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The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1
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The economics of tourism development 2012 part 1

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This guest lecture was presented as part of the Subject The Economies of Cities and Regions of the Master of Urban Planning programme of the University of Melbourne. It introduces students to key …

This guest lecture was presented as part of the Subject The Economies of Cities and Regions of the Master of Urban Planning programme of the University of Melbourne. It introduces students to key concepts in tourism, tourism development and sustainability that allow the debate of the sustainability of tourism development in selected case studies from an economic perspective.

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  • 1. GUEST  LECTURE  FOR  THE  SUBJECT  THE  ECONOMIES  OF  CITIES  AND   REGIONS  OF  THE  MASTER  OF  URBAN  PLANNING  COURSE   Cases  of  Applied  Public  Policy   THE  ECONOMICS  OF   TOURISM  DEVELOPMENT   05/04/2012   LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES   THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  MELBOURNE  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 2. PresentaBon  Overview   PresentaBon  ObjecBve:  provide  an   overview  of  economic  issues  related  to   tourism  development  and  discuss  them  in   light  of  cases  of  applied  public  policy     PresentaBon  Contents:   1.  Why  Tourism?   2.  SeKng  IniMal  Research  Boundaries   3.  Structuring  the  Research  FoundaMons   4.  RevisiMng  Preliminary  Case  Studies   5.  Developing  a  Research  Design   6.  Discussion  of  Preliminary  Results   7.  Final  Remarks  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 3. PART  1  –  WHY  TOURISM?  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 4. Is  Tourism  Relevant?   •  In  2011,  it  was  forecasted  to  be   directly  responsible  for:   –  2.8%  of  World  GDP  (2.9%  in  2021)   –  3.4%  of  World  Employment  (3.6%  in  2021)   •  Considering  its  mulMplying  effect  on   the  economy,  its  importance  raises  to:   –  9.1%  of  World  GDP  (9.6%  in  2021)   –  8.8%  of  World  Employment  (9.7%  in  2021)   (WTTC,  2011c)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 5. Tourism’s  Economic  ContribuBon   Direct  Travel  &   Tourism   ContribuBon   • CommodiBes   • AccommodaMon   • TransportaMon   • Entertainment   Indirect  Travel  &   Induced   • A_racMons   ContribuBon   • Industries   Tourism   ContribuBon   (spending  of   • Hotels  and   direct  and   Catering   •  T&T  investment   • Retail   indirect   spending   • TransportaMon   employees)   •  Government   services   collecMve  T&T   •  Food  &  beverages   • Business  services   spending   •  RecreaMon   • Sources  of  Spending   •  Impact  of   •  Clothing   • Residents’   purchases  from   domesMc  T&T   •  Housing   suppliers   •  Household  goods   Spending   • Businesses’   domesMc  travel   spending   (WTTC, 2011c) • Visitor  exports     • Individual   government  T&T   spending   (WTTC, 2011c)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 6. Inbound  Tourism  as  Export   2009-­‐10   2008-­‐09   (AUD   to   Rank   Export  Item  (DFAT,  2010)   million)   2009-­‐10   1   Coal   36,445   -­‐33.4%   2   Iron  Ore  &  Concentrates   35,090   2.5%   3   EducaBon-­‐Related  Travel  Serv.   18,507   10.6%   4   Gold   14,301   -­‐18.3%   5   Personal  Travel  (excl    ed)  Serv.   12,121   3.9%   5.9 million visitor arrivals in 2010 (Tourism Australia, 2011) 6   Crude  Petroleum   8,955   8.5%   7thposition in the WTTC WorldTourism Economy Ranking (2011a) 7   Natural  Gas   7,789   -­‐22.7%  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 7. PART  2  –  SETTING  INITIAL   RESEARCH  BOUNDARIES  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 8. IdenBfying  Research  Interests   •  Tourism  Development   •  Sustainability   •  Strategies  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 9. Research  Aim   To  contribute  with  the  current  body  of   knowledge  on  processes  of   implementaBon  of  higher  degrees  of   sustainability  within  tourism   development  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 10. 