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Ch. 33 Modern art

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  • 1. Modern Art Chapter 33
  • 2. What were some of the Developments in the 20 th century?
    • Technology e = mc 2
    • Scientific Revolution/ Enlightment
    • Proteins, discoveries, radar televisions, cinema
    • Atom bomb
    • Philosophy, Psychology – Jung
    • Industrial Capitalism
  • 3. What Wars and major events Happened in the 20 th Century ?
    • WW I and the Russian Revolution
    • WW 2
    • Hitler
    • Vietnam
    • The Great Depression
  • 4. Evolution and the avant - Garde
    • Post Impressionism and Impression was happening before the time of the Fauvists
  • 5. Fauvism – wild beast = Intense color, reflect feelings, used awkward color combos
    • German, Parisian - Expressionism of 1910 to Abstract Expressionist in 1940
    • Matisse is the leader
    • French Academy and the Salon
    • Woman w/ a Hat – 1905 By Matisse
  • 6. Matisse - Red Room 1908
  • 7. Die Brucke – The Bridge
    • German artists explored expressionist ideas
    • Ludwig Kirchner – Leader
    • Street, Dresden 1908
    • Zombie Like, German City before WW1
  • 8. Emil Nolde- Saint Mary of Egypt -1912
    • Joined Die Brucke 1906
    • Religious Figures,
    • Distortion of form and color
    • Aggressive brush strokes
  • 9. Der Blaue Reiter
  • 10.  
  • 11. Cubism early 1900s
    • Picasso – Challenged every medium
    • Realism to Cubism - ex .Cezanne
    • Colonial Empires expansion into India and Africa
    • Iberian Sculptures
  • 12. Gertrude Stein – 1906 Iberian Sculptures -
  • 13. Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon - 1907
  • 14. Braque – The Portuguese , 1911
    • Hues
    • Palette
    • Colors
    • Light and shadow?
    • Clues?
    • Stenciled letters
    • Chiaroscuro
  • 15. Delaunay – Champs de Mars - 1911
  • 16. Picasso – Still life – 1912 Synthetic Cubism
  • 17. Braque – Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass -1913
  • 18. Picasso – Maquette for Guitar
  • 19. Archipenko – Woman Combing her hair - 1915
  • 20. Futurism
    • Movement
    • New materials
    • War is a cleansing agent of the world
  • 21. Balla
  • 22. Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913
    • Blur of movement
  • 23. Severini – Armored Train - 1915
    • Artistically and politically captures the Futurist ideals
    • War
    • Soldiers shooting
    • Omit death and destruction
  • 24. WW I - 1916
    • Mass Destruction
    • New technology, more death
    • Suicidal attacks
    • Trenches – psychological warfare
  • 25. DADA
    • Gathered artists who thought the war was pointless
    • NY & Zurich
    • Paris, Berlin and Cologne
    • A mind set not a single style
    • -Psychoanalytical style
  • 26. Duchamp and Man Ray 1920s
  • 27. Surrealists -1930
  • 28. Duchamp –Fountain 1917
  • 29. Berlin Dadaists
    • Photomontage
    • Composition by pasting together pieces of paper
    • Or cubists calling it a collage
    • Hannah Hoch- absurd chaotic, contradictory
    • Titled Piece – Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany “ 1919
  • 30. Kurt Schwitters -
    • Liked Cubists Collage
    • Worked non –objectively
    • Looked through trash bins for materials
    • Merz 19
  • 31. Americans and the arts
    • Artists went over to Europe brought back what they learned in Europe.(ex. Sarget, Whistler)
    • The group the “8”
    • Leader Robert Henri, urged artists to make pictures from life, created the rapidly changing landscape of NYC.
    • 8= Ashcan school
    • (ugly)
  • 32. Armory Show
    • 1913 –Large scale
    • 1600 works from American and European artists
    • Matisse, Picasso, Braque, Duchamp, Kandinksy and Kirchner
  • 33. Duchamp –Nude Descending a Staircase -1912
    • NY TIMES describes the show as “pathological”
    • “ Menace to public morality”
    • “ An explosion in a shingle factory”
    • Monochromatic palette =?
