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Rise Of Hitler And Final Solution Gen Ed 2010
 

Rise Of Hitler And Final Solution Gen Ed 2010

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Background on the rise of Hitler and the Holocaust-- for 8th grade unit

Background on the rise of Hitler and the Holocaust-- for 8th grade unit

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  • Genocide: Term first used by Polish-Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin in 1944 to describe Nazi policies of systematic murder. WWII not first example of such genocide.
  • Many accused of not following the Catholic faith of the King and Queen were forced to wear Non-Catholics marched through the streets before being put to death during the Spanish Inquisition.
  • Surrounding countries did little to stop. Historic Land/Cultural disputes with Ottoman Empire Turks largely Muslim; Armenians largely Christian Result in Turks rounding up those of Armenian descent…starved, beaten, raped, killed. Deported to Syria
  • First called “the war to end all wars.” Fought because of conflicts with European powers and quest for military superiority, land control and national pride. Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey… Allied Powers– Britain, France, Russia, U.S., Italy
  • Germany and other Central Powers defeated. Harsh economic and military sanctions on Germany (some felt too harsh…would lead to unstable Germany and eventually another war)
  • Roaring 20’s
  • Germany among hardest hit as it did not enjoy prosperity of 1920’s. It’s w/in this climate of chaos, desperation that Hitler is able to be so influential
  • Hitler born in Austria-Hungary but enamored w/ German Nationalism (perhaps as act of rebellion against his authoritarian father who served in Austrian govt.) Obscure corporal in WWI Doesn’t become German citizen until 1932
  • “ Purify” Germany and it will rise to be a great power it once was. “ Scapegoat” from religious practice of releasing a goat into the desert as sacrifice (Day of Atonement) Since this goat, carrying the sins of the people placed on it, is sent away to perish [5] , the word "scapegoat" has come to mean a person, often innocent, who is blamed and punished for the sins, crimes, or sufferings of others, generally as a way of distracting attention from the real causes. Calls them a “cancer” to German society.
  • “ Purify” Germany and it will rise to be a great power it once was. “ Scapegoat” from religious practice of releasing a goat into the desert as sacrifice (Day of Atonement) Since this goat, carrying the sins of the people placed on it, is sent away to perish [5] , the word "scapegoat" has come to mean a person, often innocent, who is blamed and punished for the sins, crimes, or sufferings of others, generally as a way of distracting attention from the real causes. Calls them a “cancer” to German society.
  • After fire to the Reichstag, the German “capitol”, (fire likely set by the Nazis) Hitler assumes emergency powers to “protect nation.”
  • American soldiers at gates of Dachau shortly after liberation
  • This poster reads, “The Eternal Jew”. The idea was that Jews were evil, and would never change. The money in his hand shows he is a greedy money lender; the map under his arm indicates he is a communist; the whip in his hand shows that he is responsible for the torture and death of Jesus. Of course, he is generally unappealing in appearance.
  • The word "ghetto" actually comes from the word "getto" or "gheto", which means slag in Venetian , and was used in this sense in a reference to a foundry where slag was stored located on the same island as the area of Jewish confinement "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live; especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure."
  • Living conditions in most ghettos were not good Room is typical of the quality of Ghetto hospitality.
  • Six million– Approx. 1100 students in TJH– 909 times = 1 million (5,450 times as many as in this school) They had wives, children, mothers, fathers, extended family, friends. They loved music, movies, good food. They went to school.
  • Inscription above eternal flame in Holocaust museum’s Hall of Remembrance:

Rise Of Hitler And Final Solution Gen Ed 2010 Rise Of Hitler And Final Solution Gen Ed 2010 Presentation Transcript

