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Rural land resources

Rural land resources



Rural Resources National Park Conflicts Solutions Lake District Yorkshire Dales Dorset Coast

Rural Resources National Park Conflicts Solutions Lake District Yorkshire Dales Dorset Coast



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    Rural land resources Rural land resources Presentation Transcript

    • RURAL LAND RESOURCES CONTENTS PART 4- Glaciation case study – Lake District PART 2- Karst case study –Yorkshire Dales PART 3- Coastal case study – Dorset coast PART 1- Caring and sharing the landscape. National Parks & other protection policies.
    • What is assessed in this unit?
      • The formation of the different scenery – again!
      • What are the potential economic and social opportunities and drawbacks of each landscape?
      • What conflicts arise in these areas?
      • What solutions have been tried to resolve these?
      • How well have they worked?
      You MUST be able to quote named examples
    • More money to spend on holidays and hobbies - AFFLUENCE More time away from work- hourly and annually –LEISURE TIME Better transport- public and private-MOBILITY More interest in the country-side and nature Why are people going to the countryside more? Advertising Advertising
    • Eg; ESA’s Green belts NNR’s PART 1 Are National Parks the only way of protecting the countryside? No! there are other methods, some of which are found in National Parks as well! You can be asked about any of these protective bodies in the Exam!
      • Environmentally Sensitive Areas
      • ESA scheme safeguards the natural landscape, the wildlife & the history
      Use of fertilisers & pesticides reduced Hedges,drystone walls, farm buildings, archaelogical remains, restored/safeguarded Wildlife habitats preserved
      • The Lake District ESA
      • Set up in 1993, because
      • pastures, meadows & wetlands were coming under increasing threat
      • Walls, hedges, barns & woods were also at risk.
      • Is the Lake District ESA achieving success?
      • 58% of farms have entered the scheme
      • Over 35 miles of stone walls have been re-built
      • 400 traditional farm buildings have been restored
      • Over 40 miles of hedges have been planted
      • ESA Scheme - UPDATE
      • The ESA scheme has now closed to new applicants and a new Environmental Stewardship Scheme has been introduced with the following aims;
      To conserve wildlife (biodiversity) To maintain and enhance landscape quality & character To protect the historic environment & natural resources To promote public access & understanding of the countryside
      • These are ‘special’ places because of their plants or animals or habitats, their rocks or landforms, or a combination of these.
      • There are more than 8.000 owners & occupiers of SSSI’s in Scotland. Many are privately owned, some are owned by voluntary bodies (eg NTS) & some are publically owned (eg FC).They are managed in agreement with the owners & occupiers & SNH.
      • The management of a SSSI aims to maintain , or where past management has deteriorated, restore the special features of interest.
    • Protecting & Conserving our Rural Land Resources Where do they get their funding from?
      • NATIONAL PARKS have the two aims of ;-
      • Protecting & enhancing the environment, scenery and ways of life of the area
      • Providing & promoting opportunities for people to experience and enjoy the special qualities of the NP.
      • AND A DUTY
      • To foster the economic & social well-being of local communities within the NP.
      As you might imagine, these don’t always work well together, and can lead to CONFLICT !
    • Why are the National Parks where they are? 1. They are in areas with great scenery. 2. They are in relatively unpopulated areas. 3. They are within easy travelling distance of major urban areas. 4. They are areas that will benefit from leisure-generated income.
    • Sample answer Describe & suggest why NP’s attract differing nos.of people (6marks)
      • Annual visitor nos. vary from 23M(LD&PD) to 1.5M(N)
      • Generally NP’s in the north of England & Wales, with
      • the exception of N, appear to attract more visitors,
      • whilst NP’s in the south of England attract fewer visitors(3.5Mto E,D
      • &NF)
      • NP’s with large visitor nos. are easily accessible by motorway and/or
      • near large centres of population. For example LD,close to M6 &
      • within 2-3hours driving from Gter Manchester, Glasgow, Tyne & Wear.
