Ch. 33 Modern art

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Ch. 33 Modern art

  1. 1. Modern Art Chapter 33
  2. 2. What were some of the Developments in the 20 th century? <ul><li>Technology e = mc 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Revolution/ Enlightment </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins, discoveries, radar televisions, cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Atom bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy, Psychology – Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Capitalism </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Wars and major events Happened in the 20 th Century ? <ul><li>WW I and the Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>WW 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution and the avant - Garde <ul><li>Post Impressionism and Impression was happening before the time of the Fauvists </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fauvism – wild beast = Intense color, reflect feelings, used awkward color combos <ul><li>German, Parisian - Expressionism of 1910 to Abstract Expressionist in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Matisse is the leader </li></ul><ul><li>French Academy and the Salon </li></ul><ul><li>Woman w/ a Hat – 1905 By Matisse </li></ul>
  6. 6. Matisse - Red Room 1908
  7. 7. Die Brucke – The Bridge <ul><li>German artists explored expressionist ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Ludwig Kirchner – Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Street, Dresden 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>Zombie Like, German City before WW1 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Emil Nolde- Saint Mary of Egypt -1912 <ul><li>Joined Die Brucke 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Figures, </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion of form and color </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive brush strokes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Der Blaue Reiter
  10. 11. Cubism early 1900s <ul><li>Picasso – Challenged every medium </li></ul><ul><li>Realism to Cubism - ex .Cezanne </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Empires expansion into India and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Iberian Sculptures </li></ul>
  11. 12. Gertrude Stein – 1906 Iberian Sculptures -
  12. 13. Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon - 1907
  13. 14. Braque – The Portuguese , 1911 <ul><li>Hues </li></ul><ul><li>Palette </li></ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Light and shadow? </li></ul><ul><li>Clues? </li></ul><ul><li>Stenciled letters </li></ul><ul><li>Chiaroscuro </li></ul>
  14. 15. Delaunay – Champs de Mars - 1911
  15. 16. Picasso – Still life – 1912 Synthetic Cubism
  16. 17. Braque – Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass -1913
  17. 18. Picasso – Maquette for Guitar
  18. 19. Archipenko – Woman Combing her hair - 1915
  19. 20. Futurism <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>New materials </li></ul><ul><li>War is a cleansing agent of the world </li></ul>
  20. 21. Balla
  21. 22. Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913 <ul><li>Blur of movement </li></ul>
  22. 23. Severini – Armored Train - 1915 <ul><li>Artistically and politically captures the Futurist ideals </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers shooting </li></ul><ul><li>Omit death and destruction </li></ul>
  23. 24. WW I - 1916 <ul><li>Mass Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>New technology, more death </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Trenches – psychological warfare </li></ul>
  24. 25. DADA <ul><li>Gathered artists who thought the war was pointless </li></ul><ul><li>NY & Zurich </li></ul><ul><li>Paris, Berlin and Cologne </li></ul><ul><li>A mind set not a single style </li></ul><ul><li>-Psychoanalytical style </li></ul>
  25. 26. Duchamp and Man Ray 1920s
  26. 27. Surrealists -1930
  27. 28. Duchamp –Fountain 1917
  28. 29. Berlin Dadaists <ul><li>Photomontage </li></ul><ul><li>Composition by pasting together pieces of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Or cubists calling it a collage </li></ul><ul><li>Hannah Hoch- absurd chaotic, contradictory </li></ul><ul><li>Titled Piece – Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany “ 1919 </li></ul>
  29. 30. Kurt Schwitters - <ul><li>Liked Cubists Collage </li></ul><ul><li>Worked non –objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Looked through trash bins for materials </li></ul><ul><li>Merz 19 </li></ul>
  30. 31. Americans and the arts <ul><li>Artists went over to Europe brought back what they learned in Europe.(ex. Sarget, Whistler) </li></ul><ul><li>The group the “8” </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Robert Henri, urged artists to make pictures from life, created the rapidly changing landscape of NYC. </li></ul><ul><li>8= Ashcan school </li></ul><ul><li>(ugly) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Armory Show <ul><li>1913 –Large scale </li></ul><ul><li>1600 works from American and European artists </li></ul><ul><li>Matisse, Picasso, Braque, Duchamp, Kandinksy and Kirchner </li></ul>
  32. 33. Duchamp –Nude Descending a Staircase -1912 <ul><li>NY TIMES describes the show as “pathological” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Menace to public morality” </li></ul><ul><li>“ An explosion in a shingle factory” </li></ul><ul><li>Monochromatic palette =? </li></ul>
