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Ch. 33 Modern art
 

Ch. 33 Modern art

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    Ch. 33 Modern art Ch. 33 Modern art Presentation Transcript

    • Modern Art Chapter 33
    • What were some of the Developments in the 20 th century?
      • Technology e = mc 2
      • Scientific Revolution/ Enlightment
      • Proteins, discoveries, radar televisions, cinema
      • Atom bomb
      • Philosophy, Psychology – Jung
      • Industrial Capitalism
    • What Wars and major events Happened in the 20 th Century ?
      • WW I and the Russian Revolution
      • WW 2
      • Hitler
      • Vietnam
      • The Great Depression
    • Evolution and the avant - Garde
      • Post Impressionism and Impression was happening before the time of the Fauvists
    • Fauvism – wild beast = Intense color, reflect feelings, used awkward color combos
      • German, Parisian - Expressionism of 1910 to Abstract Expressionist in 1940
      • Matisse is the leader
      • French Academy and the Salon
      • Woman w/ a Hat – 1905 By Matisse
    • Matisse - Red Room 1908
    • Die Brucke – The Bridge
      • German artists explored expressionist ideas
      • Ludwig Kirchner – Leader
      • Street, Dresden 1908
      • Zombie Like, German City before WW1
    • Emil Nolde- Saint Mary of Egypt -1912
      • Joined Die Brucke 1906
      • Religious Figures,
      • Distortion of form and color
      • Aggressive brush strokes
    • Der Blaue Reiter
    •  
    • Cubism early 1900s
      • Picasso – Challenged every medium
      • Realism to Cubism - ex .Cezanne
      • Colonial Empires expansion into India and Africa
      • Iberian Sculptures
    • Gertrude Stein – 1906 Iberian Sculptures -
    • Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon - 1907
    • Braque – The Portuguese , 1911
      • Hues
      • Palette
      • Colors
      • Light and shadow?
      • Clues?
      • Stenciled letters
      • Chiaroscuro
    • Delaunay – Champs de Mars - 1911
    • Picasso – Still life – 1912 Synthetic Cubism
    • Braque – Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass -1913
    • Picasso – Maquette for Guitar
    • Archipenko – Woman Combing her hair - 1915
    • Futurism
      • Movement
      • New materials
      • War is a cleansing agent of the world
    • Balla
    • Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913
      • Blur of movement
    • Severini – Armored Train - 1915
      • Artistically and politically captures the Futurist ideals
      • War
      • Soldiers shooting
      • Omit death and destruction
    • WW I - 1916
      • Mass Destruction
      • New technology, more death
      • Suicidal attacks
      • Trenches – psychological warfare
    • DADA
      • Gathered artists who thought the war was pointless
      • NY & Zurich
      • Paris, Berlin and Cologne
      • A mind set not a single style
      • -Psychoanalytical style
    • Duchamp and Man Ray 1920s
    • Surrealists -1930
    • Duchamp –Fountain 1917
    • Berlin Dadaists
      • Photomontage
      • Composition by pasting together pieces of paper
      • Or cubists calling it a collage
      • Hannah Hoch- absurd chaotic, contradictory
      • Titled Piece – Cut with the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany “ 1919
    • Kurt Schwitters -
      • Liked Cubists Collage
      • Worked non –objectively
      • Looked through trash bins for materials
      • Merz 19
    • Americans and the arts
      • Artists went over to Europe brought back what they learned in Europe.(ex. Sarget, Whistler)
      • The group the “8”
      • Leader Robert Henri, urged artists to make pictures from life, created the rapidly changing landscape of NYC.
      • 8= Ashcan school
      • (ugly)
    • Armory Show
      • 1913 –Large scale
      • 1600 works from American and European artists
      • Matisse, Picasso, Braque, Duchamp, Kandinksy and Kirchner
    • Duchamp –Nude Descending a Staircase -1912
      • NY TIMES describes the show as “pathological”
      • “ Menace to public morality”
      • “ An explosion in a shingle factory”
      • Monochromatic palette =?
    • Jean Arp – Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance
      • Chance
      • Tired of collages
      • Dropping the paper
    • Photography & Alfred Steigiltz 1907
      • Gallery 291
      • Straight un-manipulated photographs
      • Environmental photographs
      • The Steerage
    • Weston -
    • Man Ray – La Cadeau Dada
    • Marsden Hartley – Portrait of a German Officer
      • Followed Cubism
      • Array of German military items
      • Relationship to his friend a German officer
    • Aaron Douglas – Noah’s Ark
      • Used flat planes
      • Monochromatic
      • Depict African Americans
    • Precisionism 1915-1930
      • American’s loved the artwork from the Armory Show
      • Avante Garde Art
      • This group did not exhibit together
      • Very individualized
    • Demuth – My Egypt -1927
      • Reduced subjects to simple shapes
      • Mixed up planes
      • Like a Egyptian Pyramid
    • O ‘ Keefe – NY Night- 1929
      • O’Keefe – moved from a small town to NYC in 1918
      • NYC is complex she thought
      • Steiglitz was her supporter and Husband
      • She reduced forms
      • Used basic colors, abstract
    • Europe and WW I New Sachickeit – Or New Objectivity
      • Grew out of Vets from WW I
      • To portray a present clean eyed direct and honest image of the war and its effects
      • Used experiences in his own life in his work
    • George Grosz
      • Anti war – associated w/ Dada in Berlin
      • Harsh and Bitter
      • Depicted German Military as heartless and Bitter
    • Beckmann –Night 1918-1919
      • He Rationalized war at first over time mass destruction
      • Work them soon reflected the horrors of war and society
      • Horrifying commenting on the status of a society
      • 3 invaders
      • Images savageness = paint strokes
      • Woman Raped, son being captured
    • Otto Dix – The War 1929-1939
    • Kollwitz – Woman and Dead Child
    • Barlach – War Monument
    • Surrealism -
      • Power of the Unconscious
      •  offspring of Dada
      • Godfather – Andre Breton
      • Freud
      • Automatism – psychic
    • De Chirico Melancholy and Mystery of a Street – 1914
      • Environment
      • Empty
      • Nietzsche
    • Ernst – Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale - 1924
      • A window into a real scene
      • Followed rules of linear and aerial perspective
      • Struggle of words and images
      • Frottage
    • Dali – The Persistence of Memory 1931
      • Amphorus Shape
      • Controlled brush strokes
      • Realistic
      • Distorted
    • Magritte – The Treachery of Images -1928
      • Shocks
      • Does it make sense?
    • Oppenheim
      • Fur Lined Cup -1936
      • Inspired by a conversation with Picasso
      • Surrealism flair
    • Frida Kahlo – The Two Frida’s- 1939
      • Psychic & Psych. issues she dealt with
      • Distanced herself from the Surrealist Group
      • Husband – Diego Riveria
    • Miro – Painting -1933
      • Automatism
      • (the creation of art w/o creative control)
      • Hallucination, fantasy
      • Amoebic Organisms
    • Constructivism or Suprematism
      • Russians – had a long history of cultural contact and interaction with the west
      • Russians exposed to Fauvism, Cubism and Futurism
      • Pure feeling in art – “ He feels, does not touch”
    • Malevich – Suprematism Composition : Airplane Flying
      • Pure language, shape and color
      • Welcomed the Russian Revolution
      • -wipe out past traditions and begin with new culture
    • Naum Gabo – The Constructivist
      • Called himself a Constructivist because he built his sculptures, piece by piece
      • Motion in work
      • Relationship of Mass & Space
    • Monument to the 3 rd International – 1919 - Talin
      • Honored Russian Revolution
      • Glass, rotating chambers
      • News center for Russian People
    • All These artists believed they could create a Technological Utopia
      • 1. Communist Party said art must be functional
      • Propagandistic for the people
      • Non conforming artists got sent to camp
    • De Stijl Founded by Mondrian & Theo van Doesberg
      • Holland - More Utopian Views
      • Birth of a new age during WW I
      • Artists reduced vocab to simple geometric shapes
      • Goal is obj. in nature
      • Used to create harmonious composition
    • Mondrian –De Stijl
      • Vitality –life
      • Tranquility – peaceful
      • Equilibrium
      • Completes rhythm = balance, each one is different
      • No reference to nature
      • Controlling
      • Style = modern art during the time 1930
    • Rietveld –Schroder House
      • Cabinet maker made & De Stijl Furnishings throughout his career
      • New arch is anti cubic
      • Open plan
      • Free floating walls
      • Used primary colors and flat planes like a Mondrian Ptg
    • The Bauhaus
      • Gropius – vision of total arch
      • Utopian
      • His goal was to train artists, architects and designers. To accept and anticipate 20 th century needs.
      • Needed to produce Graduates who would could design for the 20 th century
      • Promoted unity of art, arch and design
      • No boundaries
      • Hired most innovative & avant-garde thinkers to teach at the Bauhaus
      • GOAL = CLEAN DESIGN & High Tech
      • Did not like Ornamental & Historic
    • Moholy – Nagy – From the Radio Tower Berlin
      • Art should be all encompassing
      • Produced ptgs, photos, special effects for art and film
      • Vertical aerial viewpoint presents the viewer w/new formal patterns and visual perspectives –more common with flight
    • Josef Albers
      • Worked in Bauhaus glass & furniture shops.
      • Hard Edge Ptr
      • Varies hue and color
      • Obsessed with color
    • Gropius –Shop Block
      • Bauhaus moved, Hostility from German Government
      • - positive attitude to the living environment of vehicles and machines
      • Simplicity in complexity, economy in the use of space, materials, time and money
    • Gunta Stolzl-
      • Emphasis on geometric patterns
    • Mies van Der Rohe – Model for Glass Skyscraper - 1922
      • Mies van der Rohe took over leadership of Bauhaus
      • “ LESS is More”
      • Bold use of glass
      • Skeleton
    • Degenerate Art
      • Public Ridicule & Political persecution
      • 19 th Century art was ideal in Aryan Art
      • 16,000 artworks were considered degenerate
      • Ex. Otto Dix, Franz Marc, Piet Mondrian
    • International Style
      • Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe
      • Puritians of style
      • Le Corbusier- influential arch. Modern living
    • Le Corbusier – Domino House Project-1914
      • Domino House Project structure
      • Sun, space, vegetarian, insulation
    • Art Deco – 1920-1930s
      • Popular taste
      • Deco sought to upgrade
      • Everything was deco – utensils, fashion , Jewelry, etc
    • Chrysler Building – William van Alen -1928
      • Elongated symmetrical
      • Hard patterns
      • Simple forms
      • Jazz air flair
    • Natural Architecture -Frank Lloyd Wright
      • Cross Axial plan
      • Continuity in mind
      • No posts no columns
      • Clean cut shapes
      • Japanese Aztec
      • Designed every detail
      • Cantilevered
      • “ belongs to the hill”
    • Organic Sculpture
      • Brancusi – Natural or Organic
      • Bird in Space, 1928
      • Like the egg, the pebble
      • Reduced to smooth surfaces
    • Henry Moore
      • Every material works differently
      • Material works and play
    •  
    • Calder
      • Kinetic Art
      • Miro Influenced
    • Art as a Political Statement- Picasso – Guernica 1937 Nazi Bombing – air raid
    • Lange – Migrant Mother -1935
      • Sadness
      • Depression
      • Treasury Relief art Project & WPA
    • Hopper – Nighthawks - 1942
    • Lawrence – Migration of the Negro – NO. 49
      • Harlem, NY
      • African and art and history
      • Exodus of blk labor from Southern U.S.
      • Disillusioned with their lives in the south, Black culture moved from the South
      • Experiences of migrating people
      • Dining area -Cubist
    • - Regionalism- Grant Wood – American Gothic 1930
      • Turned attention to rural life instead of city
      • Focus on American subjects
      • Neat house
      • American Strength
      • Rejection of avant garde style
    • Thomas Hart Benton
      • Missouri – rural scenes
      • History
      • Complex compositions
      • Fluidity
    • Diego Rivera – Ancient Mexico History of Mexico Frescos
    • Modern to Post Modern
      • WWII Global Devastion
      • 1945 Hiroshima & Nagaski Nuclear WAR!!!
      • Disruption and Upheaval – British left India
      • Us emerged relatively unscathed from WWII
      • Civil rights struggles on University Campuses
      • Vietnam War – Rebellion of young Americans
      • Sexual revolution
    • Francis Bacon
      • Existentialism
      • Art world shifts- Paris to NY American Clement Greenberg says to embrace abstraction
      • Promote avante garde
      • 35mil dead in Europe
      • Bacon- Reflection of war butchery
      • Based photos on war Nazi Leaders
      • Umbrella- Neville Chamberlain – Brit Prime Minister
      • Remake Violence
    •  
    • Dubuffet
      • encrusted tortured world
      • Used Impasto – thick pigment, plaster, glue, sand asphalt and scribbling
      • Art of children, mentally ill are the most genuine
    • Giacometti – Men Pointing -1947
    • Gestural Abstraction & Chromatic Abstraction
      • Relied on the expressiveness of energetic applied pigment.
      • Chromatic abstraction – focused on colors
    • Pollock – Number 1- 1950
      • Action Ptg
      • Abstract Expressionism
      • NY School 1940s
      • Rhythmic patterns splatters
      • Jack the “Dripper”
    • Willem De Koonig – Woman I - 1950
      • Gestural brush strokes
      • Slashing lines
      • Female models – advertising billboards
      • What is Beauty?
      • Agitated patches of color
    • Rothko-No.14 1960
      • 2 or 3 rectangles of pure color
      • Color doorway to another reality
      • Formal elements no figures
      • Raises emotions
    • David Smith – Cubi XIX-1964
      • 1930 David saw Picasso’s sculptures
      • Created monolith sculptures
      • Only outdoors
      • Homage to Cubism
    • Post Painterly Abstraction
    • Minimal Art =
      • Ptrs emphasized flatness
      • Sculptors focus on 3-d as the unique characteristic and limitations
      • 1960s
      • Clean simple bare
      • Technique – machine made
      • Meaning? – You are the judge
    • Minimal Art Tony – Die - 1962
    • Donald Judd
      • 1969
      • Abstract, absolute minimum
    • Maya Lin - Vietnam War Memorial 1981-1983
    • Nevelson – Sky Cathedral - 1957
      • Dada and Surrealism influence
      • Readymade objects
    • Bourgeois – Cumul I
      • Heads protruding
      • More personal
      • Bare
    • Pop Art -1950s Start
      • Taken from Modern Consumer Mass Culture
      • Advertising, comic books and movies
    • Richard Hamilton – Just What is it that Makes Today’s Homes so Different, So Appealing? -1956
    • Pop Art – Jasper Johns -
    • Lichtenstein – Hopeless - 1963
    • Warhol
    • Warhol -
    • Warhol
    • Superrealism Flack - Marilyn
    • Chuck Close
      • Superrealism
      • Post modernism
      • 1967
    • Christo -
      • Aware of space
    • Frank Lloyd Wright – Guggenheim Museum -1959