie Detector + GPS (biomapping.net) • Communal Emotion Maps MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • There’s Nothing Like Australia Map (Tourism Australia, 2010) MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY•LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES mercadológica e marketing de Sustentabilidade MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • Final Remarks • Some of the presented cases still cannot be proved as successful • Challenges include: coordination of different levels, different agents within same levels, different agents from different sectors and sometimes different levels, not to mention a plethora of governmental institutions • The role of Ethics and Leadership • Tourism and Globalisation • GlocalDIMENSION OF TOURISM MARKET Destinations DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
  • References 1 ADEFN 2000. Instrução Normativa Nº 01/2000: Disciplina o fluxo de turistas no arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Administração do Distrito Estadual de Fernando de Noronha. ADEFN 2005. Decreto Distrital Nº 025/2005: Matriz de Classificação das Pousadas Domiciliares do Distrito Estadual de Fernando de Noronha, Administração do Distrito Estadual de Fernando de Noronha. AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT. 2003. Tourism White Paper: a medium to long-term strategy for tourism [Online]. Canberra: Australian Government. Available: http://www.innovation.gov.au/Section/Industry/Documents/TourismWhitePaper2005.pdf. BURKART, A. J. & MEDLIK, S. 1981. Tourism: past, present and future, London, Heinemann. BUTLER, R. W. 1980. The Concept of a Tourist Area Life Cycle of Evolution: implication for management of resources. The Canadian Geographer, 24, 5-12. BUTLER, R. W. 2009. Tourism in the future: Cycles, waves or wheels? Futures, 41, 346-352. COMTUR DE BONITO 1995. Resolução Normativa No 001/95 - Voucher Único, Bonito, Prefeitura do Município de Bonito. DFAT. 2010. Australias Top 25 Exports: Goods and Services [Online]. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Available: http://www.dfat.gov.au/publications/tgs/exports-top25-2009.pdf [Accessed 30/08/2010. EAGLES, P. F. J., MCCOOL, S. F. & HAYNES, C. D. 2002. Sustainable tourism in protected areas: Guidelines for planning and management, Gland, World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). FARRELL, T. A. & MARION, J. L. 2002. The protected area visitor impact management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10, 31-51. GILMORE, J. H. & PINE, B. J. 2007. Authenticity: what consumers really want, Boston, Mass., Harvard Business School Press. GOBÉ, M. 2001. Emotional branding: the new paradigm for connecting brands to people, New York, Allworth Press. GOR MARKETING. 2009. The Great Ocean Road Interactive Map [Online]. Melbourne: Great Ocean Road Marketing. Available: http://www.greatoceanroad.org/ [Accessed 18/06/2010. GSTR. 2010. The Great Southern Touring Route Map [Online]. Melbourne: The Great Southern Touring Route. Available: http://www.greatsoutherntouring.com.au/uploads/GSTRMAP.pdf [Accessed 19/06/2010. HUNZIKER, W. & KRAPF, K. 2011. Grundriß Der Allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre, Zürich, Polygr. Verl. IBGE. 2010. Países@ [Online]. Brasília: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - Ministério do Planejamento - Governo MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM Federal da República Federativa do Brasil. Available: http://www.ibge.gov.br/paisesat/ [Accessed 09/09/2010. . DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY
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  • Further information Access www.lndmoraes.id.au for: • Current state of research • Research project and methodology • Photos and videos of the two sites • Information about the two case study sites • Contact information MARKET DIMENSION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITYLEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES