Paula Rohr Jill Hanson Marissa  Manske Leigh Splittstoesser Global Effects of  Polygamy
What is Polygamy? <ul><li>Polygyny – one man married to several women </li></ul><ul><li>Polyandry – one woman married to s...
World View of Polygamy World Focus (2009)
Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul>...
Female to Male Ratios <ul><li>&quot;Take four wives to rid the country of spinsters.&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>Push for the...
Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul>...
Patriarchal Guardianship <ul><li>  &quot;....requires all women to be represented by men, either their husband, father or ...
Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul>...
Religious Doctrine and Teaching <ul><li>Qu'ran:  Surah (chapter) al-Nisa, Verse 3 : &quot;And if you have reason to fear t...
Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul>...
Social and Economic Necessity <ul><li>Child Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Power and Status </li></ul><ul><li>Custom and Traditio...
Brief History of Polygamy In U.S.
LDS FLDS Utah Stories (2008) <ul><li>Morman church practiced polygamy unitl 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Utah wanted statehood <...
The Confusion Continues <ul><li>LDS discontinued polygamy officially in 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>FLDS incorporates Joseph Sm...
U.S. Polygamy <ul><li>Lifting the Veil of Polygamy: The History of Mormon Polygamy  Living Hope Ministries, (N.D.)   </li>...
Rules of Polygamy within the FLDS <ul><li>All control belongs to a central figure  </li></ul><ul><li>Revelation from God d...
Various Country Perspectives
<ul><li>Polygamy can be a last option for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financially unsupported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D...
African Outlook <ul><li>Marriage is a union of two clans  </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth   </li></ul><ul><li>Age of consent  </l...
The Effects of  Polygamy
Personal Effects <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of ...
Cont… <ul><li>Loss of control </li></ul><ul><li>Family Separation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Poor education </l...
Legal Ramifications <ul><li>Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln </li...
Moral Ramifications <ul><li>&quot;children are raised in a wholesome environment free of television and junk food and soci...
Polygamy Across the Borders <ul><li>Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;...the ...
Mohanty's Connection Regarding Solutions   <ul><li>Educate, Educate, Educate... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign Against Pol...
<ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>UTUBE link (time length 3:36):  Mormon's have nothing to do w...
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Polygamy

  1. 2. Paula Rohr Jill Hanson Marissa Manske Leigh Splittstoesser Global Effects of Polygamy
  2. 3. What is Polygamy? <ul><li>Polygyny – one man married to several women </li></ul><ul><li>Polyandry – one woman married to several men </li></ul><ul><li>POLYGAMY – refers to either arrangement </li></ul>Kitch,T. (2009)
  3. 4. World View of Polygamy World Focus (2009)
  4. 5. Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Doctrine and Teachings  </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Economic Necessity </li></ul>Rahman, A. (n.d.)
  5. 6. Female to Male Ratios <ul><li>&quot;Take four wives to rid the country of spinsters.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Push for the increase in polygamist practices in Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Response from Saudi Arabian women who want no part of polygamy due to newly found educational advancement and financial independence </li></ul>Joffe-Walt, B. (2010, July 13)  
  6. 7. Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Doctrine and Teachings  </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Economic Necessity </li></ul>Rahman, A. (n.d.)
  7. 8. Patriarchal Guardianship <ul><li>  &quot;....requires all women to be represented by men, either their husband, father or son, in all public and official spheres of life. Women are not allowed to drive, inherit, divorce or gain custody of children, and cannot socialize with unrelated men.&quot; (Saudi Arabia) </li></ul><ul><li>There is often a need for a man in many countries for women to do everyday things </li></ul><ul><li>This is no different from polygamy families or a husband with one wife </li></ul>  &quot;....requires all women to be represented by men, either their husband, father or son, in all public and official spheres of life. Women are not allowed to drive, inherit, divorce or gain custody of children, and cannot socialize with unrelated men.&quot; (Saudi Arabia) Joffe-Walt, B. (2010, July 13)  
  8. 9. Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Doctrine and Teachings  </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Economic Necessity </li></ul>Rahman, A. (n.d.)