      • By contrast NF, although near to London, is not served directly by a
      • motorway.
      • Some NP’s are more popular than others because of their ‘pulling
      • Power’ ie.spectacular scenery,large range of recreational activities or
      • tourist activities & facilities. The LD provides a huge range of both
      • Passive & active leisure opportunities to visitors from rock climbing &
      • water sports to scenic drives, cultural attractions & shopping.
    • Who owns the land in National Parks? What do each of these owners do with the land?
      • Describe in detail the land ownership of NP’s.
      • Why may these patterns make their
      • Management difficult? ( 10MARKS)
      • Hints to answer Q (part1)
      Land Ownership Of NP’s Who owns most land? Look at FC & NT ownership – make some comments What do you notice about Water Authority & MOD ownership? Comment on NPA ownership Remember to include names & figures. Eg:MOD/23% N’berland
      • Hints to answer Q (part2)
      • Think about the AIMS of a NP – look back at your notes!
      • Focus on some named examples- Northumberland & Lake District are good choices.
    • To manage and minimise conflicts, allowing all land users a say in the running of the land, many grant & subsidy-based rural land protection schemes are available ESA’s EU farm production quotas Set aside Farm diversification grant scheme Woodland grant scheme Farm woodland scheme
      • SET ASIDE
      • Aims to control overproduction of cereals - surplus crops are expensive to store. Farmers are given a grant if they agree to NOT cultivate 15% of their total arable area for a minimum of 5 years.
      • Impacts - (1) blocks of land left abandoned
      • (2) more diverse range of crops grown
      • (3) Diversification being encouraged as more arable land is taken out of production
      • Success – (1) Jan 2000 – 10m corridors next to rivers/lakes to encourage wildlife habitats
      • (2) numbers of less common bird species eg skylark have increased
      • Aims
      • to encourage good management of forests & woodlands
      • To provide jobs & improve the economy of rural areas
      • To provide a use for land instead of agriculture
      • Success
      • Between 2000 & 2005 approximately 28 million new trees were planted
    • Farm Woodland Scheme
      • Aims
      • To improve the landscape, wildlife habitats & increase biodiversity by encouraging farmers to plant & maintain woodland through grant incentives
      • Success
      • Trees planted in large numbers – offering shelter, recreational opportunities, wildlife habitat enhancement & future sources of timber
    • Woodland grant scheme & farm woodland scheme were replaced in 2005 by the ENGLISH WOODLAND GRANT SCHEME (EWGS)
    • Like with everything else, there are good and bad aspects of it. Look at the next slide to get an idea! With all this protection, are National Parks therefore great places to live in?
    • OPPORTUNITIES LIMITATIONS There are about six headings that could be useful here;- F I (mostly Q ) H E P F W Supply T There are about six headings that could be useful here;- W and C R S D G R / inaccessibility We will re-visit this in our three case studies later in the topic.
    • Case study notes The three case studies make up the remainder of the work in this topic. For each of the three scenery types studied in the Lithosphere unit, you need to be able to write about certain things;-
      • The formation of the different scenery – again!
      • What are the potential economic and social opportunities and drawbacks of each landscape?
      • What conflicts arise in these areas?
      • What solutions have been tried to resolve these?
      • How well have they worked?
    • Case study notes In the booklet are the notes for TWO of the areas. They set the geographical scene and provide outlines of the conflicts to be studied. They are shown in powerpoint presentations. .
    • For the THIRD area ( The Lake District) you will be asked to answer a past paper question, using information from the LD visit & other sources of information recommended to you.
    • Case study of a Karst (carboniferous limestone) area THE YORKSHIRE DALES
    • Motorway Links to the Yorkshire Dales National park
    • Social opportunities-leisure attractions
    • Economic Opportunities- ----FARMING
    • Farmers v Conservationists
      • Many farmers wish to carry out modern farming techniques that involve the use of machinery, artificial pesticides and fertilisers. Those modern farming techniques increase yields and thus profit.