10 PART  3  –  STRUCTURING  THE   RESEARCH  FOUNDATIONS  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 11. DefiniBons  of  Tourism   Dependent  on  whether  one  considers   tourism  as  a(n):   •  Sector/Industry;   •  AcMvity;  or   •  Phenomenon.   Leiper  (1979)  categorises  definiMons  as:   •  Economic;   •  Technical;  and   •  HolisMc  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 12. Economic  DefiniBons  of  Tourism   •  “Tourism  is  an  indenMfiable  naMonally   important  industry.  The  industry   involves  a  wide  cross  secMon  of   component  acMvites  including  the   provision  of  transportaMon,   accommodaMon,  recreaMon,  food,  and   related  services”  (Australian   Department  of  Tourism  &  RecreaMon,   1975).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 13. 13 Technical  DefiniBons  of  Tourism   UNWTO:   •  “Tourism  comprises  the  acMviMes  of   persons  travelling  to  and  staying  in   places  outside  their  usual   environment  for  not  more  than  one   consecuMve  year  for  leisure,  business   or  other  purposes”  (MacIntosh  et  al,   1995).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 14. 14 HolisBc  DefiniBons  of  Tourism   Hunkizer  and  Krapf  (1943):   •  “Tourism  is  the  sum  of  the   phenomena  and  relaMonships  arising   from  the  travel  and  stay  of  non-­‐ residents,  in  so  far  as  they  do  not  lead   to  permanent  residence  and  are  not   connected  to  any  earning   acMvity”  (Burkart,  1981).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 15. Tourism  Models   •  Explanatory  Models        Versus   •  PrescripMve  or  NormaMve  Models   •  Tourism  SpaMal  Models        Versus   •  Tourism  Structural  Models  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 16. 16 Leiper’s  (1979)  Tourism  Model   The  three  basic  elements  of   Leiper’s  Model:   •  Tourists   •  Geographical  Elements   •  Tourism  Industry   It  lacks  to  acknowledge:   •  Locals   •  Other  regions  of  the   globe  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 17. Tourism  System  (SISTUR  –  Sistema  de  Turismo,  Beni,  2001)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 18. 18 Tourism  Impacts  and  Meta  Impacts   Impacts   Economic   Social   PosiMve   MulBplier  Effect   Decrease  of  Social   Service  Intensive  (Jobs)   Differences   Invisible  Export  (Inbound)   Sense  of  Community   SpaMal  RedistribuBon  of   New  social  structures   Currency   Local  Development   Wider  Access  to  Products   NegaMve   Invisible  Import   Increase  of  Social   (Outbound)   Differences   Currency  Leakage   Crime  Rates,  Diseases,  etc   InflaBon   Sense  of  Community   CompeBBon  with   New  Social  Structures   tradiMonal  industries   Neo  Colonialism   Impacts   Environmental  (Meta)   Cultural   PosiMve   Help  Protect  and   IdenMty  Recall   Conserve   Heritage  Value   Help  Change  Mindset  and   Broadening  of  Global   Behaviour   Understading   NegaMve   Help  Damage  and  Destroy   DemonstraMon   Help  Change  PrioriMes   Xenophobism   and  Behaviour   Staged  Behaviour  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 19. Tourism  Development  Models   •  Tourism  Development        Versus   •  Tourism  EvoluMon   •  Tourism  Dev.  Explanatory  Models        Versus   •  Tourism  Dev.  