Chapter 3 egyptian art

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Chapter 3 egyptian art

  1. 1. Egyptian Art Chapter 3
  2. 2. Egypt <ul><li>2500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>What is backbone of Egypt? </li></ul><ul><li>Defined cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery in 18 th century ? </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Rosetta Stone </li></ul>
  3. 5. Hierakonpolis – Egypt – Predynastic – 3500 BCE – Paint and Plaster
  4. 6. 1 st Dynasty – Narmer Palette
  5. 7. <ul><li>Creation of Kingdoms of Two Great Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Upper and lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Goddess Hathor </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal bands </li></ul><ul><li>Crown = upper Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Horus- God Protector </li></ul><ul><li>Intertwined animals = unification? Palette of Narmer – Is the beginning of Egyptian laws of representation </li></ul><ul><li>Commemorative rather than funerary </li></ul>
  6. 8. Mastaba - <ul><li>Insure happiness in the afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>Brick with slope </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft connected this chamber w/ outside providing a place for the Ka to leave and come back into the Mastaba. </li></ul><ul><li>What was inside of the Mastaba? </li></ul>
  7. 9. `
  8. 10. What do the Egyptians do to prepare tomb for the afterlife? <ul><li>Embalming the body to keep it intact for as long as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Organs removed </li></ul><ul><li>Canopic Jars </li></ul><ul><li>40 days for salt to dehydrate the body </li></ul><ul><li>Amulets and scarabs with the corpse </li></ul><ul><li>Spells </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness in the afterlife = Goal of the tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Eye of Horus </li></ul>
  9. 11. Stepped Pyramid <ul><li>Imhotep – Royal builder for King Djoser 2630 </li></ul><ul><li>High Priestess </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid had chambers underground and galleries </li></ul><ul><li>North side placement facing Northern Stars </li></ul>
  10. 12. Columnar Entrance to the Mortuary area of Djoser – 2630-2611BCE <ul><li>Resemble Greek Columns </li></ul><ul><li>Emerged into a courtyard </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged columns not freestanding </li></ul>
  11. 13. Mortuary Precinct of Djoser – 2630 BCE –courtyards, temples, courts
  12. 14. The Old Kingdom – Gizeh, Egypt Great Pyramids 2490 BCE Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure <ul><li>Enormous cost </li></ul><ul><li>New style – due to a new type of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols of the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Kings in the Pyramids were -Reborn in the afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone coating </li></ul><ul><li>450 FT </li></ul><ul><li>East side placement – with the rising sun </li></ul><ul><li>Sun rays ramp to the sun </li></ul>
  13. 15. Valley of the Kings
  14. 18. Khafre, - 2520BCE, Diorite, wears a kilt, sitting upright, God Horus, False beard, royal linen headdress, and cobra of kingship. Intertwined lotus and papyrus plants
  15. 19. <ul><li>Menkaure and the Queen, 2490BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Left leg advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Martial Status, How? </li></ul>
  16. 20. Seated Scribe- from his Mastaba – 2450BCE -Limestone <ul><li>Egyptian Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Position of Honor </li></ul><ul><li>Some statues were painted, not all. </li></ul><ul><li>What is a scribe? </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of age? </li></ul>
  17. 21. Ka –Aper – from his Mastaba 2450 BCE –Wood Almost looks alive, on a ground, realism, Saggy stomach
  18. 22. Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in Mastaba of Ti – 2450BCE <ul><li>For adornment of a tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Stems </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian canon of proportions- fixed number of squares </li></ul>
  19. 24. The Middle Kingdom <ul><li>2150 Pharaoh’s power was challenged, the Pharaoh of Upper Egypt Mentuhotep II united Egypt again = Middle Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>What is so different about this face? </li></ul><ul><li>( Fragmentary head of Senusret III, 1860BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Senusret’s tomb was mud brick </li></ul>
  20. 25. Rock cut tombs- Beni Hasan – Egypt -1950BCE Rock cut tombs replaced Mastabas - columned hallways, like Greek columns
  21. 26. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut @ Deir el-Bahri - Egypt- 1473BCE <ul><li>Ramps, colonnades, in natural setting </li></ul><ul><li>Gardens and rare plants would be placed around the tomb area </li></ul><ul><li>Inside art of her coronation and birth </li></ul>
  22. 27. Hatshesput with offering Jars – 1473BCE – Red Granite around 200 sculpture were made of Hatshesput, seen often as a sphinx Portrayed as a male
  23. 28. Ramses <ul><li>Great warrior Pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>Lived longer than any Pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to restore empire </li></ul><ul><li>4 collosal statues stand in front of his Temple façade </li></ul><ul><li>8 times as large as Hatshesput’s statues </li></ul><ul><li>Lack detail </li></ul>
  24. 29. Temple of Ramses II - 1290 – 1124 BCE
  25. 35. Hypostyle Hall- @Karnak, Egypt – 1290-1224 BCE <ul><li>New Kingdom temples often had Hypostyle halls </li></ul>
  26. 37. Senmut with Princess Nefrua 1470BCE <ul><li>Ka may find home in block sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Hatshepsuts (Hat-shep-sutt) chancellor holds the baby girl Princess Nefrua ( Neff-err-roo-ray) </li></ul>
  27. 38. Fowling Scene form the tomb of Nebamun- 1400-BCE <ul><li>Enjoying his afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Wild cat </li></ul><ul><li>Wife and daughter are with him hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Fresco secco ( dry fresco) used to create wall painting. (let plaster dry before painting on it) </li></ul>
  28. 39. Akhenaton and the Amarna Period <ul><li>Nerbamun laid to rest in his tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaoh Akhenaton (1353bce) rises as Pharoah </li></ul><ul><li>He abandoned worshipping Egyptian Gods for just one God. </li></ul><ul><li>Emptied temples of gods </li></ul><ul><li>Worshipped in art as a sun disk or a animal </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Revolution </li></ul>
  29. 41. Akhenaton – Karnak – Egypt 1353 BCE <ul><li>Profound changes in art happened during his rule </li></ul><ul><li>Went against established style? </li></ul>
  30. 42. Queen Nefertiti- 1353, Limestone Found in Thutmose’s workshop, unfinished
  31. 43. Queen Tiye – 1353BCe- wood with gold and silver <ul><li>Lines in her face </li></ul><ul><li>Influential </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy set eyes, lips painted red </li></ul><ul><li>headband </li></ul>
  32. 44. Akhenaton, Nefertiti and 3 daughters – 1353BCE <ul><li>Life giving rays of the god Aton </li></ul><ul><li>Family picture </li></ul>
  33. 45. King Tut 1333-1323 <ul><li>Most likely Akhenatons son by a minor wife </li></ul><ul><li>3 coffins </li></ul><ul><li>Beaten gold, inlaid with stones, lapis lazuli, turquoise </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait Mask </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian power and pride </li></ul>
  34. 46. Book of Dead in Hu-Nefer’s Tomb – 1290BCE <ul><li>Cult of Osiris – spells and prayers, 70 ft. of spells, prayers, texts </li></ul>

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