      • However they can be damaging to the environment. Pesticides and fertilisers are washed into rivers, polluting them. Machinery can damage wildlife. This concerns the conservationists.
      • Farmers also wish to build easy to maintain modern barns in favour of the traditional stone barns. They want to divide their fields with modern easy to maintain wire fencing instead of traditional dry stonewalls. This alters the traditional farming landscape and concerns conservationists.
    • Farmers v Tourists
      • Tourists want access to farmers land, however farmers often deny this access as tourists often erode areas and drop litter that is harmful to livestock.
      HOWEVER Tourists bring money into areas. This can benefit local farmers as they can diversify into tourism to supplement often low incomes
    • Solutions
      • Many farmers are being encouraged to diversify into tourism. This can include modifying old barns and turning them into ‘bunk barns’ (cheap accommodation for tourists), opening bed and breakfasts, using land for campsites and countryside activities. All this benefits tourists and tourism.
      • Farmers are often asked to act as Countryside Stewards, educating the public on how to behave in the countryside.
      • Farmers are also being asked to open up their land for tourists, although restrictions can be imposed at certain times of year e.g. lambing etc, thus reducing conflicts.
      • Farmers are given grants and subsidies from the government and E.U to return to traditional farming methods.
    • Quarrying - Conflicts
    • Quarrying - Solutions
      • Quarries have been encouraged to quarry for only half the year.
      • Tilcon the company that own the Swinden quarry have lowered the floor of the quarry and screened it with trees to make it less obtrusive on the landscape.
      • They have also put covers on their trucks to reduce the spread of quarry dust.
      • Tilcon have also updated their rail facilities and a new train has been introduced. It is estimated that this will take 173 trucks off the narrow Dales roads each day.
      • The waste disposal area for the Swinden quarry is to be landscaped. When they have finished quarrying this area a nature reserve with a man-made lake will be created.
    • Tourism Conflicts
    • Tourists v Locals
      • Tourists cause traffic congestion in villages and the narrow Dales roads. They drive slowly while sightseeing and may stop in inappropriate places. This can cause problems for local people trying to go about their day-to-day business. Malham village is a place that tourists visit in large numbers in the summer (the village is actually home to only 134 people).
      • Tourists can be noisy and disturb locals.
      • Tourists buy up second homes that are used at weekends and holidays. They push the price of houses up so that young local people cannot afford to buy houses. An increase in second-home ownership can result in the closure of local services as the services are only used occasionally. This means that potentially local doctors surgeries, primary schools and grocers shops may close. In their place tourist shops and services open up and this disadvantages remaining locals.
    • Tourists v Farmers
      • TOURISTS
      • trespass on farmers land and may walk on fragile areas prone to erosion.
      • drop litter which is dangerous to livestock
      • leave gates open and animals escape.
      • are noisy and can disturb livestock.
      • thoughtlessly park in rural areas.
    • Tourists v Conservationists
      • Tourists erode existing footpaths and create tracks on hills. These are unsightly and are damaging to the environment. This is particularly obvious in the Three Peaks area that includes Ingleborough. They may also damage vegetation. Malham Cove, a tourist honey pot, is home to rare plants.
      • Tourists drop litter that is unsightly and dangerous to wildlife.
      • Tourists can be noisy disturbing wildlife. Malham Cove for example is home to breeding Housemartins that can be disturbed by the large numbers of visitors to this site.
      • Most tourists arrive in the national park in cars. These pollute the atmosphere. The cars also damage the traditional limestone walls as they squeeze past each other on the narrow roads.
      • Some tourists remove areas of the limestone as souvenirs (such as stalactites and stalagmites) or for garden rockeries (clints).
    • Tourists carrying out different activities come into conflict with each other----
    • MALHAM
      • An example of a rural honeypot.It is a small village at the southern end of the Yorkshire Dales, whose main attractions include;
      • Gordale Scar – limestone gorge formed from collapsed cave system
      • Malham Cove – huge limestone cliff
      • Janet’s Foss waterfall
      • The Pennine Way & many other paths/bridleways pass through the village, which has a large car park as well as many small souvenir shops, cafes etc.