  • 34. Jean Arp – Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance
    • Chance
    • Tired of collages
    • Dropping the paper
  • 35. Photography & Alfred Steigiltz 1907
    • Gallery 291
    • Straight un-manipulated photographs
    • Environmental photographs
    • The Steerage
  • 36. Weston -
  • 37. Man Ray – La Cadeau Dada
  • 38. Marsden Hartley – Portrait of a German Officer
    • Followed Cubism
    • Array of German military items
    • Relationship to his friend a German officer
  • 39. Aaron Douglas – Noah’s Ark
    • Used flat planes
    • Monochromatic
    • Depict African Americans
  • 40. Precisionism 1915-1930
    • American’s loved the artwork from the Armory Show
    • Avante Garde Art
    • This group did not exhibit together
    • Very individualized
  • 41. Demuth – My Egypt -1927
    • Reduced subjects to simple shapes
    • Mixed up planes
    • Like a Egyptian Pyramid
  • 42. O ‘ Keefe – NY Night- 1929
  • 43.
    • O’Keefe – moved from a small town to NYC in 1918
    • NYC is complex she thought
    • Steiglitz was her supporter and Husband
    • She reduced forms
    • Used basic colors, abstract
  • 44. Europe and WW I New Sachickeit – Or New Objectivity
    • Grew out of Vets from WW I
    • To portray a present clean eyed direct and honest image of the war and its effects
    • Used experiences in his own life in his work
  • 45. George Grosz
    • Anti war – associated w/ Dada in Berlin
    • Harsh and Bitter
    • Depicted German Military as heartless and Bitter
  • 46. Beckmann –Night 1918-1919
    • He Rationalized war at first over time mass destruction
    • Work them soon reflected the horrors of war and society
    • Horrifying commenting on the status of a society
    • 3 invaders
    • Images savageness = paint strokes
    • Woman Raped, son being captured
  • 47. Otto Dix – The War 1929-1939
  • 48. Kollwitz – Woman and Dead Child
  • 49. Barlach – War Monument
  • 50. Surrealism -
    • Power of the Unconscious
    •  offspring of Dada
    • Godfather – Andre Breton
    • Freud
    • Automatism – psychic
  • 51. De Chirico Melancholy and Mystery of a Street – 1914
    • Environment
    • Empty
    • Nietzsche
  • 52. Ernst – Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale - 1924
    • A window into a real scene
    • Followed rules of linear and aerial perspective
    • Struggle of words and images
    • Frottage
  • 53. Dali – The Persistence of Memory 1931
    • Amphorus Shape
    • Controlled brush strokes
    • Realistic
    • Distorted
  • 54. Magritte – The Treachery of Images -1928
    • Shocks
    • Does it make sense?
  • 55. Oppenheim
    • Fur Lined Cup -1936
    • Inspired by a conversation with Picasso
    • Surrealism flair
  • 56. Frida Kahlo – The Two Frida’s- 1939
    • Psychic & Psych. issues she dealt with
    • Distanced herself from the Surrealist Group
    • Husband – Diego Riveria
  • 57. Miro – Painting -1933
    • Automatism
    • (the creation of art w/o creative control)
    • Hallucination, fantasy
    • Amoebic Organisms
  • 58. Constructivism or Suprematism
    • Russians – had a long history of cultural contact and interaction with the west
    • Russians exposed to Fauvism, Cubism and Futurism
    • Pure feeling in art – “ He feels, does not touch”
  • 59. Malevich – Suprematism Composition : Airplane Flying
    • Pure language, shape and color
    • Welcomed the Russian Revolution
    • -wipe out past traditions and begin with new culture
  • 60. Naum Gabo – The Constructivist
    • Called himself a Constructivist because he built his sculptures, piece by piece
    • Motion in work
    • Relationship of Mass & Space
  • 61. Monument to the 3 rd International – 1919 - Talin
    • Honored Russian Revolution
    • Glass, rotating chambers
    • News center for Russian People
  • 62. All These artists believed they could create a Technological Utopia
    • 1. Communist Party said art must be functional
    • Propagandistic for the people
    • Non conforming artists got sent to camp
  • 63. De Stijl Founded by Mondrian & Theo van Doesberg
    • Holland - More Utopian Views
    • Birth of a new age during WW I
    • Artists reduced vocab to simple geometric shapes
    • Goal is obj. in nature
    • Used to create harmonious composition
  • 64. Mondrian –De Stijl
    • Vitality –life
    • Tranquility – peaceful
    • Equilibrium
    • Completes rhythm = balance, each one is different
    • No reference to nature
    • Controlling
    • Style = modern art during the time 1930
  • 65. Rietveld –Schroder House
    • Cabinet maker made & De Stijl Furnishings throughout his career
    • New arch is anti cubic
    • Open plan
    • Free floating walls
    • Used primary colors and flat planes like a Mondrian Ptg
  • 66. The Bauhaus
    • Gropius – vision of total arch
    • Utopian
    • His goal was to train artists, architects and designers. To accept and anticipate 20 th century needs.
