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  1. 1. ROME CH. 10
  2. 2. Republic 509 -27 BCE <ul><li>Kings, senators and consuls </li></ul><ul><li>Outline of Roman History pg 248 </li></ul><ul><li>Craze for Greek art sculpture and painting Greece became a Roman province in 146BCE </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscan basis for Roman art was never forgotten </li></ul>
  3. 3. Old Rome
  4. 4. Old Rome
  5. 5. Roman Architecture - CONCRETE <ul><li>Barrel vault also called the tunnel vault </li></ul><ul><li>They could collapse, require buttressing </li></ul>
  6. 6. Groin Vault <ul><li>Intersection of right angles </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust of groin vault is concentrated along the groin, permits light to open, this light Clerestory. (Pronounced Clearstory) </li></ul><ul><li>The walls of which rise above the rooflines of the lower aisles and are pierced with windows. The purpose of the clerestory is to give light to the inner space of a large building. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fenestrated sequence of Groin vaults
  8. 8. Hemispherical Domes <ul><li>Largest one is the treasury at Mycenae. The Romans surpassed them. </li></ul><ul><li>They used concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Oculus on top </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon </li></ul>
  9. 9. Temple of Fortuna Virilis -75BCE <ul><li>Follows Etruscan Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Built based on Etruscan temple plans </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic with flutes ( not like Etruscan) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Temple of Vesta - Tivoli 1 st century BCE <ul><li>Circular plan with Corinthian columns </li></ul><ul><li>use of concrete unlike Greeks </li></ul>
  11. 11. Funerary Reliefs Portraits and society <ul><li>Proud of lineage. </li></ul><ul><li>Likeness of ancestors in wooden cupboards in their homes and paraded them at the funerals of important relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Made fun of if you didn’t have any portraits of your relatives </li></ul>
  12. 12. Funerary Relief of Gessii 30 BCE Marble
  13. 13. Realism in Portraits influence from Greek <ul><li>Head of a Roman patrician – 75-50BCE </li></ul>
  14. 14. Portrait of a Roman General Sanctuary of Hercules 75-50 BCE <ul><li>Old heads on young bodies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Portrait of a Caesar
  16. 16. First Emperor to put himself on a coin <ul><li>Emperor has god? Caesar was the first to do this </li></ul><ul><li>Old, traditional of Roman Portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Outraged people in response </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hadrian’s Villa
  18. 18. Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius <ul><li>August 24, 79 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii and Bay of Naples covered </li></ul><ul><li>Great boon for Art Historians and archeologists </li></ul><ul><li>Bakeries, walls, gardens </li></ul>
  19. 19. Forum <ul><li>Center of city life </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Republican, </li></ul><ul><li>type temple </li></ul><ul><li>Corinthian </li></ul><ul><li>columns </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens conducted daily commerce and held festivals, around the Forum were religious sculptures, including towns administrative offices </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pompeii Amphitheater <ul><li>Two important rich dignitaries had the amphitheater built in 70ad after Pompeii was taken over </li></ul><ul><li>Donors would have the top reserved seats </li></ul><ul><li>Amphitheater means double theater, Greeks never built amphitheaters, Greeks built hillside theaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators, wild animal hunts occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Arena is Latin for “sand” which soaked up the blood of the wounded and killed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pink Floyd practicing in Pompeii
  22. 23. Pompeii Brawl – Wall Ptg 60-79 CE
  23. 24. Townhouses for the wealthy- Atrium of the House of the Vettii ( best preserved house) <ul><li>Roman domestic arch. </li></ul><ul><li>Peristyle garden with its marble tables </li></ul><ul><li>The more the “clients” the rich would have the more of a badge of honor the rich would portray. </li></ul><ul><li>Client would enter the domus( private house </li></ul><ul><li>through a narrow foyer the throat of the house </li></ul><ul><li>Roof over atrium was open to the sky </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Small bedrooms called cubicula </li></ul><ul><li>The back was the tablinum or home office and the dining room or ( triclinium) a kitchen and a garden </li></ul><ul><li>Greek trends would happen </li></ul><ul><li>These houses were not the norm, most people lived in apartments </li></ul>