  9. 10. Religious Doctrine and Teaching <ul><li>Qu'ran:  Surah (chapter) al-Nisa, Verse 3 : &quot;And if you have reason to fear that you might not act equitably towards orphans, then marry from among [other] women such as are lawful to you - [even] two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [only] one - or [from among] those whom you rightfully possess.&quot; </li></ul>Surat An-Nisa'.(n.d.) 
  10. 11. Reasons for Polygamist Practices <ul><li>Female to Male Ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal Guardianship   </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Doctrine and Teachings  </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Economic Necessity </li></ul>Rahman, A. (n.d.)
  11. 12. Social and Economic Necessity <ul><li>Child Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Power and Status </li></ul><ul><li>Custom and Tradition </li></ul>Badawi, J. (2008) Polygamy in Afghanistan, (2006)
  12. 13. Brief History of Polygamy In U.S.
  13. 14. LDS FLDS Utah Stories (2008) <ul><li>Morman church practiced polygamy unitl 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Utah wanted statehood </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Smith practices </li></ul>Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Fundamental Church of Jesus Christ of LDS Honors marriage between man and woman Original Morman religion practices Support laws of the land Separate community Close knit families with strong values Believe God is polygamist, Must be polygamist to become God Denounce FLDS practices Church leader is prophet World will soon end and Warren Jeffs will be seated next to God
  14. 15. The Confusion Continues <ul><li>LDS discontinued polygamy officially in 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>FLDS incorporates Joseph Smith- do not acknowledge LDS President announcement </li></ul><ul><li>LDS tithing </li></ul>
  15. 16. U.S. Polygamy <ul><li>Lifting the Veil of Polygamy: The History of Mormon Polygamy Living Hope Ministries, (N.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Jessop American Program Bureau, (2009) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Rules of Polygamy within the FLDS <ul><li>All control belongs to a central figure  </li></ul><ul><li>Revelation from God dictates the words and acts of the central figure </li></ul><ul><li>Independent thinking and outside information are shunned </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with others outside the cult are prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>Non-constructive attitudes toward education </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation to mainstream society is punishing </li></ul><ul><li>Gestapo Mentality </li></ul>Beall, L. (n.d.)
  17. 18. Various Country Perspectives
  18. 19. <ul><li>Polygamy can be a last option for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financially unsupported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widowed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men’s reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not having a child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sickness of wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most believe that a man cannot fully support more than one wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally people believe that the world should not be made up of polygamist practices </li></ul></ul>Afghanistan Overview Polygamy in Afghanistan, (2006)
  19. 20. African Outlook <ul><li>Marriage is a union of two clans  </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth   </li></ul><ul><li>Age of consent  </li></ul><ul><li>Why is underage marriage still around?  </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects of young marriage  </li></ul><ul><li>Virginity </li></ul>Ali, S. (2007); DESA (2009); Nour, N. (2006)    
  20. 21. The Effects of Polygamy
  21. 22. Personal Effects <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Medical Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul>Beall, L. (n.d.)
  22. 23. Cont… <ul><li>Loss of control </li></ul><ul><li>Family Separation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Poor education </li></ul>Beall, L. (n.d.)
