The economics of tourism development 2012 part 2

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This guest lecture was presented as part of the Subject The Economies of Cities and Regions of the Master of Urban Planning programme of the University of Melbourne. It introduces students to key …

This guest lecture was presented as part of the Subject The Economies of Cities and Regions of the Master of Urban Planning programme of the University of Melbourne. It introduces students to key concepts in tourism, tourism development and sustainability that allow the debate of the sustainability of tourism development in selected case studies from an economic perspective.

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  • 1. 1 PART  5  –  DEVELOPING  A   RESEARCH  DESIGN  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 2. Framework  for  the  Research  Focus   •  Vision   •  Drivers  and   Inhibitors   •  Strategy   •  Intervening   Condi5ons   •  Context  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 3. CompeDDon  and  CooperaDon   The  control  of  a  complex   •  Complex  Adap5ve  Systems  (Waldrop,   adapDve  system  tends  to  be   1992)     highly  dispersed.  (…)  If  there   is  to  be  any  coherent   •  Economic  Clustering  Theory  (Porter,   behaviour  in  the  system,  it   1998)   has  to  arise  from   •  Tourism  Micro-­‐Clusters  and  Networks   compeDDon  and   cooperaDon  among  the   (Michael,  2007)   agents  themselves   (Waldrop,  1992,  p.  145).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 4. Degrees  of  Sustainability     Considering  sustainability  infers  a  strong   vision  for  the  future  and  that  the  future   poses  a  lot  of  uncertainty,  it  is  preferable   to  suggest  that  a  certain  pathway  seems   more  or  less  sustainable  according  to   scenarios  that  are  projected,  but  s5ll   uncertain,  rather  than  simply  sustainable   or  unsustainable.  Classifying  pathways  as   sustainable  or  unsustainable  is  only   possible  when  analysing  the  past  for   present  consequences  are  known,  but   never  the  future  as  it  is  s5ll  to  be  seen.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 5. World  Heritage  Enlistment   Interna5onal  Conven5on  Concerning  the   Protec5on  of  the  World  Cultural  and   Natural  Heritage  (UNESCO,  1972).   The  inscripDon  of  a  site  on  the  World   Heritage  List  brings  an  inevitable  and   welcomed  awareness  and  curiosity   about  the  site  and  its  outstanding  values   (UNESCO  World  Heritage  Centre,  2008).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 6. World  Heritage  Enlistment   If  a  site  loses  the   characterisDcs  which   determined  its  inscrip5on  on   the  World  Heritage  List,  the   World  Heritage  CommiOee   may  decide  to  delete  the   property  from  both  the  List   of  World  Heritage  in  Danger   and  the  World  Heritage  List   (UNESCO  World  Heritage   Centre,  2008).    LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 7. Research  Focus   •  Sustainability  Degrees   •  Compe55on  and   Coopera5on   •  World  Heritage   Enlistment   •  Small  Oceanic  Islands   •  Development  Contexts  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 8. Research  QuesDons   Primary  Ques5on:   1.  How  do  different  types  of  compeDDon  and   cooperaDon  among  tourism  stakeholders  of   natural  World  Heritage  enlisted  small  oceanic   island  des5na5ons  influence  the   sustainability  of  their  tourism  development?   Secondary  Ques5ons:   1.  How  does  UNESCO’s  World  Heritage   enlistment  program  influence  compeDDon   and  cooperaDon  among  tourism  stakeholders   of  enlisted  small  oceanic  island  des5na5ons?   2.  How  do  the  cultural,  socio-­‐economic  and   regulatory  contexts  of  such  des5na5ons   influence  these  relaDonships?   3.  Which  other  significant  factors  currently   affect  the  way  such  stakeholders  compete  and   cooperate  and  how?  