The CECRE: Making renewable energytechnologies compatible with the securitytechnologies compatible with the securityof the...
Who is Red Eléctrica?Red Eléctrica de España (REE) is the Spanish transmission system operator (TSO)System Operation:❑ Ope...
System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline3Distrib...
System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline4Distrib...
Spanish Electrical SystemGeneratorsInternational Exchanges · REESpecial RegimeTransmission network· REE System Operator· R...
Daily load demandMaximum demand:41 318 MW 13:26 h 19/07/2010Maximum demand:45 450 MW 18:53 h 17/12/2007Winter load demand ...
Influential factors in load demandTemperatura Mínima1.9 ºC240002800032000Temperatura Máxima34.1 ºC 31.2 ºC29.3 ºC28.7 ºC24...
World Cup 2010 final in South Africa (11th July 2010)Influential factors: special events.32000330003400020:30 h homematchs...
800-1.400600-1.1001.500-2.400Transmission capabilities of interconnections(I)91.500-2.4001.500-2.400600 900http://www.ree....
System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline10Distri...
Installed capacity june 2013Hydro-power17,31% Thermical Renewable0,64% CHP &Other RE7,26%Solar PVSolar CSP2,05%Special reg...
251.901 GWh = 174.144 Net Ordinary Regime+ 102.428 Net Special Regime-11.206 International exchanges-3.215 Hydro-pump stor...
Installed capacity evolution13
System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadays1.- Demand coverageOutline142....
1.- Demand coverageBig difference between peak hours demand and off- peak hoursdemand during the dayNo possibility to stor...
Demand coverage: Wind Generation in year 2012 (I)Maximum coverage 2012 (24/09/2012): 64% wind production = 13285 MW16Minim...
WinterPV power plants:WindRESCC HydroDemand coverage: Solar photovoltaic051015202530354045507:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:...
CSP power plants:WindRESDemand coverage: Solar thermoelectric (I)18WinterSumerCSP power plants:CC HydroWind RESCC Hydro
Example of the needed flexibility Maximum demand36 319 MWGeneration mixduring off-peakDownward tertiary reserveexhausted i...
2.- Distributed generation:Lack of observability and controllabilityConnection points are far from consumption.More than 2...
Observability, why?OBSERVABILITYReal timemeasurementsProductionforecastHot reserveevaluationAvoidingdemandforecast errors2...
Observability: And if not, what?Without a reliableforecastDemand forecasterrors22IncreasingUncertaintiesReducing theSecuri...
3.- Grid constrainsDepending on the generation scenario and the grid situation there aresignificant changes in the use of ...
Influence of renewable energy integration in power flowsNovember 3rd 2011 November 6th 2011 November 7th 2011Grid constrai...
4.- Behavior facing disturbancesTechnological characteristics (power electronics) of some RES facilitiescan cause:Wind and...
Demand coverage:Demand is given at a certain moment, until relevant demand side managementtakes place, generation must ada...
Generation mix during off-peak hoursBalance feasibility during off-peak hours (I)Maximum demand:39 183 MWDownward tertiary...
27 combined cycle unitsduring peak hoursBalance feasibility during off-peak hours (II)Lower productionon peak hoursWind Co...
6.- Voltage controlParameter that determines system quality.Conventional generation, through reactive power injection/abso...
7.- Impact of forecast errors (SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)Forecast can mitigate the effects of renewable energies variability i...
780082008600Impact of forecast errors on system operationWind SolarIncrease of 586 MW in 30 min. Gradient: 1172 MW/hDecrea...
RES forecasts available to the CECREWind: SIPREOLICO Solar: SIPRESOLARAggregated national hourly forecast up to 10 daysin ...
On the morning of Sunday November 2nd at 8:00 h with one of the lowest demands ofthe year (~20 000 MW), wind prediction er...
January 23rd and 24th 2009: Storm Klaus. Winds up to 220 km/h hit the Iberianpeninsula.Most turbines in the north of Spain...
System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline35Distri...
Target: achieve a greater level of integration for renewable energy sources withoutcompromising system securityMain functi...
System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline37Distri...
ConclusionsIntegrating non manageable generation is a challenging task: Low availability, production notcorrelated with co...