    • Some other things to do around Malham Yorkshire Dales Trekking centre where people can learn to ride the native horse breed the Dales pony. Town End Farm Shop and Tea room Sells local produce.
      • The landscape and natural heritage of Malham has been designated by English Nature as an SSSI - Site of Specific Scientific Interest.
    • The tourism industry in Malham is very important to the local economy, providing lots of jobs to the locals, in areas such as: Serviced and self catering accommodation. Cafes, pubs and bars. Food and specialist shops. Garages .
    • Case study area 2- Dorset Coast LOCATION This area lies on the south coast of England , between the settlements of Lyme Regis in the east and Bournemouth in the west , in the county of Dorset. The southern boundary is the English Channel ,to the north is Somerset & Wiltshire, Hampshire to the east & Devon to the west. The area is about 180kms to the SW of London, accessed by the M3 to Southampton, 80km to the to the northeast, at Southampton.
    • M3
    • Lyme Regis Portland Bill Swanage Bournemouth
    • The physical geography can be divided into 2 geographical zones;-
      • From Lyme Regis to Portland Bill there is a depositional coastline , with mostly low clay cliffs & sandy beaches with pronounced Longshore Drift resulting in sand spits, bars & tombolos
      Conflicts here revolve around the management of the beach material and controversy abounds as to how the management of one area affects its neighbours. The main conflict centres around West Bay, near Bridport
    • West Bay Depositional coastline
    • 2. From Portland Bill eastwards towards Swanage. Here there is an erosional coastline , with tall, more resistant chalk cliffs being eroded and weathered. Mass movements occur here frequently. The conflicts revolve around the management of tourism so that it maximises the economic and social opportunities yet minimises the environmental degradation of the scenery. The main conflict centres around Lulworth Cove.
    • Do I have to learn these facts? Here is the presentation about the Lulworth Cove case study. It starts with an outline of the landscape and some tourism facts No, but any facts that you can quote will gain you ticks in assessments. It’s up to you !
    • Lulworth : tourism figures
      • About 750,000 people visit Lulworth in a year
      • 35% of them come in six weeks during July and August
      • Only 10 % come during the four winter months November to February
      • 95% of Lulworth’s visitors are day vistors
      • The vast majority (over 90%) come by car and coach
      • The Heritage Centre is Dorset’s second most visited tourist attraction and its most visited free attraction
      • The footpath between Lulworth and Durdle Door is the busiest 1 mile stretch of the whole 600 mile SW Coastal Path
      • 95 miles of outstanding scenery and wildlife habitats e.g. the Cove, Stair Hole, cliff path views, Durdle Door
      • It is located on the South West Coastal Path (long distance footpath similar to West Highland Way)
      • Good tourist infrastructure includes cafes, hotels, B and B’s, ice cream kiosks, heritage centre, various shops, holiday park and youth hostel
      • West Lulworth is a picturesque village with thatched cottages and rural ambiance
      • The nearby fossil forest is an important geological SSSI
      • The ‘ classic’ coastal features are of interest to students of geography and geology
      What attracts visitors to Lulworth?
      • There is a good range of outdoor recreational activities eg: watersports, beach activities, boat trips,walking
      • Sites of historical interest eg Corfe Castle
      • Gateway towns eg Swanage , that have developed as tourist resorts
      • Clean & safe (blue flag status) beaches eg: Durdle Door
      • England’s first World Heritage Site because area depicts a geological ‘walk through time' spanning 3 geological periods. Known as The Jurassic Coast
      What attracts visitors to Lulworth?
    • What attracts visitors to Lulworth ?
