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Chapter 11 Christitan art
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Chapter 11 Christitan art

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  • 1. Religion
    • One God was favored more opposed to polytheistic beliefs
    • Defy 2 nd commandment of making false images?
    • Late Roman Empire style
    • Diocletian ordered persecutions of Christians
    • Christians were often the most impoverished classes of society
  • 2. 245 -256 Dura – Europos, Syria Interior of Dura Europas – Baptismal Rites and ceremonies were held here
  • 3.
    • Second hand house
    • Christian communities small at this time
    • Diocletian persecuted Christians 303-305
    • Romans hated the Christians because of their alien beliefs
    • Romans afraid of wakening imperial authority
    • Constantine stopped persecutions
  • 4. Catacombs/ funerary art
    • Art found in catacombs
    • Buried Martyrs
    • Housed Jews and others
    • Tufa bedrock, like Etruscans
  • 5. The Good Shepherd , the story of Jonah and Orants
  • 6.
    • Christ and his sheep/lunettes, man and woman
    • Connections of sheep to Etruscans, calf bearer offered his sheep to Athena
    • Lost sheep symbolizes those who have “strayed” and been “rescued”
    • Old Testament theme
    • Jonah was an early popular figure in Christian art, prophetic forerunner of Christ. Jonah rose from death as Jonah had been delivered from the belly of the Ketos, also three days.
  • 7. Sculpture
    • Christians reject cremation
    • Impressive Sarcophagi important
    • Story on Sarcophagus Christian themes
    • Story of Jonah- portraits added later when the deceased died
    • Good Shepherd and as a child receiving baptism in the Jordan River ( Christ was baptized at age 30)
  • 8. Sarcophagus with Philosopher – old and new Testament Scenes 270 ce Santa Maria Antiqua
  • 9. Wealthy Christians continued to favor the sarcophagus for burial but had them carved with Christian themes and biblical subject matter. Free-standing Christian statues are rare at this time. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus – Rome 359CE
  • 10.
    • Christ is central on the tomb
    • Saints Peter and Paul enter Jerusalem on a donkey
    • Carving very similar to Roman Art
    • Christ is like an enthroned Roman Emperor. Christ’s position is a symbol of the Christian god dominating the pagan
    • Ruler of the universe
    • Stories are not in order
  • 11. Marble Christian Sculptures
    • Less than 3 feet tall
    • The sculptures are like the bearded Roman philosophers of advanced age
    • Christ wears an tunic and a has a scroll in his hand
    • Real monumental sculpture was done during this time
  • 12. Christ Seated from Civita Latina Italy 350-375ce
    • -Idol of Christ
    • Very similar to a young Apollo sculpture
    • Greco- Roman
  • 13. Constantine’s Thinking
    • Constantine convinced himself that the Christian god had guided him to achieve victory.
    • 1 st major patron of Christian architecture Created elaborate basilicas, memorials and mausoleums not only in Rome but in Constantinople or “New Rome”
    • Bethlehem, and Jerusalem both important cities
  • 14. Two Types of Architecture Prevailed
    • Both inspired by Roman archcitecture
    • -Centrally planned and axially planned buildings
    • Wooden roofs
  • 15. Constantine and Old St. Peters 320 AD
    • Dual Role as Emperor of Rome and champion of Christian Faith
    • -Begun in 320ad
    • - Catacombs exist underneath the church
    • -3000-4000 worshippers could fit in the church
    • -Like Trajan’s Forum
    • -Places of worship can not mimic pagan shrines
    • -columns are spoils from Roman buildings
    • Bare exterior and Rich interior
    • -Jewish Tradition – men and women stood separately – Men stood in the main aisle, the women in the side aisles with partial view
  • 16. Reproduction Drawing of Old St. Peters
  • 17. Old St Peters Rome – 320 ce
  • 18. Old St. Peters - Resembles Trajan’s Forum, do not mimic pagan shrines / Triumphal arch dividing the nave from transept
  • 19. Santa Costanza, Rome 337 – 351AD
  • 20.
    • Centrally Planned building, used as a mausoleum
    • This building may have been used for Costantina, Emperor Constantine’s Daughter.
    • Mosaics inside, putti harvesting grapes and producing wine. Christian message of turning wine into the blood of Christ
  • 21. Mosaics are located in the interior of Santa Costanza
  • 22. Christ as Sol Invictus or the Invincible sun
  • 23. Abraham and Lot – 432CE
    • The mosaic is about Abraham parting with lot
    • Lot leads his city to Sodom, represents evil
    • Abraham leads his people/family to the city of Sodom ( or the church) Issac stands near Abraham
    • Headcluster
    • Wide eyes
    • Shadow casting
  • 24. Ravenna
    • Constantinople, the New Rome in the East were had been settled since 324
    • Constantine dies in 337
    • Theodosius I secures Christianity as the state religion.
    • Theodosius dies in 395, his two sons take over and split up west and east rule
    • Northwest is threatened by Visigoths, empires start to crumble between the brothers
    • Their half sister takes over and marries a Visigoth Chieftain, she moves to Ravenna after he dies.Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths, establishes Ravenna. The city that belongs with the Byzantine Empire
  • 25. Mausoleum of Galla Placida
    • -Built before her death in 450
    • -Historians are unsure of if it is Galla’s Tomb
    • Chapel to St. Lawrence?
    • Fusion of central plan and axial plan
    • Exterior is plain( gross) facade
    • Minimal windows
    • Iconographic program stresses a Christian’s path to redemption
  • 26. Christ as the Good Shepherd, Entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia 425ce
    • Regal version of Christ
    • Christ as imperial, golden halo, purple and gold robes, imperial staff
    • Golden cross shows Christ’s victory over death
    • Shadows
    • Pagan interpretation
    • Greco – Roman
  • 27. Interior– San’t Apollinare – Ravenna Italy, 504
    • Theodoric ordered San’t Apollinare building project
    • Rich Mosaic decorations
    • Old Testament stories between clerestory windows
  • 28. Miracle of the loaves and fishes,( above clerestory windows) 504
    • Very simple, to create meaning
    • Gold screen,
    • Small amounts of Roman Illusionism still present
    • Disciples hand out fish and bread
  • 29. Surprise Essay - #1