  33. 34. Jean Arp – Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance <ul><li>Chance </li></ul><ul><li>Tired of collages </li></ul><ul><li>Dropping the paper </li></ul>
  34. 35. Photography & Alfred Steigiltz 1907 <ul><li>Gallery 291 </li></ul><ul><li>Straight un-manipulated photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental photographs </li></ul><ul><li>The Steerage </li></ul>
  35. 36. Weston -
  36. 37. Man Ray – La Cadeau Dada
  37. 38. Marsden Hartley – Portrait of a German Officer <ul><li>Followed Cubism </li></ul><ul><li>Array of German military items </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to his friend a German officer </li></ul>
  38. 39. Aaron Douglas – Noah’s Ark <ul><li>Used flat planes </li></ul><ul><li>Monochromatic </li></ul><ul><li>Depict African Americans </li></ul>
  39. 40. Precisionism 1915-1930 <ul><li>American’s loved the artwork from the Armory Show </li></ul><ul><li>Avante Garde Art </li></ul><ul><li>This group did not exhibit together </li></ul><ul><li>Very individualized </li></ul>
  40. 41. Demuth – My Egypt -1927 <ul><li>Reduced subjects to simple shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed up planes </li></ul><ul><li>Like a Egyptian Pyramid </li></ul>
  41. 42. O ‘ Keefe – NY Night- 1929
  42. 43. <ul><li>O’Keefe – moved from a small town to NYC in 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>NYC is complex she thought </li></ul><ul><li>Steiglitz was her supporter and Husband </li></ul><ul><li>She reduced forms </li></ul><ul><li>Used basic colors, abstract </li></ul>
  43. 44. Europe and WW I New Sachickeit – Or New Objectivity <ul><li>Grew out of Vets from WW I </li></ul><ul><li>To portray a present clean eyed direct and honest image of the war and its effects </li></ul><ul><li>Used experiences in his own life in his work </li></ul>
  44. 45. George Grosz <ul><li>Anti war – associated w/ Dada in Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh and Bitter </li></ul><ul><li>Depicted German Military as heartless and Bitter </li></ul>
  45. 46. Beckmann –Night 1918-1919 <ul><li>He Rationalized war at first over time mass destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Work them soon reflected the horrors of war and society </li></ul><ul><li>Horrifying commenting on the status of a society </li></ul><ul><li>3 invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Images savageness = paint strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Woman Raped, son being captured </li></ul>
  46. 47. Otto Dix – The War 1929-1939
  47. 48. Kollwitz – Woman and Dead Child
  48. 49. Barlach – War Monument
  49. 50. Surrealism - <ul><li>Power of the Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li> offspring of Dada </li></ul><ul><li>Godfather – Andre Breton </li></ul><ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Automatism – psychic </li></ul>
  50. 51. De Chirico Melancholy and Mystery of a Street – 1914 <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Empty </li></ul><ul><li>Nietzsche </li></ul>
  51. 52. Ernst – Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale - 1924 <ul><li>A window into a real scene </li></ul><ul><li>Followed rules of linear and aerial perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle of words and images </li></ul><ul><li>Frottage </li></ul>
  52. 53. Dali – The Persistence of Memory 1931 <ul><li>Amphorus Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled brush strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted </li></ul>
  53. 54. Magritte – The Treachery of Images -1928 <ul><li>Shocks </li></ul><ul><li>Does it make sense? </li></ul>
  54. 55. Oppenheim <ul><li>Fur Lined Cup -1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by a conversation with Picasso </li></ul><ul><li>Surrealism flair </li></ul>
  55. 56. Frida Kahlo – The Two Frida’s- 1939 <ul><li>Psychic & Psych. issues she dealt with </li></ul><ul><li>Distanced herself from the Surrealist Group </li></ul><ul><li>Husband – Diego Riveria </li></ul>
  56. 57. Miro – Painting -1933 <ul><li>Automatism </li></ul><ul><li>(the creation of art w/o creative control) </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucination, fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Amoebic Organisms </li></ul>
  57. 58. Constructivism or Suprematism <ul><li>Russians – had a long history of cultural contact and interaction with the west </li></ul><ul><li>Russians exposed to Fauvism, Cubism and Futurism </li></ul><ul><li>Pure feeling in art – “ He feels, does not touch” </li></ul>
  58. 59. Malevich – Suprematism Composition : Airplane Flying <ul><li>Pure language, shape and color </li></ul><ul><li>Welcomed the Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>-wipe out past traditions and begin with new culture </li></ul>
  59. 60. Naum Gabo – The Constructivist <ul><li>Called himself a Constructivist because he built his sculptures, piece by piece </li></ul><ul><li>Motion in work </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of Mass & Space </li></ul>
  60. 61. Monument to the 3 rd International – 1919 - Talin <ul><li>Honored Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Glass, rotating chambers </li></ul><ul><li>News center for Russian People </li></ul>