      • Advantages
      • Employment opportunities i.e. job creation
      • Tourist spending boosts the local economy
      • Local population has more money to spend locally (multiplier effect)
      • Local infrastructure is improved e.g. roads, railways, leisure facilities, retail outlets, medical facilities
      • Improved job opportunities reduces outmigration from the area
      • Disadvantages
      • Increased traffic congestion
      • Increases in various forms of pollution through litter, noise, vandalism, traffic
      • Adverse impact on natural habitats
      • Increased property prices squeeze out local buyers
      • Demands for new property especially holiday accommodaton
      • Jobs created are often seasonal and not beneficial to local people
      Economic advantages and disadvantages of tourism
    • The Jurassic Coast : Social and Economic Opportunities VV ‘05
    • The Jurassic Coast offers a wide range of social and economic opportunities, including …
      • Tourism and recreation
      • Farming
      • Port functions e.g. fishing, marinas
      • Military land use
      • ‘ Protected’ land
    • Farming
    • Agriculture is the major land use along the Jurassic coastline. Most of the cliff top pastures support sheep grazing and dairying. The eastern end of the coastline is underlain by chalk and grazing helps to keep the turf short and support chalk downland plants.
    • Port Functions
    • Good natural harbours along the Jurassic coast hosted a large fishing fleet in the past. Today, residual fishing activity continues from ports such as Weymouth, Lyme Regis and here in picturesque Beer in East Devon. Fishing boats, Beer The growth of tourism has acted as a stimulus for the development of leisure sailing activities. Developments such as this large marina at Weymouth have appeared as a consequence . Weymouth
    • Military Land Use
    • There is a long history of military use of the Jurassic Coast : Historically, the most important site was the naval base at Portland but this closed in 1999. The Army Gunnery School at Lulworth (established during WW1) is now the most significant military installation . 30,000 hectares of land to the east of Lulworth are used for firing ranges including heavy tank fire. The ranges occupy cliff top land which would is not suited to arable farming. Adjacent coastal waters do not encroach on major shipping lanes .
    • Protected Land
    • The unique quality of the landscape and its wildlife habitats merit protection by many different conservation agencies . The local economy benefits through the creation of associated jobs and the visitors which are attracted to the area.
    • Tourists M.O.D . Fishermen Farmers Locals Local Estate Who uses the land around Lulworth ?
    • Conflicts of Land Use in and around the Lulworth ‘Honeypot’ VV ‘05
    • What are Land Use Conflicts?
      • Land use conflicts arise when users of the land do not agree on how it should be used: i t takes at least two ‘sides’ to have a conflict.
      • Questions on land use conflicts will ask about-
      • What land users may be in conflict with one another?
      • What actual conflicts arise between these groups?
      • How can the conflicts be resolved?
      • How successful are the solutions? You are asked to ‘assess’ or ‘evaluate’
      These questions will be considered in the context of the Lulworth ‘Honeypot’
    • Case study of tourism-related conflicts in and around Lulworth
      • The Ministry of Defence
      • Local people (including Lulworth estate, the major local landowner)
      • The Local Authority
      • Environmentalists
      Tourists may find themselves in conflict with the following groups :
    • Examples of Conflicts: The M.O.D. v Tourists Tourists are denied access to large areas around Lulworth for much of the year because of necessary military activity What might the MOD complain about regarding the tourists?
    • Tourists complain about :
      • general access difficulties when roads are closed
      • restrictions which the ranges impose on walkers
    • The MOD does permit access to the ranges at various times. However, problems of access mean there are fewer visitors. However, this helps to preserve the downland and heathland habitats and the ranges have become a reserve for wildlife and an attraction for tourists. MOD v Tourists Habitat preservation
      • Permitting access to the ranges at weekends and busy holiday periods
      • Keeping roads open during the busiest holiday periods
      • Noise levels associated with firing are much reduced at these times
      M.O.D. resolve the conflict by: They also argue that limiting public access has helped to preserve the area and restrict developments which might have made the area less attractive to some tourists. Their access limitations mean that some stretches of the coastline are only accessible to people who are prepared to walk. This helps to preserve quiet stretches on the coastline.