PrescripMve  Models   •  Product  (DesMnaMon)  Centric   •  Market  (Tourist)  Centric   •  Product  and  Market  Centric  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 20. Tourist  Psychographic  Personality   Profiles  (Plog,  2001)   Venturers:  more  independent,   intellectually  curious,  willing  to   take  risks  and  to  be  challenged   and  that  would  require  a  lot  of   self-­‐confidence,  quick  decisions   and  their  own  personal  judgement   Dependables:  seek  experiences   that  are  more  familiar,  somehow   conservaMve  and  passive,  more   predicMve  and  well-­‐thought  of,   more  popular  and  well-­‐established   •  FaciliMes  for  social   sustainability  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 21. Tourist  Area  Life  Cycle  (Butler,  1980)   Of  key  importance  is  the  intervenBon  of   management  to  prevent  development   exceeding  the  inherent  capacity  of  the   desBnaBon  (capacity  defined  in  terms  of   limits  of  economic,  social,  environmental   and  physical  parameters),  on  the  basis   that  if  capacity  levels  were  exceeded,   decline  in  quality  of  visitor  and  resident   experiences  would  result,  along  with   environmental  and  other  problems,  and   these  would  result  in  a  decline  in   visitaBon  and  thus  also  tourist   expenditure  and  funds  for  reinvestment   in  the  desMnaMon  (Butler,  2009,  p.  348).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 22. Trend  Dynamics  (Vejlgaard,  2008,  p.  64)   It  highlights  the  role  of   trend-­‐se_ers  and  trend   followers  in  the  process  of   making  trends  mainstream.       Key  people  in  the  tourism   desMnaMon  could  be   responsible  for  beginning   the  process  of  tourist-­‐host   acculturaMon.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 23. Managing  Limits  to  Tourism  Flows   Dimensions  of  Carrying   •  Miguel  Cifuentes  –  CC  (Wearing,  1999)   Capacity  (CC):   •  Visitor  Impact  Management  –  VIM  (Farrell,   •  Ecological   2002)   •  Social   •  Limits  of  Acceptable  Change  –  LAC  (Stankey,   1985)   •  Cultural   •  Visitor  AcMvity  Management  Process  –  VAMP   •  Economic   (Eagles,  2002)   •  Psychological   •  Tourism  OpMmizaMon  Model  –  TOMM  (ibid)   •  Physical   •  RecreaMon  Opportunity  Spectrum  –  ROS  (ibid)   •  Tourist   •  Visitor  Experience  and  Resources  ProtecMon  -­‐   VERP  (US  Department  of  Interior,  1997)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 24. Proposed  Human-­‐Environment  RelaBons  Base  Model   Human Needs Human Beings Human Resources Human Systems Environmental Systems Environmental Biosphere Resources Atmosphere Hydrosphere Litosphere Reshaping Consequence of ReshapingLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 25. Proposed  Tourism  DefiniBon   Tourism  is  the  sum  of  temporary  and  sporadic   human  travel  to  non-­‐rouBne  areas.  It  is   moMvated  by  the  search  for  alternaMve  ways  of   saMsfying  specific  human  needs  to  those  ways   that  are  available  in  their  areas  of  residency.   Tourism  is  capable  to  transversely  impact  the   environmental  and  human  resources  and   systems  of  all  areas  delineated  by  its  occurrence   (originaBng,  transit,  desBnaBon  and  all  other   regions)  as  well  as  the  globe  as  a  whole.  It  thus   interferes  posiMvely  and  negaMvely  with  the   human  capacity  to  survive  (global  dimension  of   tourism  development  sustainability)  as  well  as   with  the  tourist  desBnaBon’s  capacity  to   conBnue  to  airact  tourism  flows  (sectoral   dimension  of  tourism  development   sustainability).    LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 26. Tourism  Development  Sustainability  DefiniBon   Tourism  development  sustainability  is   understood  as  the  degree  of  resilience  of  a   tourism  development  operaBonal  model   (and  therefore  its  capacity  to  increase  the   chances  of  its  long-­‐term  conMnuance).   