  61. 62. All These artists believed they could create a Technological Utopia <ul><li>1. Communist Party said art must be functional </li></ul><ul><li>Propagandistic for the people </li></ul><ul><li>Non conforming artists got sent to camp </li></ul>
  62. 63. De Stijl Founded by Mondrian & Theo van Doesberg <ul><li>Holland - More Utopian Views </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of a new age during WW I </li></ul><ul><li>Artists reduced vocab to simple geometric shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is obj. in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Used to create harmonious composition </li></ul>
  63. 64. Mondrian –De Stijl <ul><li>Vitality –life </li></ul><ul><li>Tranquility – peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Completes rhythm = balance, each one is different </li></ul><ul><li>No reference to nature </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><li>Style = modern art during the time 1930 </li></ul>
  64. 65. Rietveld –Schroder House <ul><li>Cabinet maker made & De Stijl Furnishings throughout his career </li></ul><ul><li>New arch is anti cubic </li></ul><ul><li>Open plan </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating walls </li></ul><ul><li>Used primary colors and flat planes like a Mondrian Ptg </li></ul>
  65. 66. The Bauhaus <ul><li>Gropius – vision of total arch </li></ul><ul><li>Utopian </li></ul><ul><li>His goal was to train artists, architects and designers. To accept and anticipate 20 th century needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Needed to produce Graduates who would could design for the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted unity of art, arch and design </li></ul><ul><li>No boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Hired most innovative & avant-garde thinkers to teach at the Bauhaus </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>GOAL = CLEAN DESIGN & High Tech </li></ul><ul><li>Did not like Ornamental & Historic </li></ul>
  67. 68. Moholy – Nagy – From the Radio Tower Berlin <ul><li>Art should be all encompassing </li></ul><ul><li>Produced ptgs, photos, special effects for art and film </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical aerial viewpoint presents the viewer w/new formal patterns and visual perspectives –more common with flight </li></ul>
  68. 69. Josef Albers <ul><li>Worked in Bauhaus glass & furniture shops. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Edge Ptr </li></ul><ul><li>Varies hue and color </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessed with color </li></ul>
  69. 70. Gropius –Shop Block <ul><li>Bauhaus moved, Hostility from German Government </li></ul><ul><li>- positive attitude to the living environment of vehicles and machines </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity in complexity, economy in the use of space, materials, time and money </li></ul>
  70. 71. Gunta Stolzl- <ul><li>Emphasis on geometric patterns </li></ul>
  71. 72. Mies van Der Rohe – Model for Glass Skyscraper - 1922 <ul><li>Mies van der Rohe took over leadership of Bauhaus </li></ul><ul><li>“ LESS is More” </li></ul><ul><li>Bold use of glass </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton </li></ul>
  72. 73. Degenerate Art <ul><li>Public Ridicule & Political persecution </li></ul><ul><li>19 th Century art was ideal in Aryan Art </li></ul><ul><li>16,000 artworks were considered degenerate </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Otto Dix, Franz Marc, Piet Mondrian </li></ul>
  73. 74. International Style <ul><li>Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe </li></ul><ul><li>Puritians of style </li></ul><ul><li>Le Corbusier- influential arch. Modern living </li></ul>
  74. 75. Le Corbusier – Domino House Project-1914 <ul><li>Domino House Project structure </li></ul><ul><li>Sun, space, vegetarian, insulation </li></ul>
  75. 76. Art Deco – 1920-1930s <ul><li>Popular taste </li></ul><ul><li>Deco sought to upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Everything was deco – utensils, fashion , Jewelry, etc </li></ul>
  76. 77. Chrysler Building – William van Alen -1928 <ul><li>Elongated symmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Hard patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Simple forms </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz air flair </li></ul>
  77. 78. Natural Architecture -Frank Lloyd Wright <ul><li>Cross Axial plan </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity in mind </li></ul><ul><li>No posts no columns </li></ul><ul><li>Clean cut shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Aztec </li></ul><ul><li>Designed every detail </li></ul><ul><li>Cantilevered </li></ul><ul><li>“ belongs to the hill” </li></ul>
  78. 79. Organic Sculpture <ul><li>Brancusi – Natural or Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Bird in Space, 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Like the egg, the pebble </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced to smooth surfaces </li></ul>
  79. 80. Henry Moore <ul><li>Every material works differently </li></ul><ul><li>Material works and play </li></ul>
  80. 82. Calder <ul><li>Kinetic Art </li></ul><ul><li>Miro Influenced </li></ul>
  81. 83. Art as a Political Statement- Picasso – Guernica 1937 Nazi Bombing – air raid