  •  
    • Genocide- Term created by combining geno- , from the Greek word for race or tribe, with - cide , from the Latin word for killing.
    • Holocaust (mass killings of Jews by Nazi’s during WWII)…but this was not first example of what could be considered genocide.
  • Spanish Inquisition in 1492--Jews expelled from Spain. sanbenitos - marked robes and hoods for non-believers.
    • Armenia-1915-1918
    • Land and cultural disputes with Turkey
  • “ Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?” Adolf Hitler Estimated one million Armenians killed.
  •  
  • Treaty of Versailles ends war. Restrictions placed on losing nations to limit their power.
    • 1920’s – Good economic times for most of Europe (and United States).
    • Many spend beyond their means—increased personal and national debt.
    • 1929—U.S. Stock Market Crash leads to loss of savings and widespread unemployment. Economic Depression in Europe too.
    • Germany-unemployment rate rose to 23%; people desperate for change.
    • 1919-1933-After serving in WWI, Hitler becomes involved in German politics.
    • 1923-Arrested during anti-government protest and writes Mein Kamp ( My Struggle ) while in prison, 1924-25.
    • Hitler blames Jews for all the economic problems.
    • Jew as scapegoat : person or group singled out unfairly to blame for a problem.
    • After prison, Hitler becomes more involved in National Socialist Party (Nazi) and makes name for himself as a charismatic speaking.
  •  
    • Hitler chooses “SVASTIKA”-symbol for Nazi party.
    • Represents powerful hammer of the god Thor in a circular, swinging motion. (symbol of both creation and destruction).
    • January 30, 1933-Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
    • European leaders do little to stop Hitler from strengthening powers and defying Treaty of Versailles .
  •  
    • 1) Destroy his opponents in Germany.
    • 2) Make Germany the strongest country in Europe by expanding its borders.
    • 3) “Purify" Germany—and then Europe—of "racial enemies" and establish Aryans as the "master race."
    • March, 1933- Nazis open four concentration camps in Germany: Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen and Ravensbruck.
    • Camps built near quarries so prisoners could mine materials for the Reich building plan. (Within 10 years, there were over 1,000 camps.)
  • April, 1933-Nazis sponsor boycott of Jewish businesses.
    • Hitler opens propaganda department to persuade people to follow his views .
    • November 9-10, 1938-Kristellnacht “Night of broken glass” Jewish businesses throughout Germany and Austria destroyed. Thousands of Jews beaten, rounded up and sent to concentration camps.
    • More and more restrictions placed on Jews:
    • curfews, business restrictions , banned from parks, schools, etc.
    • 1939-Yellow Star of David badge first required to be warn by Jewish males and females age six and older.
    • Many sent to concentration camps (other “non-desirables”
    • also targeted-- Gypsies, Catholics, Communists, physically
    • and mentally disabled, homosexuals, etc.).
  • Some of the badges various groups were required to wear in Nazi concentration camps.
  •  
    • 1936 Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles by sending troops into Rhineland, a “demilitarized” zone West of Germany, along Rhine River.
    • March, 1938-Rolls in and annexes (adds ) Austria with no resistance.
    • March, 1939-Invades Czechoslovakia.
  •  
    • September 1, 1939- Hitler invades Poland.
    • September 3, 1939-France and Britain declare war on Germany.
    • Allied and Axis powers at war.
    • U.S. officially remains neutral at first.
    • Many in U.S. sympathize with Hitler and anti-Jewish views.
    • Most know little about concentration camps.
    • United States doesn’t declare war until after
    • Pearl Harbor is attacked on December 7, 1941.
  •  
  • It was not long before people of Jewish ancestry were forced to leave their homes and settle in ghettos .
    • Lublin Ghetto (Poland).
  • Children were forced to work long hours in the ghettos. Violence against those living in the ghettos was commonplace.
    • 1941-“Final Solution to the Jewish Question in Europe” officially proposed.
    • The plan—systematic extermination of Jews. (Already more than a million Jews had been killed, but the plan now made genocide an established policy).
    • More camps built to carry out this plan.
    • Death Camps- built with gas chambers designed as showers.
    • Zyclon B -cyanide based pesticide is used.
  • One of the most famous of these Extermination Camps was Auschwitz, in Poland. The front wall of the camp still stands today.
  •  
    • The Nazi leaders called for detailed documentation and captured much of their atrocities on film.
    • This evidence was used to help convict Nazis of war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials following the end of WWII.
  •  
  • Jewish population in Europe after war was 1/3 of what it had been. Total population- 3,463,500
  • Six million Most were Jewish; some were Gypsies; some were black; some were homosexual; all were human beings. But remember, the German soldiers, Hitler’s advisers and even Hitler himself were also human beings. What does this mean for us today?
  • "Only guard yourself and guard your soul carefully, lest you forget the things your eyes saw, and lest these things depart your heart all the days of your life. And you shall make them known to your children and to your children's children."