Such  resilience  is  understood  as  being   dependent  on  the  model’s  capacity  to   establish  a  mutual  posiBve  outcome   relaBonship  with  global  and  local   (desMnaMon,  transit  route,  origin  and  other   areas)  human  and  environmental  systems   it  relates  to,  aiming  at  the  conservaBon   and  democraBc  access  of  human  and   environmental  resources  for  exisBng  and   future  generaBons.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 27. Proposed  Tourism  Development  Explanatory  Model   + Endogenous Atributes or Degree of Authenticity Human Needs Exogenous Atributes or Degree of Tourism Humans Beings Orientation Human Resources Human Systems Environmental Systems Environmental Resources Not Reshaped Temporary Reshaped not for Relocation Tourism Purposes Reshaping Reshaped for Tourism Purposes Consequence Of ReshapingLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 28. 28 Sustainability  within  Tourism  Development   Carrying   Capacity  •  Composite  Indices  and  Core   Indicators  (UNWTO,  2004)  •  RecogniMon  of  2  Dimensions   UNWTO’s   of  Sustainability  within   Sustainability   Tourism  Development  related   Composite   to  the  desBnaBon/globe  and   Indices   to  the  acBvity  itself   Capacity   Site  Stress   to  A_ract  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 29. 29 What  is  being  offered  to  tourists  and   being  bought  by  them,  anyway?   •  Suppliers’  point  of  view   •  Consumers’  point  of  view   •  Economic  point  of  view  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 30. 30 The  Progression  of  Economic  Value   (Pine,  1999,  p.  166)   DIFFERENTIATED   Pine  (1999)  argues  that  5   RELEVANT  TO   different  types  of   TransformaMons   Experiences   COMPETITIVE  POSITION   economic  offering  can  be   NEEDS  OF  CUSTOMERS   Services   idenMfied  and  organised   according  to  their   perceived  value  and  level   Goods   of  customisaBon  and   CommodiMes   commodiBsaBon.   UNDIFFERENTIATED   IRRELEVANT  TO   MARKET   PRICE   PREMIUM  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 31. 31 Economic  DisBncBons  (Pine,  1999)   Economic Commodities Goods Services Experiences Transformations Offerings Economy Agrarian Industrial Service Experience Transformation   Economic Extract Make Deliver Stage Guide Function “TransformaMons   Nature of Fungible Tangible Intangible Memorable Effectual are  as  disMnct  from   Offering experiences  as   Key Attribute Natural Standardised Customised Personal Individual experiences  are   Method of Inventoried Delivered Revealed Sustained Stored in bulk after over a from  services”   Supply production on demand duration through time   (Pine,  1999,  pp.  170-­‐1)   Seller Trader Manufacturer Provider Stager Elicitor Buyer Market Customer Client Guest Aspirant Factors of Characteristics Features Benefits Sensations Traits DemandLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 32. 32 The  Experience  Realms  (Pine,  1999,  p.  30)   ABSORPTION     “The  richest   ENTERTAINMENT   EDUCATIONAL   experiences   PARTICIPATION   PARTICIPATION   PASSIVE   encompass   ACTIVE   SWEET   SPOT   aspects  of  all  four   realms.”   ESTHETIC   ESCAPIST     (Pine,  1999,  p.  39)   IMERSION  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 33. 33 AuthenBcity  (Gilmore,  2007)   “People  tend  to   FRAMING  THE  LANDSCAPE  OF  AUTHENTICITY   perceive  as  authenMc   CommodiBes   Natural  AuthenBcity   that  which  exists  in  its   natural  state  in  or  of   Goods   the  earth,  remaining   Services   untouched  by  human   hands;  not  arMficial  or   Experiences   syntheMc”  (ibid,  49).   TransformaMons  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 34. 