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Chapter 2 – Near East
Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Human, no longer a hunter gatherer </li></ul><ul><li>Now a farmer and herder </li></ul><ul><l...
Sumerian Gov’t Layout  <ul><li>City States </li></ul><ul><li>Each state is under the protection of a different Mesopotamia...
Uruk – White Temple  <ul><li>Sumerians built towering stepped platforms of mud bricks called Ziggurats w/ a temple on a 50...
White Temple and Ziggurat  –  Uruk – Iraq 3200-3000BCE
Inanna? Uruk    Iraq 3200-3000 BC Goddess of Love & War <ul><li>Hard stone </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly attached to wood </l...
Warka Vase –  Alabaster – Hard stone 3200-3000BCE <ul><li>Depicts a religious festival to honor a goddess </li></ul><ul><l...
Statuettes of Two Worshippers from the Square Temple   @ Eshnunna – Iraq – 2700 BCE <ul><li>Found under the floors </li></...
Standard of UR-  War & Peace 2600BCE <ul><li>Spoils of War and success in farming, brought considerable wealth to some of ...
Cylinder Seals
Akkadian/ Neo Sumerian/ Babylonian & Hittite Art <ul><li>Saragon of Akkad </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Head – 2250-2200BCE </l...
Naram- Sin – 2254- 2218 <ul><li>Godlike sovereignty of Akkaid – Victory stele </li></ul><ul><li>Grandson of Sargon –  </li...
Ziggurat – 2100BCE Largest Ziggurat of UR- <ul><li>Mud brick solid mass </li></ul><ul><li>Lad in bitumen – sticky substanc...
 
Seated – Gudea 2100BCE <ul><li>Seated or standing </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed in a long garment </li></ul><ul><li>Diorite </...
Law Code of Hammurabi- 1780BCE <ul><li>Sumer Resurgence – short lived </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized gov’t formed – Mesopot...
Babylon Empire sacked by Hittite <ul><li>Babylonians leave Hitties then leave behind strong city walls behind </li></ul><u...
Middle Elamite and Assyrian Art  <ul><li>This city is state in the bible (Elam) </li></ul><ul><li>Elamites take the Hammur...
Statue of Queen Napir- Asu – 1350Bce <ul><li>Queen wife of powerful Elamite kings  </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><l...
Assyrian Fortress Palaces -Citadel of Sargon II 720-705BCE <ul><li>City walls – fears of outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>25 ac...
Lamassu – 720Bce
<ul><li>Winged man -headed bulls ward off kings enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Monster has 5 legs </li></ul><ul><li>A quarter v...
 
Assyrian archers pursuing enemies – relief from the NW palace of Ashurnaisrpal II – 875 -860bce <ul><li>Archers and huntin...
 
Ashurbanipal Hunting lions – Iraq – @ Ashurnasirpal II Palace 645-640BCE <ul><li>Clear story telling </li></ul><ul><li>Kin...
Ishtar Gate
<ul><li>Glazed bricks, molded reliefs of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Real and imaginary </li></ul><ul><li>Nebuchadnezzar II ...
Conclusion <ul><li>Birth of civilization/urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul><ul><li>Monumental art, portraits ...
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Chapter 2 – Near East

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Transcript of "Chapter 2 – Near East "