Thanks for your attention!39María Sánchez Llorentemasanchez@ree.es
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The CECRE: Making renewable energy technologies compatible with the security of the system - María Sánchez (REE)

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The CECRE: Making renewable energy technologies compatible with the security of the system - María Sánchez (REE)

  1. 1. The CECRE: Making renewable energytechnologies compatible with the securitytechnologies compatible with the securityof the systemJune 2013
  2. 2. Who is Red Eléctrica?Red Eléctrica de España (REE) is the Spanish transmission system operator (TSO)System Operation:❑ Operate the grid & coordinates its uses with the generation facilities in order to ensure the securityand continuity of the electricity supply.Transmission (Since 2007 as exclusive transmission company):❑ The development and the maintenance of the transmission facilities❑ Provide maximum service reliability2❑ ~ 41,000 km of lines and 78,000 MW of transforming capacityTransmission Grid End 2012Main magnitudes (SPPS) REELines400 kV [km ct] 20104≤≤≤≤ 220 kV [km ct] 21124Substations≤≤≤≤ 220 & 400 kV [nº bays] 5053Transformers [MVA] 78050
  3. 3. System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline3Distributed Generation (Observability/Controllability)Grid constrains (RdT/RdD)Behavior facing disturbances (Voltage dips)Power balance feasibility and RES courtailmentsVoltage controlImpact of forecast errors(SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)CECRE: Control Centre for Renewable EnergiesConclusions
  4. 4. System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline4Distributed Generation (Observability/Controllability)Grid constrains (RdT/RdD)Behavior facing disturbances (Voltage dips)Power balance feasibility and RES courtailmentsVoltage controlImpact of forecast errors(SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)CECRE: Control Centre for Renewable EnergiesConclusions
  5. 5. Spanish Electrical SystemGeneratorsInternational Exchanges · REESpecial RegimeTransmission network· REE System Operator· REE TSO (foreign)Ancilliary services bids5Daily and IntradailyMarketDaily and IntradailyMarketDemand bidsEnergy flowsCommunicationMarket Operator· OMELDistribution companiesRed de distribución< 132 kVSubestaciónde distribuciónQualified consumersOutagesAncillary ServicesAncillary ServicesConsumers with/withoutlast resort tariffSuppliers Last resort suppliers Demand bids
  6. 6. Daily load demandMaximum demand:41 318 MW 13:26 h 19/07/2010Maximum demand:45 450 MW 18:53 h 17/12/2007Winter load demand record Summer load demand record6Big gap between peak hoursdemandand off- peak hours demand• Spanish maximun peak demand: 45 GW• Spanish minimum off-peak demand : 18 GW.
  7. 7. Influential factors in load demandTemperatura Mínima1.9 ºC240002800032000Temperatura Máxima34.1 ºC 31.2 ºC29.3 ºC28.7 ºC240002800032000❑ Temperature38.00030.00034.00036.00028.00032.000Temperature Mínimum Temperature maximum78.3 ºC20000 20000Nubosidad210002500029000❑ CloudinessPuente Fiesta Postfestivo10000130001600019000220002500028000L M X❑ Holidays26.000 24.00038.00026.00030.00034.00038.00026.00030.00034.00036.00032.00028.000Long weekend: work day -bank holiday-work day
  8. 8. World Cup 2010 final in South Africa (11th July 2010)Influential factors: special events.32000330003400020:30 h homematchs23:00 h finalmatchs8270002800029000300003100032000MWHORA 21:15 h first half22:15 hsecond half
  9. 9. 800-1.400600-1.1001.500-2.400Transmission capabilities of interconnections(I)91.500-2.4001.500-2.400600 900http://www.ree.es/operacion/capacidades.asp•In specific situations, usually linked tounavailability of network elements of thetransport capacity values can occur belowthe ranges presented.Not considered these values by its lowfrequency and representativeness.