34 AuthenBcity  (Gilmore,  2007)   FRAMING  THE  LANDSCAPE  OF  AUTHENTICITY   “People  tend  to  perceive   as  authenMc  that  which   CommodiMes   Natural  AuthenMcity   possesses  originality  in   design,  being  the  first  of   Goods   Original  AuthenBcity   its  kind,  never  before   Services   seen  by  human  eyes,  not   a  copy  or   Experiences   imitaMon”  (ibid,  49).   TransformaMons  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 35. 35 AuthenBcity  (Gilmore,  2007)   FRAMING  THE  LANDSCAPE  OF  AUTHENTICITY   “People  tend  to  perceive  as   authenMc  that  which  is  done   CommodiMes   Natural  AuthenMcity   excepBonally  well,  executed   individually  and   Goods   Original  AuthenMcity   extraordinarily  by  someone   demonstraBng  human  care,   Services   ExcepBonal  AuthenBcity   not  unfeelingly  or   disingenuously   Experiences   performed”  (ibid,  49).   TransformaMons  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 36. 36 AuthenBcity  (Gilmore,  2007)   “People  tend  to  perceive   FRAMING  THE  LANDSCAPE  OF  AUTHENTICITY   as  authenMc  that  which   CommodiMes   Natural  AuthenMcity   refers  to  some  other   context,  drawing   Goods   Original  AuthenMcity   inspiraMon  from  human   history,  and  tapping  into   Services   ExcepMonal  AuthenMcity   our  shared  memories  and   Experiences   ReferenBal  AuthenBcity   longings;  not  derivaMve  or   trivial”  (ibid,  50).   TransformaMons  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 37. 37 AuthenBcity  (Gilmore,  2007)   FRAMING  THE  LANDSCAPE  OF  AUTHENTICITY   “People  tend  to  perceive  as   authenMc  that  which  exerts   CommodiMes   Natural  AuthenMcity   influence  on  other   enBBes,  calling  human   Goods   Original  AuthenMcity   beings  to  a  higher  goal  and   providing  a  foretaste  of  a   Services   ExcepMonal  AuthenMcity   be_er  way;  not   inconsequenMal  or  without   Experiences   ReferenMal  AuthenMcity   meaning”  (ibid,  50).   TransformaBons   InfluenBal  AuthenBcity  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 38. 38 CompeBBve  Advantage   Porter  (2004)  argues  that   the  differenBaBon  in  terms   of  price,  innovaBon  and   focus  are  the  sources  of   compeBBve  advantage  for   businesses  and  places.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 39. 39 The  Tourism  Supply  Chain   Transport   Guides   A_racMons   TOURISM   EXPERIENCE   •  Linen and Towels •  Toiletries Accom.   •  Cleaning Products •  Food and Beverages •  Laundry Services Restaurants   Others  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 40. 40 Dimensions  of  RelaBonships   Long  Term  Benefits   DesMnaMon  (System)   Y   Z   Common  and   Common  and   IncompaMble   CompaMble   Goals   X   Goals   (CompeMMon)   (CooperaMon)   X:  Forces   Company  /  Person     Y:  Beneficiaries   (Component)   Z:  Benefits   Short  Term  Benefits  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 41. 41 Clusters  and  CompeBBve  Advantage   Clusters  are  geographic  concentraMons  of   interconnected  companies,  specialized   suppliers,  service  providers,  firms  in   related  industries,  and  associated   insMtuMons  (…)  in  parMcular  fields  that   compete  but  also  cooperate  (Porter,   1998,  p.  197).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 42. 42 Tourism  Clustering   The  general  assumpMon  behind  the   clustering  models  is  a  step  beyond  the   simple  benefits  to  firms  and  communiMes   that  can  be  explained  by  economic   specializaBon.  Clustering  is  predicated  by   the  noMon  that  the  co-­‐locaMon  of  like  firms   will  produce  a  range  of  synergies,  which  if   captured,  may  enhance  the  growth  of   market  size,  employment  and  product.  (...)   