    • Needed to produce Graduates who would could design for the 20 th century
    • Promoted unity of art, arch and design
    • No boundaries
    • Hired most innovative & avant-garde thinkers to teach at the Bauhaus
  • 67.
    • GOAL = CLEAN DESIGN & High Tech
    • Did not like Ornamental & Historic
  • 68. Moholy – Nagy – From the Radio Tower Berlin
    • Art should be all encompassing
    • Produced ptgs, photos, special effects for art and film
    • Vertical aerial viewpoint presents the viewer w/new formal patterns and visual perspectives –more common with flight
  • 69. Josef Albers
    • Worked in Bauhaus glass & furniture shops.
    • Hard Edge Ptr
    • Varies hue and color
    • Obsessed with color
  • 70. Gropius –Shop Block
    • Bauhaus moved, Hostility from German Government
    • - positive attitude to the living environment of vehicles and machines
    • Simplicity in complexity, economy in the use of space, materials, time and money
  • 71. Gunta Stolzl-
    • Emphasis on geometric patterns
  • 72. Mies van Der Rohe – Model for Glass Skyscraper - 1922
    • Mies van der Rohe took over leadership of Bauhaus
    • “ LESS is More”
    • Bold use of glass
    • Skeleton
  • 73. Degenerate Art
    • Public Ridicule & Political persecution
    • 19 th Century art was ideal in Aryan Art
    • 16,000 artworks were considered degenerate
    • Ex. Otto Dix, Franz Marc, Piet Mondrian
  • 74. International Style
    • Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe
    • Puritians of style
    • Le Corbusier- influential arch. Modern living
  • 75. Le Corbusier – Domino House Project-1914
    • Domino House Project structure
    • Sun, space, vegetarian, insulation
  • 76. Art Deco – 1920-1930s
    • Popular taste
    • Deco sought to upgrade
    • Everything was deco – utensils, fashion , Jewelry, etc
  • 77. Chrysler Building – William van Alen -1928
    • Elongated symmetrical
    • Hard patterns
    • Simple forms
    • Jazz air flair
  • 78. Natural Architecture -Frank Lloyd Wright
    • Cross Axial plan
    • Continuity in mind
    • No posts no columns
    • Clean cut shapes
    • Japanese Aztec
    • Designed every detail
    • Cantilevered
    • “ belongs to the hill”
  • 79. Organic Sculpture
    • Brancusi – Natural or Organic
    • Bird in Space, 1928
    • Like the egg, the pebble
    • Reduced to smooth surfaces
  • 80. Henry Moore
    • Every material works differently
    • Material works and play
  • 81.  
  • 82. Calder
    • Kinetic Art
    • Miro Influenced
  • 83. Art as a Political Statement- Picasso – Guernica 1937 Nazi Bombing – air raid
  • 84. Lange – Migrant Mother -1935
    • Sadness
    • Depression
    • Treasury Relief art Project & WPA
  • 85. Hopper – Nighthawks - 1942
  • 86. Lawrence – Migration of the Negro – NO. 49
    • Harlem, NY
    • African and art and history
    • Exodus of blk labor from Southern U.S.
