CausesWorldWarI.ppt

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CausesWorldWarI.ppt

  1. 1. 1914-1919: The World at War
  2. 2. Causes of the War
  3. 3. Militarism <ul><li>Glorification of the military; race to expand armies & navies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism: War promoted “survival of the fittest” </li></ul><ul><li>Britain vs. Germany: needed to protect overseas empires </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 398 289 268 154 130 94 1914 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 73% Germany 39% Russia 13% Britain 10% France
  5. 5. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  6. 6. Alliances <ul><li>Nations signed treaties pledging to defend one another </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to create powerful combinations that no one would dare to attack </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente : Triple Alliance :
  8. 8. Europe in WWI
  9. 9. Imperialism <ul><li>Competition for colonies among European nations </li></ul><ul><li>France vs. Germany fought for control over the Kingdom of Morocco </li></ul><ul><li>Scramble for natural resources, national prestige and military outposts </li></ul>
  10. 10. U.S. Involvement in the Caribbean
  11. 11. European Imperialism in Africa
  12. 12. Aggressive Nationalism
  13. 13. Nationalism <ul><li>Pride in or devotion to one’s country </li></ul><ul><li>France: longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power; wanted to recover provinces lost to Germany in Franco-Prussian War 1870 (Alsace & Lorraine) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany: Proud of empire’s new military & industrial might </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nationalism <ul><li>Russia: Pan-Slavism or all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality; Russian duty to lead & defend all Slavs </li></ul><ul><li>Balkans: Rising nationalism in multinational empires (Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire) “Balkan Powder Keg” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
  16. 16. The “Spark”
  17. 17. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
  18. 18. The Assassination: Sarajevo
  19. 19. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
  20. 20. Who’s To Blame?
  21. 21. All together now! Into chaos! ( Read it fast for maximum effect) <ul><li>Serbian assassins kill Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro-Hungarian thrown) </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungry declares war on Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Russia (allied with Serbia) declares war on Austria-Hungry </li></ul><ul><li>Germany (allied with Austria-Hungry) declares war on Russia first, then France </li></ul><ul><li>When German troops cross Belgium to get to France, Great Britain (allied with Belgium) declares war on Germany </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mobilization <ul><li>Home by Christmas! </li></ul><ul><li>No major war in 50 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism! </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Schlieffen Plan
  24. 25. German Atrocities in Belgium
  25. 26. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers : Central Powers :
  26. 27. Central Powers Vs. Allied Powers
  27. 28. Europe in 1914
  28. 29. A Multi-Front War
  29. 30. The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
  30. 31. U-Boats
  31. 32. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  32. 33. Machine Guns
  33. 34. Trench Warfare
  34. 35. Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
  35. 36. Poison Gas Machine Gun
  36. 37. Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
  37. 38. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  38. 39. French Renault Tank
  39. 40. British Tank at Ypres
  40. 41. The Airplane “ Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  41. 42. The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “ Red Baron ”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
  42. 43. The Zeppelin
  43. 44. America’s Economy and The Great War
  44. 45. Spies <ul><li>“ Mata Hari” </li></ul><ul><li>Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle </li></ul><ul><li>German Spy! </li></ul>
  45. 46. Posters: Wartime Propaganda
  46. 47. Australian Poster
  47. 48. American Poster
  48. 49. Financing the War
  49. 50. German Poster
  50. 51. Recruitment Posters
  51. 52. Financing the War
  52. 53. For Recruitment
  53. 54. Women and the War Effort
  54. 55. Working in the Fields
  55. 56. Munitions Workers
  56. 57. French Women Factory Workers
  57. 58. A Woman Ambulance Driver
  58. 59. Red Cross Nurses
  59. 60. Women in the Army Auxiliary
  60. 61. Russian Women Soldiers
  61. 62. America Joins the Allies
  62. 63. The Sinking of the Lusitania
  63. 64. The Zimmerman Telegram
  64. 65. A Young Australian Recruit
  65. 66. Financing the War
  66. 67. Recruits of the Central Powers Austro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
  67. 68. New French Recruits
  68. 69. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
  69. 70. The Yanks Are Coming!
  70. 71. Americans in the Trenches
  71. 72. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition ”
  72. 73. A Multi-Front War
  73. 74. The Western Front
  74. 75. Verdun – February, 1916 <ul><li>German offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side had 500,000 casualties. </li></ul>
  75. 76. Sacrifices in War
  76. 77. The Eastern Front
  77. 78. The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
  78. 79. Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  79. 80. T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  80. 81. T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
  81. 82. The Tsar with General Brusilov
  82. 83. The “Colonial” Fronts
  83. 84. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  84. 85. Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  85. 86. Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  86. 87. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  87. 88. “ Art” of World War I
  88. 89. “ A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
  89. 90. “ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
  90. 91. “ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
  91. 92. “ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
  92. 93. “ Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
  93. 94. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
  94. 95. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
  95. 96. 9,000,000 Dead
  96. 97. The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
  97. 98. World War I Casualties
  98. 99. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
  99. 100. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922) 387,800 2,133,190 Total 15,000 73,390 Trapizond District 163,000 194,000 European Turkey 70,000 309,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 27,000 371,800 Western Anatolia     Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey       16,800 225,000 Sivas 56,000 220,000 Bitlis 3,000 124,000 Diarbekir 35,000 204,000 Kharbert 500 197,000 Van 1,500 215,000 Erzerum 1922 1914 Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey

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