The  Porterian  model  relies  on  the   convenMonal  noMon  that  a  co-­‐locaBon  of  like   industries  in  a  geographic  concentraMon  can   produce  mulBplier  effects  (economic)  and   consequent  social  impacts   (externaliBes)”  (Michael,  2007,  p.  22).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 43. 43 Horizontal  Clustering   “Horizontal  clustering  is  the  most  common   and  most  easily  recognised  type  of  cluster   formaMon.  It  occurs  where  similar  or  like   Hotel  A   firms  from  the  stage  in  the  value  chain  for   the  same  industry  co-­‐locate  in  a  geographic   area.  These  firms  are  compeBtors,  selling   like  products  using  similar  producMve   Hotel   Horizontal   Hotel     D   Clustering   B   resources.  However,  their  co-­‐locaBon  pools   the  potenBal  customer  base  to  increase   total  sales,  and  may  someMmes  create   Hotel     other  advantages  in  terms  of  product   C   availability,  labour  supply,  shared   informaBon  and  infrastructure,  to  reduce   costs  or  the  effects  of   externaliBes”  (Michael,  2007,  p.  25).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 44. 44 VerBcal  Clustering   “The  co-­‐locaBon  of  firms  operaMng  at   Distributer(s)   different  stages  in  an  industry’s  supply   chain  is  referred  to  as  verBcal  clustering.   Here,  there  is  an  integrated  linkage   Hotel(s)   between  producBon  stages  and  consumers   that  enhances  specializaBon.  The  close   Distributer(s)   proximity  between  firms  minimizes  logisBcs   and  distribuBonal  costs,  and  may  help  to   concentrate  labour  supply,  workforce  skills   Producer(s)   and  market  informaBon”  (Michael,  2007,  p.   26).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 45. 45 Diagonal  Clustering   “The  clustering  typology  is  expanded  to   recognize  diagonal  clustering,  to  idenMfy  an   increasing  concentraMon  of  complementary  (or   symbioBc)  firms.  Here,  each  firm  adds  value  to   Hotels   the  acMvity  of  others,  even  though  their   products  may  be  quite  disMnct  and  clearly   belong  to  other  industry  classificaMons.   Diagonal   Diagonal  clustering  occurs  where  firms   Others   F&B   Clustering   working  together  create  a  bundle  of  separate   products  and  services  that  the  consumer   effecMvely  purchases  as  a  single  item.  (...)  The   Guides   co-­‐locaMon  of  complementary  providers  adds   value  to  the  tourism  experience;  while,   conversely,  the  absence  of  key  services  will   probably  limit  the  growth  of  exisMng   firms”  (Michael,  2007,  p.  26).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 46. 46 Complex  AdapBve  Systems   ‘[A]t  its  heart,  a  system  [is]  composed  of   many,  many  “agents”.  These  agents  might   be  molecules  or  neurons  or  species  or   consumers  or  even  corporaMons.  But   whatever  their  nature,  the  agents  [are]   constantly  organising    and  reorganising   themselves  into  larger  structures  through   the  clash  of  mutual  accommodaBon  and   mutual  rivalry.  Thus  molecules  would  form   cells,  neurons  would  form  brains,  species   would  form  ecosystems,  consumers  and   corporaMons  would  form  economies,  and   so  on.  Complexity,  in  other  words,  [is]   really  a  science  of  emergence”  (Waldrop,   1992,  p.  88).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 47. 47 CompeBBon  and  CooperaBon   The  control  of  a  complex   •  Complex  AdapMve  Systems  (Waldrop,   adapBve  system  tends  to  be   1992)     highly  dispersed.  (…)  If  there   is  to  be  any  coherent   •  Economic  Clustering  Theory  (Porter,   behaviour  in  the  system,  it   1998)   has  to  arise  from   •  Tourism  Micro-­‐Clusters  and  Networks   compeBBon  and   cooperaBon  among  the   (Michael,  2007)   agents  themselves   (Waldrop,  1992,  p.  145).