  23. 24. Legal Ramifications <ul><li>Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 1, 1862, by President Abraham Lincoln </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, and by imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article 16 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that persons must be at &quot;full age&quot; when married and that marriage should be entered into &quot;freely&quot; and with &quot;full consent.&quot; In other words, any country that allows child marriage is committing a violation of human rights.” </li></ul></ul>Porter, P.L., (1998).   Nour, N.M. (2006)
  24. 25. Moral Ramifications <ul><li>&quot;children are raised in a wholesome environment free of television and junk food and social pressures&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Living a sheltered life </li></ul>Anderson, S. (2010)  
  25. 26. Polygamy Across the Borders <ul><li>Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;...the full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause of peace require the maximum participation of women on equal terms with men in all fields&quot; DESA (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article 16 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women&quot;    </li></ul></ul>Nour, N. (2006) 
  26. 27. Mohanty's Connection Regarding Solutions <ul><li>Educate, Educate, Educate... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign Against Polygamy And Women Oppression International CAPWOI    </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empowerment Of Women   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irma states (reference by Mohanty) that “the only way to get a little measure of power over your own life is to do it collectively, with the support of other people who share your needs” </li></ul></ul>Mohanty, 2003, p. 168
  27. 28. <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>UTUBE link (time length 3:36):  Mormon's have nothing to do with Texas Polygamy Sect      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9OqdOM9udv4&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>UTUBE link (time length 10:27): Interview with women from Texas Polygamist group    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSj3IM-gqIM&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>UTUBE link (time length 9:50): Warren Jeffs instructing child brides  on marriage   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGqJIqe6LEE&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>Ali, S. (2007). Muslim-marriage guide: polygamy and other african tribal customs. Retrieved from: http://www.muslim-marriage-guide.com/african-tribal-customs.html </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, S., (2010). The polygamists. In National Geographic online. Retrieved from   http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/02/polygamists/anderson-text/1 </li></ul><ul><li>Beall, L. (n.d.). The Impact of Modern-Day Polygamy on Women & Children. Retrieved from Trauma Awareness & Treatment Center </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.traumaawareness.org/id19.html </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign Against Polygamy And Women Oppression International (CAPWOI). (2005). Polygamy Stop: History of polygamy. Retrieved from:  http://www.polygamystop. org/history.html </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) (2009). Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW). Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Joffe-Walt, B. (2010, July 13). Saudi men push for more wives. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved from: http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=181305 </li></ul><ul><li>Kitch,T. (2009)  Prof. of Anthropology at Minnesota State Community and Technical College - Wadena. Introduction to Anthropology. [Classroom lecture notes] </li></ul><ul><li>Maiti Nepal (2008). Crusading for the prevention of girl trafficking, rescue, rehabilitation, integration of survivors of trafficking. Retrieved from: http://www.maitinepal.org/pages.php?option=About Us </li></ul><ul><li>Nigeria, G. (2001). West Africa. Emory Law. Retrieved from: http://www.law.emory.edu/ifl/region/westafrica.html </li></ul><ul><li>Nour, N. (2006). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): health consequences of child marriages in africa. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no11/06-0510.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Nour, N.M. (2006). United Nations efforts and national law. In Health consequences of child marriage in Africa. [pdf document]. Retrieved  from:   http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol12no11/pdfs/06-0510.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy in Afghanistan . Rep. Open Society Institute, 2006. Web. 2011. <http://www.wclrf.org.af/English/eng_pages/Researches/Polygamy%20In%20Afghanistan.pdf>. </li></ul><ul><li>Porter, P.L., (1998). A chronology of federal legistation on polygamy. Retrieved from: h ttp://www.xmission.com/~plporter/lds/chron.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Rahman, A. (n.d.). Polygyny in Islam: The profound wisdom behind it and its numerous benefits. Retrieved from:  http://ezinearticles.com/?Polygyny-in-Islam---The-Profound-Wisdom-Behind-it-and-Its-Numerous-Benefits&id=1570807    </li></ul><ul><li>Roman, L. & Eyre, L. (1997). Dangerous territories: struggles for difference and equality in education. Retrieved from: http://cclp.mior.ca/Reference%20Shelf/PDF_OISE/Tolerance%20and%20Neutrality%20in%20the%20University.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Surat An-Nisa'.(n.d.). 4:3. In The Holy Qur'an online. Retrieved from:    http://quran.com/4 </li></ul><ul><li>Utahstories (2008). Utahstories: Media outlets continue to inaccurately confuse LDS and FLDS faiths. Retrieved from: http://www.utahstories.com/lds_flds_confusion.htm </li></ul>
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