  82. 84. Lange – Migrant Mother -1935 <ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury Relief art Project & WPA </li></ul>
  83. 85. Hopper – Nighthawks - 1942
  84. 86. Lawrence – Migration of the Negro – NO. 49 <ul><li>Harlem, NY </li></ul><ul><li>African and art and history </li></ul><ul><li>Exodus of blk labor from Southern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusioned with their lives in the south, Black culture moved from the South </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences of migrating people </li></ul><ul><li>Dining area -Cubist </li></ul>
  85. 87. - Regionalism- Grant Wood – American Gothic 1930 <ul><li>Turned attention to rural life instead of city </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on American subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Neat house </li></ul><ul><li>American Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of avant garde style </li></ul>
  86. 88. Thomas Hart Benton <ul><li>Missouri – rural scenes </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Complex compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidity </li></ul>
  87. 89. Diego Rivera – Ancient Mexico History of Mexico Frescos
  88. 90. Modern to Post Modern <ul><li>WWII Global Devastion </li></ul><ul><li>1945 Hiroshima & Nagaski Nuclear WAR!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption and Upheaval – British left India </li></ul><ul><li>Us emerged relatively unscathed from WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights struggles on University Campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam War – Rebellion of young Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual revolution </li></ul>
  89. 91. Francis Bacon <ul><li>Existentialism </li></ul><ul><li>Art world shifts- Paris to NY American Clement Greenberg says to embrace abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Promote avante garde </li></ul><ul><li>35mil dead in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon- Reflection of war butchery </li></ul><ul><li>Based photos on war Nazi Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Umbrella- Neville Chamberlain – Brit Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Remake Violence </li></ul>
  90. 93. Dubuffet <ul><li>encrusted tortured world </li></ul><ul><li>Used Impasto – thick pigment, plaster, glue, sand asphalt and scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Art of children, mentally ill are the most genuine </li></ul>
  91. 94. Giacometti – Men Pointing -1947
  92. 95. Gestural Abstraction & Chromatic Abstraction <ul><li>Relied on the expressiveness of energetic applied pigment. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatic abstraction – focused on colors </li></ul>
  93. 96. Pollock – Number 1- 1950 <ul><li>Action Ptg </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract Expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>NY School 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic patterns splatters </li></ul><ul><li>Jack the “Dripper” </li></ul>
  94. 97. Willem De Koonig – Woman I - 1950 <ul><li>Gestural brush strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Slashing lines </li></ul><ul><li>Female models – advertising billboards </li></ul><ul><li>What is Beauty? </li></ul><ul><li>Agitated patches of color </li></ul>
  95. 98. Rothko-No.14 1960 <ul><li>2 or 3 rectangles of pure color </li></ul><ul><li>Color doorway to another reality </li></ul><ul><li>Formal elements no figures </li></ul><ul><li>Raises emotions </li></ul>
  96. 99. David Smith – Cubi XIX-1964 <ul><li>1930 David saw Picasso’s sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Created monolith sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Only outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Homage to Cubism </li></ul>
  97. 100. Post Painterly Abstraction
  98. 101. Minimal Art = <ul><li>Ptrs emphasized flatness </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptors focus on 3-d as the unique characteristic and limitations </li></ul><ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Clean simple bare </li></ul><ul><li>Technique – machine made </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning? – You are the judge </li></ul>
  99. 102. Minimal Art Tony – Die - 1962
  100. 103. Donald Judd <ul><li>1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract, absolute minimum </li></ul>
  101. 104. Maya Lin - Vietnam War Memorial 1981-1983
  102. 105. Nevelson – Sky Cathedral - 1957 <ul><li>Dada and Surrealism influence </li></ul><ul><li>Readymade objects </li></ul>
  103. 106. Bourgeois – Cumul I <ul><li>Heads protruding </li></ul><ul><li>More personal </li></ul><ul><li>Bare </li></ul>
  104. 107. Pop Art -1950s Start <ul><li>Taken from Modern Consumer Mass Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising, comic books and movies </li></ul>
  105. 108. Richard Hamilton – Just What is it that Makes Today’s Homes so Different, So Appealing? -1956
  106. 109. Pop Art – Jasper Johns -
  107. 110. Lichtenstein – Hopeless - 1963
  108. 111. Warhol
  109. 112. Warhol -
  110. 113. Warhol
  111. 114. Superrealism Flack - Marilyn
  112. 115. Chuck Close <ul><li>Superrealism </li></ul><ul><li>Post modernism </li></ul><ul><li>1967 </li></ul>
  113. 116. Christo - <ul><li>Aware of space </li></ul>
  114. 117. Frank Lloyd Wright – Guggenheim Museum -1959

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