  1. 1. Chapter 2 – Near East
  2. 2. Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Human, no longer a hunter gatherer </li></ul><ul><li>Now a farmer and herder </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia – core of a region called </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, Syria & Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Humans learned how to use the plow and wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Three BIG faiths emerged Judaism, Christianity & Islam </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sumerian Gov’t Layout <ul><li>City States </li></ul><ul><li>Each state is under the protection of a different Mesopotamian Deity. </li></ul><ul><li>City planning and Religion- Sumerian City Plan reflected role of local god in the daily life of the occupants </li></ul>
  4. 4. Uruk – White Temple <ul><li>Sumerians built towering stepped platforms of mud bricks called Ziggurats w/ a temple on a 50 foot man made mound with a city around it </li></ul><ul><li>Could not hold many worshippers </li></ul><ul><li>Central hall was set for deity </li></ul><ul><li>The Sumerian idea that gods reside above the world of humans is central to most of the worlds religions </li></ul>
  5. 5. White Temple and Ziggurat – Uruk – Iraq 3200-3000BCE
  6. 6. Inanna? Uruk Iraq 3200-3000 BC Goddess of Love & War <ul><li>Hard stone </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly attached to wood </li></ul><ul><li>Probably had more items attached to her head- a wig, jewels and fabrics </li></ul>
  7. 7. Warka Vase – Alabaster – Hard stone 3200-3000BCE <ul><li>Depicts a religious festival to honor a goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Blessing from deity </li></ul><ul><li>Crops, water, male, female </li></ul><ul><li>Frieze ( 3 sections) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates a point, showing Conceptual Representation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Statuettes of Two Worshippers from the Square Temple @ Eshnunna – Iraq – 2700 BCE <ul><li>Found under the floors </li></ul><ul><li>Praying </li></ul><ul><li>Man and woman </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting for a deity to appear </li></ul><ul><li>Child like </li></ul><ul><li>Simple forms, cylinders, inlaid eyes with shells </li></ul><ul><li>Approx 3 feet high </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes larger than hands </li></ul>
  9. 9. Standard of UR- War & Peace 2600BCE <ul><li>Spoils of War and success in farming, brought considerable wealth to some of the city – states in ancient Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>3 Horizontal bands reads from left to right </li></ul><ul><li>War side – Donkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Stripped soldiers, prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>King figure centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying booty – victory and celebration </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cylinder Seals
  11. 11. Akkadian/ Neo Sumerian/ Babylonian & Hittite Art <ul><li>Saragon of Akkad </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Head – 2250-2200BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate mutilation </li></ul><ul><li>Gouged eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Slashed ears </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism and abstract patterns </li></ul>
  12. 12. Naram- Sin – 2254- 2218 <ul><li>Godlike sovereignty of Akkaid – Victory stele </li></ul><ul><li>Grandson of Sargon – </li></ul><ul><li>Grandson leads his victorious army up the slopes of a wooded mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Routed enemies fall, die and beg for mercy </li></ul><ul><li>King is alone and larger </li></ul><ul><li>Naram -sin scaling ladder to heavens </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ziggurat – 2100BCE Largest Ziggurat of UR- <ul><li>Mud brick solid mass </li></ul><ul><li>Lad in bitumen – sticky substance binds together </li></ul><ul><li>Temple stairs </li></ul><ul><li>Resurgence of Sumer </li></ul>
  14. 15. Seated – Gudea 2100BCE <ul><li>Seated or standing </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed in a long garment </li></ul><ul><li>Diorite </li></ul>
  15. 16. Law Code of Hammurabi- 1780BCE <ul><li>Sumer Resurgence – short lived </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized gov’t formed – Mesopotamia, Babylon. </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi, famous for his conquests and his Law code </li></ul><ul><li>Penalties for everything </li></ul><ul><li>Black Basalt stele </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi is with Shamash the sun god </li></ul><ul><li>Fore shortening- god at a angle </li></ul>
  16. 17. Babylon Empire sacked by Hittite <ul><li>Babylonians leave Hitties then leave behind strong city walls behind </li></ul><ul><li>Very different from the brick arch that was common in Babylonian art </li></ul><ul><li>Lions = guardians (7 ft) </li></ul><ul><li>Trend of protecting area with a magical beast or monster( like in Egypt, Greece) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Middle Elamite and Assyrian Art <ul><li>This city is state in the bible (Elam) </li></ul><ul><li>Elamites take the Hammurabi and Naram – sins steles, re-erect them in city of Susa – King Ashurbanipal destroys Elamin 641Bce </li></ul><ul><li>Elamin would rise again as Persian empire </li></ul>
  18. 19. Statue of Queen Napir- Asu – 1350Bce <ul><li>Queen wife of powerful Elamite kings </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Curse written on statue </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>-cylindrical </li></ul><ul><li>Strict frontality </li></ul><ul><li>Firm crossed hand </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine softness </li></ul>
  19. 20. Assyrian Fortress Palaces -Citadel of Sargon II 720-705BCE <ul><li>City walls – fears of outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>25 acres- 200 courtyards </li></ul><ul><li>Giant figures of the king </li></ul><ul><li>Guard rooms, service quarters, 7 stories?, ramp spiraled around building </li></ul><ul><li>Built -2000 yrs after Temple of Uruk </li></ul>
  20. 21. Lamassu – 720Bce
  21. 22. <ul><li>Winged man -headed bulls ward off kings enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Monster has 5 legs </li></ul><ul><li>A quarter view </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual not optical </li></ul><ul><li>High relief, partially in the round </li></ul>
  22. 24. Assyrian archers pursuing enemies – relief from the NW palace of Ashurnaisrpal II – 875 -860bce <ul><li>Archers and hunting were depicted in art to display an important part of power and piety </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield victories and slaying of wild animals </li></ul>
  23. 26. Ashurbanipal Hunting lions – Iraq – @ Ashurnasirpal II Palace 645-640BCE <ul><li>Clear story telling </li></ul><ul><li>King, hunting – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ancientreplicas.com/ashurbanipal-hunting.html </li></ul>
  24. 27. Ishtar Gate
  25. 28. <ul><li>Glazed bricks, molded reliefs of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Real and imaginary </li></ul><ul><li>Nebuchadnezzar II – restored Babylon to its rank of a great city </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging gardens and enormous Ziggurat ( Tower of Babel) were created </li></ul>
  26. 29. Conclusion <ul><li>Birth of civilization/urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Temples </li></ul><ul><li>Monumental art, portraits of rules, etc </li></ul>
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