  10. 10. System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline10Distributed Generation (Observability/Controllability)Grid constrains (RdT/RdD)Behavior facing disturbances (Voltage dips)Power balance feasibility and RES courtailmentsVoltage controlImpact of forecast errors(SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)CECRE: Control Centre for Renewable EnergiesConclusions
  11. 11. Installed capacity june 2013Hydro-power17,31% Thermical Renewable0,64% CHP &Other RE7,26%Solar PVSolar CSP2,05%Special regime hydro2,04%Technology MW %Combined cycles 24947 24.9Hydro-power 17303 17.3Coal 10740 10.711Combined cycles24,96%Coal10,75%Fuel-Gas0,51%Nuclear7,58%Wind22,59%Solar PV4,32%Coal 10740 10.7Nuclear 7572 7.6Fuel-Gas 506 0.5Total (ordinary regime) 61068 61.0Wind 22668 22.6CHP &Other RE 7252 7.2Solar PV 4429 4.4Special regime hydro 2039 2.0Solar CSP 2050 2.0Thermical Renewable 639 0.6Total (special regime) 39077 39.0Total 100145
  12. 12. 251.901 GWh = 174.144 Net Ordinary Regime+ 102.428 Net Special Regime-11.206 International exchanges-3.215 Hydro-pump storage- 570 Baleares InterconnectionDemand supply 201212Special Regulation RegimeRenewable:MinihydroBiomassWindIndustrial wasteUrban wasteSolarNon Renewable:CogenerationCoalFuel - Gas oilRefinery gasNatural gasCoal; 12,6% Coal national (RD134/2010); 7,7%Combined cycle; 14,8%Fuel-Gas;0,0%Nuclear; 23,2%Small Hydro; 1,8%Hydro-power; 7,6%Solar CSP; 1,4%Solar PV; 3,2%Wind; 19,1%CHP Renewable; 1,9% CHP non RES; 13,3%∑Energy without emissionsCO2 ≈ 58,2% ∑Renewable Energy ≈ 35%
  13. 13. Installed capacity evolution13
  14. 14. System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadays1.- Demand coverageOutline142.- Distributed Generation (Observability/Controllability)3.- Grid constrains (RdT/RdD)4.- Behavior facing disturbances (Voltage dips)5.- Power balance feasibility and RES courtailments6.- Voltage control7.- Impact of forecast errors(SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)CECRE: Control Centre for Renewable EnergiesConclusions
  15. 15. 1.- Demand coverageBig difference between peak hours demand and off- peak hoursdemand during the dayNo possibility to storage big quantity of electrical energy meansGeneration must adapt to demand in each momentFlexibility of each plant to adapt their production to the demandnecessities is mainly determined by technology facilities15Continuous manageable generation actions are needed in order to maintainsystem equilibriumnecessities is mainly determined by technology facilitiesRES has priority of dispatchRES production depends on their primary energy availabilityIt is required plants that can adapt their production to the demand necessities:manageable generation
  16. 16. Demand coverage: Wind Generation in year 2012 (I)Maximum coverage 2012 (24/09/2012): 64% wind production = 13285 MW16Minimum coverage 2012(11/09/2012): <1% wind production = 81 MWVery variable production outputHistorical maximum wind production (06/02/13 at 15:49 h): 17056 MW
  17. 17. WinterPV power plants:WindRESCC HydroDemand coverage: Solar photovoltaic051015202530354045507:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00MWHour of the day November 21st 2010Plant1 30 MW Plant2 13 MW Plant3 7 MW17WinterSumerPV power plants:CC HydroWind RESCC HydroPlant1 30 MW Plant2 13 MW Plant3 7 MWPlant4 22 MW Plant5 48 MW Sum 120 MW01020304050607080901006:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00MWHour of the day October 20th 2010Plant1 30 MW Plant 2 13 MW Plant 3 7 MWPlant4 22 MW Plant 5 48 MW Sum 120 MW
  18. 18. CSP power plants:WindRESDemand coverage: Solar thermoelectric (I)18WinterSumerCSP power plants:CC HydroWind RESCC Hydro
  19. 19. Example of the needed flexibility Maximum demand36 319 MWGeneration mixduring off-peakDownward tertiary reserveexhausted in hours 3:00-9:30 and15:00-18:00 h195 combined cycleunits during off-peak hoursMinimum demand20 638 MW30 combined cycleunits during peakhours
  20. 20. 2.- Distributed generation:Lack of observability and controllabilityConnection points are far from consumption.More than 2000 RE facilities, each belonging to different companies withdifferent policies on operation and maintenance.Slow contact in case of emergency reductions, outages or transmissionassets maintenance.20assets maintenance.If required actions take too much time, risks are higher. Then stricterlimitations must be applied and have to be planned further in advance, sohigher reductions to RES production have to be established by the TSO.Solved by grouping facilities in control centers with real-time contactwith the System Operator through the CECRE.
