HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Let’s now look at the three case study farming types.They are called;-SHIFTING CULTIVATIONINTENSIVE PEASANT FARMINGEXTENSIVE COMMERCIAL FARMINGYou will need to know;-•An example of where each type is practiced•What the landscape looks like•How each type works; the good and bad aspects of it•The changes that have been affecting it, and how. 1
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALTropic of Amazon Centra Cancer Basin l AfricaEquator Indonesia and PNG.Tropic ofCapricorn Global Distribution of Shifting Cultivation Global Distribution of Shifting Cultivation 2
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALShifting cultivation is practiced in the EquatorialRainforest areas of the world.An example is the Boro Indian tribe in Amazonia-Brazil, South America. 3
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALThis type of farming is subsistence, extensive, lowtechnology, peasant, low productivity, labour intensive,mainly arable.It is practiced by between 3 and 6 extended families-perhaps twenty to fifty people- who live and farmtogether.They use a huge area of rainforest for their farming,but only small amounts at any one time.It relies on leaving the land empty- fallow- for manyyears to recover after use.The area of rainforest is traditionally handed down tothe next generation; no-one actually ‘owns’ the land. 4
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALThe land is lush with dense vegetation cover, but it isvery fragile! Stop the cycle of nutrients and the soilis easily ruined!The native indians know how to work the land withoutspoiling it in the long term.This is called SUSTAINABLE, and it is good! 5
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL What are the processes involved in Shifting farming?1.The group decide to settle in an area- it could be several hectares in size.2.They build a large, communal hut called a MALOCA.3.The men chop the smaller trees down with axes and machetes.4.Useful trees like bananas and pineapples are left.5.The larger trees are left to help bind the soil and to provide shade; they are too hard to remove, anyway! 7
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL A clearing with its crops surrounding the communal hut.A maloca- home toseveral inter-relatedfamilies. 8
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALA Boro tribe Maloca A Guarani tribe version The design varies between different tribal groups… 9
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALSLASH AND BURN is used to Some trees such as clear the land. the banana tree Why is this better than might be left chopping the trees down standing. Why? and removing them? 10
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL In Papua New Guinea a house is built in a few hours…The final roofcovering goeson… 11
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALInside, the houses are extremely 12 basic.
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL A family in their Maloca. 13
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL6. The women and children burn the chopped wood- itadds ash as a weak fertiliser, though this is quicklywashed out of the soil by the rain.7. The women then plant their ‘gardens’ calledCHAGRAS between the stumps in a random, irregularway.8. They weed and tend the plants over the next fewmonths, and can harvest up to three crops a year.Remember there are no seasons in the rainforest, andthere is continuous growth!9. All the work is done with digging sticks, hoes andmachetes- very low technology! 14
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL..the cut down trees are allowed to dry for three months or so, then burned, in small, controlled fires. 15
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALWho needs matches? … making fire with two sticks 16
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALGround clearance is very hard work, so many stumps, branches and roots are17left.
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALThe burned wood adds ash (a natural fertiliser) tothe soil. 18
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL In this Chagra, -a garden rather than a field-, maize seeds are being planted amongst Sweet Potato. 19
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Manioc – probably the single most important crop……its rootsprovidingcarbohydrate-richCassava flour(Tapioca). 20
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALSimple fences to keep out wild and domestic animals… 21
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Maize (corn) may be grown where the soils are richer.Papaya and otherfruits form animportant part ofthe diet. 22
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Other crops may include… • Yams • Tobacco • Coca • Mangoes • BeansDomesticated animals such as pigs and chickens may alsobe kept. 23
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALHowever, the torrential rains cause rapid leachingUnless the land is left fallow (rested) to minerals of the already poor soils, washing vital recovertheseof the soil andwill be permanently degraded. out nutrients, it reducing its fertility. This is why the clearings are only used for a few years. LEACHING by rain. 24
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALAfter a few years, the crops start to fail andthe clearing is abandoned – to be reclaimed by 25 the forest.
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL See Forest cleared by Booklet ‘slash and burn’ p7 method. The ash acts as a fertiliser Copy labelsThis farming does not lead toserious destruction as itallows the forest to naturallyregenerate. Food crops such as manioc, sweet potatoes and maize are grown. River sites are The diet is supplemented by good for fishing hunting, fishing and gathering 26 and transport food from the forest.
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL…Shifting village and cultivation 27
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL The settlement pattern is dispersed or scattered.Because of the large areaof forest required with allof these moves, the overallpopulation density is verylow – often less than 1person per sq.km. 28
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALThere is a variation on this type of farming;BUSH FALLOWING is where the group settle in onearea, living in a permanent maloca for very muchlonger than usual.They grow their crops in ‘fields’ around thesettlement.To stop the soil getting ruined too soon, theypractice CROP ROTATION. This is where they use adifferent field each time for a different crop.They usually leave some of the fields FALLOW tolet them recover a bit. 29
…rotational bush fallowing Continuously cultivated area around village 1 6 2 Outer clearings farmed in rotation Village5 3 4 30
1. What is a cash crop? What term means the opposite of this?2. What are the differences between intensive and extensive farming? Give an example of a British farm type for each.3.Name the example place from the slides where shifting cultivation is practiced.4. Describe the amount of land each group uses over the whole time. Compare this to how much is used at any one time.5. Who makes up the group who farm together? How many might there be? What density of population can they provide for?6. Describe their house in some detail.7. What do they need to do to the land before they can plant crops? How do they do this?8. What other name is given to this practice?9. Name six crops they grow. How do they supplement their diet? Give two ways.10.Describe examples of the technology they use.11.What makes them move to another area? Explain why this happens.12.Why does bush fallowing sometimes get done instead of the original practice?13.Name and describe briefly six different reasons 31 their farming for type changing.
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Changes 1• Shifting cultivation is in danger of disappearing;• This is due to destruction of large areas of the rainforest on which this system depends – the area available is rapidly shrinking;• This is caused by logging companies, cattle ranchers, gold and diamond miners and other mineral hunters, and new settlers moving in to the forest;• Population growth is also putting additional strain on this way of life – particularly in west Africa. 32
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Changes 2Some Indian groups have been forced into reservations orretreated into more remote areas deep in the forest;Many tribes have suffered from Culture Shock;There has been violence and intimidation against thesetribes, with many thousands killed by new settlers;Thousands have also died due to lack of immunity to“western” diseases such as measles;There has been serious water pollution by gold mining,which uses toxic substances such as mercury. This hascaused poisoning of rivers and people. 33
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALIn Brazil, forexample, the buildingof the TransAmazonian Highwayhas opened up thevirgin rainforest tosettlement andexploitation, oftenwith disastrousconsequences for theshifting cultivators. 34
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURALMassive deforestation is removing the habitat on which shifting cultivation depends, as here in Brazil. 35
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Huge fires now destroy enormous areas in a few hours.Shifting cultivation isabandoned and replaced bylarge, often foreign-ownedschemes. 36
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL…such as the Jari Project in the 70s and 80s, withits forestry plantations, cattle ranches, towns andrailway lines. 37
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Thousands of garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) devastate an area of rainforest in a desperate search for gold. 38
HIGHER GEOGRAPHY HUMAN - RURAL Review of Main points• Shifting Cultivation is also known as slash and burn;• It is found mostly in the equatorial rainforest areas of the world e.g. Amazon, Congo, PNG.• It has several versions, including bush fallowing;• It is low technology;• It supports a very low population density;• Its settlement pattern is dispersed;• It is subsistence farming, with little surplus;• It is under threat due to a combination of outside influences. Detailed knowledge of these forces of change is essential. 39