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 9. Overarching  Research  Framework   Sustainability and Tourism Research Topic Development Socio-Ecological Complex Research Object Adaptive Systems Holistic and Inductive- Research Approach Deductive Embedded Multiple Research Design Qualitative Case Study Social and Multiple Organisations Data Collection Sources Tourist Destinations Organisational and People Networks Structure Agency Grounded Sustainability and Data Analysis Theory Tourism Development (Competition and (Competition and Coop.) Coop.)LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 10. Research  Methodology   •  Qualita5ve  Embedded  Mul5ple  Case   Study   •  Three  Sources  of  Data  and  Evidence   per  Case  (Yin,  2009)  and  Data   Triangula5on  (Pa`on,  2002,  p.  247)   •  Two  Stages  of  Field  Data  Collec5on   •  Data  Analysis  using  a  Grounded   Theory  Approach  (Glaser  1967)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 11. Small  Oceanic  Islands   •  Size   •  Coastal  Areas  (Climate  Change)   •  Isola5on   •  Amplifica5on  of  condi5ons  and   consequences   •  Scarcity  of  resources   •  Sense  of  Limits  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 12. Challenges   •  Overcome  my  own  mainland  mindset   •  Be  able  to  use  a  NISSOLOGY  approach,   or  to  study  the  island  and  their   inhabitants  on  their  own  terms   •  Induc5ve  research  requires  a  lot  of   decision-­‐making  not  beforehand,  but   throughout  the  process  (non-­‐linear   kind  of  research)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 13. Cases  SelecDon  Process   Reason(s)  to   Natural  Heritage  and  Mixed  Small  Oceanic   Year  of   Disconsider  as  a  Case   Country Criteria Island  Sites Inscription Study Uninhabited  /  No   Heard  and  M cDonald  Islands Australia 1197 viii;ix permanent  Population •  Small  oceanic  islands   Lord  Howe  I sland  Group Australia 1982 vii;  x No  reason Filter  1   Uninhabited  /  No   Macquarie  Island Australia 1997 vii;  v iii permanent  Population Brazilian  Atlantic  I slands:  Fernando  de  Noronha   No  reason  for  FEN;  No   •  Succesfully  conserve  their  natural   Brazil 2001 vii;  ix;  x (FEN)  and  Atol  das  Rocas  Reserves  (ADR) tourists  allowed  in  ADR heritage  and  are  enlisted  by  UNESCO   Filter  2   Malpelo  Fauna  and  Flora  Sanctuary Colombia 2006 vii;  ix Uninhabited  /  No   permanent  Population Uninhabited  /  No   Cocos  Island  National  Park Costa  Rica 1997 ix;  x •  Tourism  des5na5ons  that  are  visited   permanent  Population by  tourists  which  stay  inland   vii;  v iii;   Enlisted  as  in  danger   Galápagos  Islands Equator 1978 Filter  3   overnight   ix;  x property New   Uninhabited  /  No   New  Zealand  Sub-­‐Antarctic  Islands 1998 ix;  x Zealand permanent  Population •  Existence  of  permanent  popula5on   Russian   Uninhabited  /  No   Natural  System  of  Wrangel  Island  Reserve 2004 ix;  x Federation permanent  Population that  is  involved  with  tourism   Filter  4   Uninhabited  /  No   Aldabra  Atoll Sychelles 1982 vii;  ix;  x permanent  Population United   Uninhabited  /  No   Gough  and  Inaccessible  Islands 1995 vii;  x Kingdom permanent  Population United   Uninhabited  /  No   Henderson  Island 1988 vii;  x Kingdom permanent  PopulationLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 14. MulDple  Case  Study  Site  SelecDon   FERNANDO  DE   NORONHA   ARCHIPELAGO   LORD   HOWE   ISLANDS  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 15. Lord  Howe  Island  Group  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 16. Fernando  de  Noronha  Archipelago  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 17. Sites  CharacterisDcs   Island Name  Fernando de Noronha Lord Howe Island Country Name Brazil Australia Country Population 191,429,828 21,844,831 Country Area 8,511,965 sq km 7,692,024 sq km Country Density 22.4 per sq km 2.8 per sq km State PE NSW Island Population 2,321 364 Island Area 16.99 sq km 15.2 sq km Island Density 136.6 per sq km 23.9 per sq km Visitors Limit 450 400 Distance from Connecting Airport 545 km 700 km Part of National Marine Park Yes Yes World Heritage Enlisted by UNESCO 2001 1982LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 18. Fernando  de  Noronha   Flying  In  and  Out  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 19. Fernando  de  Noronha  Port  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 20. Fernando  de  Noronha  Birds  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 21. Fernando  de  Noronha  Birds  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 22. Fernando  de  Noronha  Birds  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 23. Fernando  de  Noronha  Marine  Life  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES