Byzantine art

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Gardiner's Art Through the Ages

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Byzantine art

  1. 1. Byzantine Art
  2. 2. • Byzantine Empire was born out of the remains of the Roman Empire and continued to have the same elements of the Roman classical tradition, but in a Christian style • Byzantine paintings specialized in mosaics, icons and manuscript illumination • Byzantine art had two traditions – one reflecting the classical past and a more formal style of art
  3. 3. Time Periods • Early Byzantine 500-726 • Iconoclastic Controversy 726-843 • Middle or High Byzantine 843-1204 • Late Byzantine 1204-1453, and beyond
  4. 4. Early Byzantine Art • Justinian and Empress Theodora • Drove Ostrogoths out of Italy • Tons of money spent on over 30 building projects
  5. 5. Justinian as world conqueror- Ivory 500 ce -Dynamic Twisting -Kings strength comes from God -Approval of Justinian’s rule
  6. 6. Saint Michael the Archangel – diptych -Victory becomes a Archangel -Made in Constantinople? -Subtle relief folds
  7. 7. Hagia Sophia 532 Ce Constantinople (Istanbul) Turkey Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus • Most important church in Byzantine art • Huge Buttresses • Centrally and axially planned • Plain and massive little decoration • Altar at the end of the nave • Dome supported by pendentives • Minarets added in Islamic Period 1450s
  8. 8. Floating dome of heaven? Pendentives and Squinches
  9. 9. • Central plan church • Converted into a Mosque • Was a Basilica first • Brick exterior, opposed to Roman concrete • Mosaics
  10. 10. Ravenna – San Vitale • Theodoric, the Ostrogoth’s greatest king made Ravenna the new capital of the Kingdom • Best reign from an Emperor when Justinian was King • San Vitale ( or Saint Vitalis who was martyred at Ravenna in the second century) • Polygonal apse, plain exterior • Eight Sided church • Interior has thin columns and open arched spaces • Plain exterior except porch added later in Renaissance • Clerestory lighting • Built after Theordoric’s death
  11. 11. Complex plan
  12. 12. Choir and apse of San Vitale with mosaic of Christ between two angels 526-547 • Laws of the Eastern Church • Purple robe and halo • Christ as Pantocrator • Jesus holding items
  13. 13. Theodora & Attendants -Slight displacement of absolute symmetry with Theodora -Richly robed empress and ladies at court -Figures are flattened and weightless
  14. 14. Justinian and Bishop Maximianus -divided into 3 groups, the emperor, staff, imperial guard and shield monogram, no background -Left the clergy and right the military -Dressed in royal purple and gold -Symmetry, Holds a paten for the Eucharist -Figures float - Gold background
  15. 15. Saint Apollinaris • Held the body of Sant’ Apollinare - Martyrdom • Interior – mosaics only in the apse • Clouds Moses and Isiaiah • Sheep are disciples
  16. 16. Justinian on Rt. Side, purple, halos
  17. 17. Climatic achievement in Byzantine art
  18. 18. Transfiguration of Christ St. Catherine Mt. Sinai 548 ca
  19. 19. Vienna Dioskorides – Given to the Anicia Juliana Constantinople, 512 Tempera on Parchment paper • Greek Physician – • 498 images of illustrations
  20. 20. Ascension of Christ from a Gospel book – Syria 586CE
  21. 21. Play apart of Monastic Life - Icons – Private devotion wood ptg. -Christ rose from the dead after three days -Guardian saints -Hand seen between angels -No space
  22. 22. Iconoclasm (726- 843 ce) • Preservation of Icons began from Mt. Sinai Monastery • Arabs would rise ( Islamic Religion) conquered Byzantium's eastern provinces and Persia. • Uneasy times, Byzantine territory was lost – ends… Starts the middle age -Iconoclasts destroyed Icons
  23. 23. • Emperor Leo – thinks God is punishing the Roman Empire for worshiping icons • 726ce, banned Icon paintings • No new art • The cross was used, scrolls, floral, animals and architectural motifs
  24. 24. Middle Byzantine Art ( 843-1204) • Images return • Basil I thinks he is a restorer of the Roman Empire • Undoes Iconclasm
  25. 25. Hagia Sophia was restored • Virgin ( Theotokos ) and Child - Mosaic – Hagia Sophia 867 • Jesus as Theotokos • Flatter imagery • Iconophiles had triumphed over the iconoclasts
  26. 26. Monastery Churches @ Hosios Loukas, Greece Left – 1st quarter of the 11th Century and church of The Theotokos ( 10th) -Monastic Church -Square , cylinder or drum -Influence of Islamic arch. -Small - The dome rests on pendentives
  27. 27. Plans of Church of the Theotokos and Katholikon , Greece
  28. 28. Katholikon – Hosios Loukas, Greece -Your eye is drawn upward -High and narrow -Groin and barrel vaults Triple windows
  29. 29. Christ as Pantokrator – -Gazing down -Fearsome image of Christ -Gigantic Icon floating in space
  30. 30. Crucifixion in the church of the Dormition, Daphni • Tilted body • Defiant to the laws of Gravity, blood spurts at a curve • Saggy body • Wound of Longinus • The Virgin and John point to the figure of Christ
  31. 31. St. Marks – Venice
  32. 32. Venice and Byzantium Int. of St. Mark’s 1063, Venice Italy A revival of grand scale church building Venice was an independent power Relics obtained relics of St. Marks William II paid for mosaics, mosaics display piety and power
  33. 33. Cruciform Plan Christ as Pantokrator apse image is at the end of the church Opposed to being located in the central dome like Hagia Sophia
  34. 34. Pantokrator, Theotokos and Child, angels and saints apse mosaic 1180-1190ce Monreale, Italy • Norman King William II paid for Mosaics depicting himself in the mosaic like Justinian • Piety and Power • Ruler rules with divine authority
  35. 35. Luxury Arts • Pala d’ Oro • Empress Irene • Haloed gold and enamel, wafer thin • Gift to church • St. Marks, Venice, with stones 1105ce
  36. 36. Christ Enthroned with Saints 950ce Ivory
  37. 37. Lamentation – 1164ce Macedonia Saint Pantaleimon Church – Wall painting • Joesph of Armiathea and the disciple Nicodemus kneel at his feet • Emotional impact • Blue Sky
  38. 38. Virigin and Child ( Vladimir Virgin) 11th to 12th century -Flat silhouette, long nose - Virgin Mary looking out thinking about Christ’s future
  39. 39. Apse Fresco Church of Christ in Chora, Constantinople, Turkey 1310ce • Swift smooth action • Float sin a spiritual atmosphere • spaceless
  40. 40. Christ as Savior of Souls – 14th Century – icon from the church of Saint Clement – Tempera, linen and silver on wood • Modeled head • Greco-Roman heritage • Bejeweled bible • Linear folds in Christ’s drapery
  41. 41. Annunciation – 14th Century

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