    • Tourists v the Local Community Congestion, noise and pollution
    • Local people complain about …… Congestion : the road to Lulworth Cove is narrow and it is a ‘dead end’ so this part of the village has to absorb all traffic. Inconsiderate parking : creates access problems for local people Noise and litter : the traditional character of the village is spoiled during the summer tourist months by vehicle noise and indiscriminate litter dropping.
    • Litter : this creates visual pollution and is a threat to wildlife Visual intrusion : the holiday park which is managed by the Lulworth Estate is unsightly and out of keeping with the landscape
    • Unsightly tourist shops : these are not in keeping with the character of the village. Local people also complain that other shops raise prices during the tourist season. Second homes : many houses are bought as second homes and lie empty for much of the year. House prices become inflated meaning that it is difficult for local people to buy property.
    • Tourists v Local Community The tourist industry provides employment for local people,brings money & improved services into the local economy
      • The Lulworth Estate manages a car park which accommodates over 500 vehicles on hard standing and in overflow areas
      • A mini roundabout has been constructed to provide easy access to the car park
      • The estate also subsidises a bus service from the local railway station to encourage visitors not to come by car
      Car parking charges are high. Visitors may choose to avoid this by more indiscriminate parking. How can some of these problems be solved?
    • Local Landowner v Tourists
      • The principal local landowner, the Lulworth Estate, uses car park revenue to :
      • fund a range of facilities for tourists
      • fund conservation schemes e.g. footpath maintenance and grassland management
      • They also employ a number of local people
    • Farmers v Conservationists High stocking rates threaten downland (chalkland)vegetation
    • Farmers v Conservationists Farmers are encouraged to join schemes such as Countryside Stewardship. Farmers receive payments in return for lower stocking rates and for work to restore chalk grassland. They also have to grant educational access to their land. Managed grassland in ‘Scratchy Bottom’ dry valley Most of the tenant farmers on the Lulworth Estate receive Countryside Stewardship grants.
    • Environmentalists and conservation groups complain that tourists cause ….. Footpath erosion : This is particularly obvious on the path from Lulworth to Durdle Door -one of the most heavily walked paths in Britain Chalk grassland vegetation is very fragile. Trampling reveals thin soils which are easily eroded. The steep slopes above Lulworth and down to Durdle Door increase erosion rates.
    • Resolving the conflicts between tourists and environmentalists Tourist car parking revenue is used by Lulworth Estate to fund : 1. Free a dmission to the Heritage Centre which offers a range of displays, including interpretative boards to encourage environmental conservation through public education. Also a programme of talks and guided walks 2. The Countryside Ranger Service - two full time rangers employed to undertake a wide range of coastal management duties.
    • 3. Footpath maintenance – much work has been carried out to halt and prevent further erosion. Lulworth to Durdle Door path been rerouted, reseeded and new waymarking inserted. The existing path has been reinforced with local limestone cobbles and steps New timber steps have been built on the steep paths at Durdle Door
    • Other environmentally friendly policies employed by the estate in its management of tourism ……. Durdle Door beach is intentionally un-commercial The one ice cream kiosk has to be towed away every night Litter bins are not provided – visitors are encouraged to take litter away Climbing on the cliffs is banned to prevent damage to the fragile chalk and limit disturbance to wildlife Fossil collecting is not permitted on the cliffs There are plans to visually screen the holiday park
    • How effective is the path maintenance? Resurfacing encourages more walkers! The whiteness of the path is an unnatural scar on the landscape. Steps are unnatural and walkers often choose to avoid them by walking on the grass verge
    • Local landowner v Environmentalists and Local Residents This large and very visible holiday park, run by the Lulworth Estate, is seen by many to be a blot on the landscape
      • Large numbers of visitors bring significant benefits to a rural area which traditionally relied on fishing and farming to sustain the economy
      • Tourism provides substantial full time and seasonal employment
      • Tourism brings revenue into the local economy
      • This results in greater social stability for the local population
      • Funds generated by tourism provide the Lulworth estate with capital for investment at the Cove and for general Estate improvements
      When discussing tourism, remember…..