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  1. 1. The geosphere
  2. 2. The geosphere layers • The crust. It ‘s the outer layer, made up of solid materials. Rocks.
  3. 3. The geosphere layers • The mantle. It is the middle layer. It is extremely hot, up to 4000 º C. In some parts there are liquid rocks called magma.
  4. 4. The geosphere layers • The core. It is the inner layer. It is also extremely hot, with temperatures up to 5000ºC-6000ºC. • It is divided into two layers: – Outer core. Materials are liquid. – Inner core. Materials are solid because the high pressure and density.
  5. 5. Changes in the Geosphere • Changes are produced in the geosphere by action of different geological agents: - Inner agents: volcanoes, earthquakes, tectonic movements - Outer agents: wind and water.
  6. 6. Volcanoes • Volcanoes are formed in places where magma is under the surface. • When a volcano erupts internal forces push magma up through a central pipe, the chimney or vent.
  7. 7. Volcanoes • Magma is called lava when it reaches the surface. • This happens also with smoke, and ash through a circular opening called crater.
  8. 8. Volcanoes • Layers of lava and ash cool and solidify around the crater and form a volcanic cone. • Many islands were formed by underwater volcanic eruptions.
  9. 9. Earthquakes • Earthquakes are caused by movements of the Earth’s crust. • They can destroy buildings and bridges. • Earthquakes on the ocean floor produce enormous waves called tsunamis.
  10. 10. Weathering • Weathering is the action of water and wind. • Erosion is the removal of soil and rocks by wind and water.
  11. 11. Weathering • Transport is the movement of eroded material, then these materials are accumulated in another place. This is sedimentation or deposition.
  12. 12. Rocks • Rocks are natural materials which make up the Earth’s crust. • Rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are pure materials we cannot break down into other substances.
  13. 13. Types of rock • We can classify rocks into three types depending on how they are formed: - Sedimentary rocks are formed from pieces of other rocks or pieces of living things. Eg. Coal, gypsum.
  14. 14. Types of rock • Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and solidifies. Granite and basalt are igneous rocks.
  15. 15. Types of rock • Metamorphic rocks are formed when heat or preassure changes the original rocks. Marble and slate are metamorphic rocks.
  16. 16. Types of rock
  17. 17. The landscape • All the different features of the Earth’s surface make up the landscape.
  18. 18. I. Mountain landscapes • In mountains landscapes we can find mountains and valleys. • Mountains are raised parts of the Earth’s surface. • Valleys are low areas between mountains. • Rivers are often found in valleys.
  19. 19. Mountain landscapes • Several mountains grouped together are called a mountain range. • A long line of mountain ranges is called a mountain chain.
  20. 20. Altitude • Altitude is the height of any point on the Earth’s surface above the sea level. • In Spain the altitude refers to the sea level in Alicante.
  21. 21. II. Flat landscapes • Flat landscapes or plains are large areas of flat land with no mountains or hills. • A plateau is a plain at a high altitude. • La Mancha is a big plateau situated at about 600 meters above the sea level.
  22. 22. Flat landscapes • Depressions are plains which are lower than the sorrounding land. Most of these depressions are covered by water.
  23. 23. Flat landscapes • Coastal plains are flat land near the coast (the seaside).
  24. 24. III. Coastal landscapes • The coast is the place where the land meets the sea. • There are two types of coast: – Low-lying coast. Often with sandy beaches. – High coast. With mountains or high areas by the sea. Often with rocky cliffs.