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 48. 48 Lock-­‐In  and  Increasing  Returns   (Waldrop,  1992)   Lock-­‐in  derives  from  paths  of   dependence  that  lead  to  increasing   returns;   Depending  on  one’s  point-­‐of-­‐view,  it   provokes  the  emergence  of  vicious  or   virtuous  cycles.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 49. Social-­‐Ecological  Complex  AdapBve  Systems   RELATIONAL STRUCTURE COMMUNICATION NETWORK ORGANISATIONAL NETWORK ORGANISATIONAL NETWORK AGENTS UNDERSTANDINGS AGENTS RELATIONSHIPS AGENCY NETWORK ACTIONS ROLESLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 50. Social-­‐Ecological  Complex  AdapBve  Systems  –  Social  Structure   INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE RELATIONAL STRUCTURE REGULATORY NETWORK COMMUNICATION NETWORK ORGANISATIONAL NETWORK RULES UNDERSTANDINGS AGENTS SYMBOLIC NETWORK VALUES NETWORK AGENCY NETWORK CONCEPTS PRIORITIES ACTIONSLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 51. SECAS  –  Emergent  ProperBes   TIME/SPACE DIMENSIONS SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM TIME/SPACE DIMENSIONS COMPLEX ADAPTIVE PROPERTIES SOCIAL STRUCTURE SELF- REINFORCING MODERATING ORGANISATIONAL NETWORK FEEDBACK EMERGENCE FEEDBACK AGENTS SOCIAL STRUCTURE ORGANISATIONAL NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS AGENTS ROLES RELATIONSHIPS LOCAL ENVIRONMENT ROLES LOCAL ENVIRONMENTLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 52. TIME/SPACE DIMENSIONS HIGHER LEVEL CAS OUTPUTS THROUGHPUTS INPUTS (MATTER, ENERGY, AGENTS AND INFO) EXTERNAL STOCK SECAS  Context   INPUTS OUTPUTS SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM THROUGHPUTS (MATTER, ENERGY, AGENTS AND INFO) HIGHER LEVEL CAS OR CONTEXT INTERNAL STOCK OUTPUTS THROUGHPUTS INPUTS (MATTER, ENERGY, AGENTS AND COMPLEX ADAPTIVE PROPERTIES INPUTS INFO) OUTPUTS EXTERNAL STOCK SELF- REINFORCING MODERATING SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM FEEDBACK THROUGHPUTS EMERGENCE FEEDBACK (MATTER, ENERGY, AGENTS AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE INFO) INTERNAL STOCK ORGANISATIONAL NETWORK LOCAL ENVIRONMENT AGENTS WIDER ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS ROLES LOCAL ENVIRONMENT WIDER ENVIRONMENTLEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 53. 53 MulB-­‐Level  PerspecBve  on  TransiBons  (Geels,  2011,  p.  28)   Increasing structuration of activities in local practices Socio- Technical1 – Socio-technical regime is “dynamically stable”. Landscape (exogenousOn different dimensions are ongoing processes. context)2 – Small networks of actors support novelties on thebasis of expectations and visions. Learning processestake place on multiple dimensions (co- 5construction). Efforts to link different elements in a 7seamless web. A3 – External influences on niches (via expectation B Socio- Fand networks). TOURISM   Technical 14 – Elements become aligned, and stabilise in a EXPERIENCE   Regimedominant design. Internal momentum increases. C E5 – Landscape developments put pressure on Dexisting regime, which opens up, creating windows 6of opportunity for novelties.6 – New configuration breaks through, takingadvantage of ‘windows of opportunity’. Adjustments A – Markets, user preferencesoccur in socio-technical regime. 4 B – Industry7 – New regime influences landscape. 3 C – Policy 2 D – Technology Niche- E – Culture Innovations F – Science TIMELEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 54. 54 PART  4  –  REVISITING   PRELIMINARY  CASE  STUDIES  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 55. 55 Brasil   BRASIL  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 56. 56 Brasil  (IBGE,  2010)   Brasil   Area   8,514,877  sq  km   Capital   Brasília   Pop.   193,733,795     States   26  (+  1  FD)   Birth   1500  AD  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 57. 