    • Disillusioned with their lives in the south, Black culture moved from the South
    • Experiences of migrating people
    • Dining area -Cubist
  • 87. - Regionalism- Grant Wood – American Gothic 1930
    • Turned attention to rural life instead of city
    • Focus on American subjects
    • Neat house
    • American Strength
    • Rejection of avant garde style
  • 88. Thomas Hart Benton
    • Missouri – rural scenes
    • History
    • Complex compositions
    • Fluidity
  • 89. Diego Rivera – Ancient Mexico History of Mexico Frescos
  • 90. Modern to Post Modern
    • WWII Global Devastion
    • 1945 Hiroshima & Nagaski Nuclear WAR!!!
    • Disruption and Upheaval – British left India
    • Us emerged relatively unscathed from WWII
    • Civil rights struggles on University Campuses
    • Vietnam War – Rebellion of young Americans
    • Sexual revolution
  • 91. Francis Bacon
    • Existentialism
    • Art world shifts- Paris to NY American Clement Greenberg says to embrace abstraction
    • Promote avante garde
    • 35mil dead in Europe
    • Bacon- Reflection of war butchery
    • Based photos on war Nazi Leaders
    • Umbrella- Neville Chamberlain – Brit Prime Minister
    • Remake Violence
  • 92.  
  • 93. Dubuffet
    • encrusted tortured world
    • Used Impasto – thick pigment, plaster, glue, sand asphalt and scribbling
    • Art of children, mentally ill are the most genuine
  • 94. Giacometti – Men Pointing -1947
  • 95. Gestural Abstraction & Chromatic Abstraction
    • Relied on the expressiveness of energetic applied pigment.
    • Chromatic abstraction – focused on colors
  • 96. Pollock – Number 1- 1950
    • Action Ptg
    • Abstract Expressionism
    • NY School 1940s
    • Rhythmic patterns splatters
    • Jack the “Dripper”
  • 97. Willem De Koonig – Woman I - 1950
    • Gestural brush strokes
    • Slashing lines
    • Female models – advertising billboards
    • What is Beauty?
    • Agitated patches of color
  • 98. Rothko-No.14 1960
    • 2 or 3 rectangles of pure color
    • Color doorway to another reality
    • Formal elements no figures
    • Raises emotions
  • 99. David Smith – Cubi XIX-1964
    • 1930 David saw Picasso’s sculptures
    • Created monolith sculptures
    • Only outdoors
    • Homage to Cubism
  • 100. Post Painterly Abstraction
  • 101. Minimal Art =
    • Ptrs emphasized flatness
    • Sculptors focus on 3-d as the unique characteristic and limitations
    • 1960s
    • Clean simple bare
    • Technique – machine made
    • Meaning? – You are the judge
  • 102. Minimal Art Tony – Die - 1962
  • 103. Donald Judd
    • 1969
    • Abstract, absolute minimum
  • 104. Maya Lin - Vietnam War Memorial 1981-1983
  • 105. Nevelson – Sky Cathedral - 1957
    • Dada and Surrealism influence
    • Readymade objects
  • 106. Bourgeois – Cumul I
    • Heads protruding
    • More personal
    • Bare
  • 107. Pop Art -1950s Start
    • Taken from Modern Consumer Mass Culture
    • Advertising, comic books and movies
  • 108. Richard Hamilton – Just What is it that Makes Today’s Homes so Different, So Appealing? -1956
  • 109. Pop Art – Jasper Johns -
  • 110. Lichtenstein – Hopeless - 1963
  • 111. Warhol
  • 112. Warhol -
  • 113. Warhol
  • 114. Superrealism Flack - Marilyn
  • 115. Chuck Close
    • Superrealism
    • Post modernism
    • 1967
  • 116. Christo -
    • Aware of space
  • 117. Frank Lloyd Wright – Guggenheim Museum -1959