  25. 26. Atrium of the house of the Vetti
  26. 27. Pompeii House Plan
  27. 28. Roman Shop Plan
  28. 29. House of the Vettii –Pompeii 62-79CE
  29. 30. Roman Wall Painting <ul><li>First Style – in the fauces of the Samnite House </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper, Greek were the first to do this type of painting </li></ul>
  30. 31. 2 nd Style <ul><li>Illusionism </li></ul><ul><li>After 80 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Villa of Mystery Frieze </li></ul><ul><li>Private rites of </li></ul><ul><li>Dionysos. </li></ul><ul><li>Illusionary edge </li></ul>
  31. 32. Cubiculum 50-40bce – 2 nd Style <ul><li>Linear perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Transform windowless walls </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded space in rooms </li></ul>
  32. 33. 2 nd Style
  33. 34. 3 rd Wall Style Painting – The New Style <ul><li>Delicate style </li></ul><ul><li>Monochromatic backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Framed painted “ paintings” </li></ul>
  34. 35. 4 th Style of Roman Painting <ul><li>Crowded, complex styles Rejected 3 rd style of paintings </li></ul>
  35. 36. Portrait of Husband and Wife – Pompeii – 70-70ad
  36. 38. Early Empire <ul><li>March 15 44BCE Murder of Julius Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>13 Years of fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting ended when Augustus came into power, crushed naval forces of Cleopatra and Marc Anthony </li></ul><ul><li>Rome took over Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Old Roman Republic becomes the Early Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus declares himself the first citizen of Rome </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Augustus as General 20 BCE Marble copy </li></ul><ul><li>Polykletos Style </li></ul><ul><li>Cupid </li></ul><ul><li>Lineage to Venus (cupid as her son) </li></ul>
  38. 40. Livia early first century ce
  39. 41. Ara Pacis – Altar of Peace 13-9 BCE <ul><li>Most important achievement of peace </li></ul><ul><li>4 panels of east and west end depict mythological subjects </li></ul>
  40. 42. Procession of the imperial family
  41. 43. Female Personification of Tellus? 13-9 BCE
  42. 44. Rome In France Maison Carree – France 1-10 ce
  43. 45. Pont – du – Gard, France 16BCE
  44. 46. Nero’s Golden House Severus and Celer Plan – Domus Aurea
  45. 47. Colosseum – 70-80CE
  46. 48. Vespasian – 75-79 <ul><li>Portrait of Vespasian </li></ul>
  47. 49. Flavian Bust-90CE
  48. 50. Triumph of Titus – 81 CE <ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>and dark </li></ul>
  49. 51. Arch of Titus, Rome 81CE <ul><li>Domitian erected a arch in Titus honor leading into the Republic Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Corinthian Leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicating inscription to Titus </li></ul><ul><li>Two panels inside </li></ul>
  50. 53. High Empire <ul><li>2 nd Century – Trajan, Hadrian, Antonines </li></ul><ul><li>Height of Power – </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic people of Europe, Berber in Africa, Persians, Near East </li></ul>
  51. 54. Trajan (Domitians)– 98-117 CE <ul><li>Trajan - born in Spain 1 st Non- Italian ruler in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Became very Popular </li></ul><ul><li>Founded colony in Africa 100ce, Town made with great precision </li></ul><ul><li>Addressed as domus et deus ( lord and God) </li></ul>
  52. 55. Apollodorus of Damascus – Forum of Trajan – Italy 112 CE
  53. 56. <ul><li>Temple of Trajan </li></ul><ul><li>Column of Trajan </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Equestrian statue of Trajan </li></ul>
  54. 57. Markets of Trajan 100-112CE <ul><li>Taberna – single shop – light in attic, used for storage </li></ul>
  55. 58. Arch of Trajan – 114 -118 BCE <ul><li>Successful military campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Food to needy children </li></ul><ul><li>Intermingles with divinities </li></ul>
  56. 59. Hadrian 117-138 CE) <ul><li>Trajan’s chosen successor </li></ul><ul><li>Loved Greek art </li></ul><ul><li>Statues set up in his honor </li></ul><ul><li>Tons of statues and busts of Hadrian </li></ul><ul><li>Always shown as a mature adult </li></ul>
  57. 60. Pantheon – Rome 118-125 CE
  58. 61. <ul><li>Coffers </li></ul><ul><li>Oculus </li></ul><ul><li>Dome </li></ul><ul><li>Orb </li></ul><ul><li>How does the dome become lighter </li></ul>
  59. 63. Hadrian’s Villa
  60. 64. Insula – 2 nd Century
  61. 65. The Antonines 138- 192 BCE
  62. 67. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius – 175