57 Brasil  (WTTC,  2011b;  MTur,  2011)   Tourism  Performance  Indicators   Exchange  Rate   AUD  1.00  ≈  BRL  1.90   InternaMonal  Tourists  2010   ≈  7.9  million   %  of  GDP  (Direct)   3.3%   %  of  GDP  (+MulMplier  Effect)   9.1%   Employment  (Total)   8,145,000   %  of  Total  Employment   8.3%   WTTC  Tourism  Economy  Ranking   6th  (Total  Contr.  GDP)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 58. 58 Ministry  of  Tourism  (MTur,  2010)   •  Tourism  Offering  QualificaMon  Macro-­‐ Program   –  Tourism  NormalizaMon  Program   –  Tourism  CerMficaMon  Program   –  Tourism  Professionals  QualificaMon   Program   •  Tourism  RegionalizaMon  Macro-­‐ Program   –  RegionalizaMon  Planning  and   Management  Program   –  Tourism  SegmentaMon  Program   –  Tourism  Associated  ProducMon  Program   –  PRODETUR  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 59. 59 The  Experience  Economy  Project   •  200  Businesses  in  Five  DesMnaMons:   –  Região  da  Uva  e  do  Vinho  –  RS   –  Bonito  –  MS   –  Petrópolis  –  RJ   –  Belém  –  PA   –  Costa  do  Descobrimento  –  BA   •  Focus  groups  and  interviews  with  tourists,   followed  by  training  of  operators   (InsMtuto  Marca  Brasil,  2010)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 60. 60 Map  of  Senses  –  City  of  São  Paulo   •  Website  Survey  on  São  Paulo’s  tourist   a_racMons  and  their  relaMon  to  the   five  senses  –  600  respondents  and   2000  nominaMons   •  20  places  were  tested  with  tourists   and  their  sensaMons  measured   through  BioMapping  technology   •  Map  was  published  in  September   2009   •  Some  of  its  core  elements  are  being   used  in  the  new  brand  for  the   desMnaMon   (São  Paulo  Turismo,  2009)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 61. 61 BioMapping  (Nold,  2010)   •  Lie  Detector  +  GPS  (biomapping.net)   •  Communal  EmoMon  Maps  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 62. 62 Complexo  Estrada  Real  (1600  km)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 63. 63 Produção  Associada  ao  Turismo   (Tourism  Associated  ProducBon)   •  First  Stage:  18  CiMes  out  of  57  ciMes   •  Focus  on:   –  Special  cheese  producers,   –  Gems  and  jewelry  producers,   –  Handcra•ed  cachaça  producers   –  Cra•smen   (InsMtuto  Estrada  Real,  2010)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 64. 64 Tourism  CooperaBves  Project   •  ITCP  –  COOPE  –  UFRJ  (2010)   •  Ministry  for  Tourism   •  Tourism  Prone  Areas   with  Low  Human   Development  Index   •  Incubator  to   AssociaMons  or   CooperaMves   •  Local  ProducMon  by   Local  CommuniMes  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 65. 65 Bonito  –  Integrated  Voucher  System   •  Incorporated  by  the  Public  Sector  in   1995  and  previously  used  by  the   Private  Sector   •  4  prints  (Guide,  A_racMon,  Agency/   Operator  and  Government)   –  32  Inbound  Travel  Agencies/Tour   Operators   –  80  Tour  Guides  (registered  in  the  MTur)   –  25  A_racMons   •  ObjecMves  include:  staMsMcs,   formalisaMon  of  the  economy,   increase  of  tax  collecMon  (40,84%  in   2003  with  improved  collecMon   methods).   (COMTUR  de  Bonito,  1995)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  • 66. 66 General  Remarks   •  Some  of  the  presented  cases  sMll   cannot  be  proved  as  successful   •  Challenges  include:  coordinaMon  of   different  levels,  different  agents   within  same  levels,  different  agents   from  different  sectors  and  someMmes   different  levels,  not  to  menMon  a   plethora  of  governmental  insMtuMons  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  

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