Ch. 19 Gothic to Renaissance


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Ch. 19 Gothic to Renaissance

  1. 1. Chapter 19 From Gothic To Renaissance
  2. 2. Renaissance <ul><li>What does Renaissance Mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Italy was divided into many city states – Venice, Florence, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful city states- Naples & Milan </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds are very important </li></ul>
  3. 3. What happened after the middle ages? <ul><li>Black Death approx 25-50 % of European Population is gone </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Death – many hospitals are built </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Schism - Who is the rightful owner of the church?– 40 years of fighting between French and Italian Pope </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism will rise – Roman and Greek lit. and art are of great interest </li></ul>
  4. 4. Berlinghieri – St. Francis altarpiece 1235
  5. 5. Pisano- pulpit of Pisa Cathedral baptistery
  6. 6. Nicola Pisano- Left ( The Annunciation and the Nativity 1259) Giovanni Pisano – Right ( The Annunciation and the Nativity 1297)
  7. 7. Cavallini –Seated Apostles – detail of the Last Judgment –Rome 1291 <ul><li>Roman style of painting </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned Byzantine Style </li></ul><ul><li>Great form </li></ul><ul><li>Light & 3d </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cimabue – Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets 1280 <ul><li>Slender figure </li></ul><ul><li>Project Light </li></ul><ul><li>Throne is deep </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Byzantine Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Gold embellishments </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bondone – Madonna Enthroned 1310ce <ul><li>Naturalistic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Not sure where his influence is from, possibly from Cavallini </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining insight on the world, new way of seeing </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic throne, breaks away from flatness </li></ul>
  10. 10. Arena Chapel - Giotto 1305 <ul><li>Interior of the Arena Chapel – </li></ul><ul><li>A private chapel </li></ul><ul><li>1305-1306 </li></ul><ul><li>Chronicled the lives of the Virgin Mary and Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Barrel Vaulted / 6 windows </li></ul><ul><li>Flat surface </li></ul><ul><li>Chiaroscuro </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lamentation – Giotto - 1305 <ul><li>Hysterical Grief </li></ul><ul><li>Mary cradles her sons body </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Magdalene looks at the wounds of Christ’s feet, St. John throws his arms back dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>Strong diagonal / rocky ledge </li></ul><ul><li>Tree = good and evil </li></ul><ul><li>Depth / light and shade – upper parts of the body have light </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective and first signs of chiaroscuro </li></ul>
  12. 12. Republic of Siena & Florence <ul><li>14 th Century city states – important for art </li></ul><ul><li>People of Siena believed that the Virgin helped them with their victories </li></ul>
  13. 13. Duccio di Buoninsegna – Virgin and Child Enthroned( Altarpiece 1308)
  14. 14. From the Maesta Altarpiece <ul><li>In the Siena cathedral ( high altar) </li></ul><ul><li>Queen of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion ( from Giotto style) </li></ul><ul><li>Soften lines compared to Byzantine style </li></ul><ul><li>The Silk Road </li></ul>
  15. 15. Duccio Buoninsegna Betrayal of Jesus from Maesta Altarpiece1309ce <ul><li>False kiss of Judas </li></ul><ul><li>Disciples fleeing in terror </li></ul><ul><li>Not flat </li></ul><ul><li>International style </li></ul>
  16. 16. Duccio started the Sienese School <ul><li>Simone Martini – pupil of Duccio </li></ul><ul><li>Martini started the International Style- appealed to aristocratic taste because of bold colors and lavish costumes, ornamentation and themes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Martini – and Memmi(?)
  18. 18. Lorenzetti- The Birth of the Virgin 1342 <ul><li>St. Anne laying </li></ul><ul><li>Built for Sienna Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Divided </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion ( St. Anne) </li></ul><ul><li>Midwives wash child, upper class Italian house </li></ul><ul><li>Joachim –waits for delivery </li></ul>
  19. 19. Palazzo Pubblico –Siena 1288 <ul><li>Admiration of Sienas citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Lofty Tower </li></ul><ul><li>Lookout over the city </li></ul><ul><li>Bell rang as different types of situations </li></ul><ul><li>Class struggle, feuds </li></ul><ul><li>High tower avoids most missiles </li></ul>
  20. 20. Effects of Good Gov’t in the city and in the country – Ambrogio Lorenzetti – Sienna 1338 <ul><li>Reminders of what a good city can be like when everyone gets along. Siena was turbulent- fights, violent party struggle, </li></ul><ul><li>Panoramic view of the city palaces, markets, towers, churches, streets and walls. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Florence <ul><li>Economic prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant City State </li></ul><ul><li>Banking operations </li></ul><ul><li>Rich </li></ul><ul><li>Church was planned to hold entire population </li></ul>
  22. 23. Florence Cathedral – Cambio 1296 <ul><li>Old Tuscan style of decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Marble encrusted geometric designs </li></ul><ul><li>Simple geometric </li></ul><ul><li>Nave afterthought in cathedral </li></ul>
  23. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Giotto and Duccio – abandon some of the conventions of medieval art </li></ul><ul><li>Greater illusionism </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger emotional demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism starts </li></ul>