  21. 21. Observability, why?OBSERVABILITYReal timemeasurementsProductionforecastHot reserveevaluationAvoidingdemandforecast errors21Observability is required to have real time information of theproduction of the renewable energy facilities.This information is used to make reliable production forecastsfor this type of installations.Renewable forecasts are a basic tool for hot reserve evaluation.Its accuracy affects the required levels of reserve and helpsdispatching manageable generation to counteract renewable andnon manageable variability.Receiving the real time measurements of all the generationfacilities allow the TSO to distinguish between generation anddemand, avoiding demand forecast errors as well.DispatchingmanageablegenerationCOUNTERACTRENEWABLEVARIABILITY
  22. 22. Observability: And if not, what?Without a reliableforecastDemand forecasterrors22IncreasingUncertaintiesReducing theSecurity of thesystemIncreasing therequired levelof reservesReducing REproduction
  23. 23. 3.- Grid constrainsDepending on the generation scenario and the grid situation there aresignificant changes in the use of lines.Transmission grid/Distribution grid maintenance works23Transmission grid/Distribution grid maintenance worksGrid elements unavailability due to breakdownsIt is necessary to reduce renewable non manageable generation to maintainsecurity system or grid elements
  24. 24. Influence of renewable energy integration in power flowsNovember 3rd 2011 November 6th 2011 November 7th 2011Grid constrains24Heavy flows from the North-West to the center and East.Low hydro and CC.Heavy flows from the Eastto the center and North.Low hydro and CC.Heavy flows from the Eastand South-West to thecenter and South. Highhydro and CC.
  25. 25. 4.- Behavior facing disturbancesTechnological characteristics (power electronics) of some RES facilitiescan cause:Wind and solar photovoltaic generation tripping due to voltage dipsWind generation tripping due to their over-speed protection25Increase of installed RES power with fault-ride-through capabilities andsystem security
  26. 26. Demand coverage:Demand is given at a certain moment, until relevant demand side managementtakes place, generation must adapt to demand to maintain system equilibrium.Adequacy to system demand profiles.Variability and predictability5.- Power balance feasibility and RES curtailments26The combination of these two factors along with the behavior and uncertainty of thedemand contribute to situations with balance feasibility difficulties due to lack ofdownward reserve.Variability and predictabilityVariability influences the rest of the electric system that must compensate suchvariations to keep the system balanced.Predicting this variability and awareness of uncertainties crucial for efficientoperation.
  27. 27. Generation mix during off-peak hoursBalance feasibility during off-peak hours (I)Maximum demand:39 183 MWDownward tertiary reserveexhausted in hours 2:00-6:0027Minimum demand:23 653 MW
  28. 28. 27 combined cycle unitsduring peak hoursBalance feasibility during off-peak hours (II)Lower productionon peak hoursWind Combined cycle281 combined cycle unitduring off-peak hoursHigh production duringoff-peak hours
  29. 29. 6.- Voltage controlParameter that determines system quality.Conventional generation, through reactive power injection/absorption, playan essential roll in continuous system voltage control at the substation level.Nowadays, RES generators only maintain power factor.29Continuous voltage control through the CECRE also for RESgeneration with P>10 MW.
  30. 30. 7.- Impact of forecast errors (SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)Forecast can mitigate the effects of renewable energies variability inSystem Operation, but errors must be taken into account and additionalreserves must be provided to overcome them.Larger forecast errors imply more provision of reserves increasing system30Larger forecast errors imply more provision of reserves increasing systemcostsREE has developed its own prediction for wind generation (SIPREOLICO)and for solar generation (SIPRESOLAR)
  31. 31. 780082008600Impact of forecast errors on system operationWind SolarIncrease of 586 MW in 30 min. Gradient: 1172 MW/hDecrease of 1110 MW in 1 h 25 min. Gradient: -785 MW/hDecrease of 400 MW in 1 hSolar gradients are smaller than wind gradients due to thefact that wind total installed capacity is quiet higher thansolar one. But also relevant.31580062006600700074007800At present wind downward/upward ramps may reach±1500 MWh.Renewable production depends on weather conditions, so less wind or more clouds mean greatproduction gradients. So it is necessary to check the instantaneous need for manageable generationin order to size reserves . Generation RES forecast becomes crucial for system balancing.
  32. 32. RES forecasts available to the CECREWind: SIPREOLICO Solar: SIPRESOLARAggregated national hourly forecast up to 10 daysin advanceDetailed hourly forecasts up to 48 hours in advanceDeveloped in MATLAB environmentStatistical method: based on self-adaptive time seriesTwo different forecast for CSP and PV.Aggregated national hourly forecast up to 10 days inadvanceDetailed hourly forecasts up to 48 hours in advanceBased on artificial neural network..32Statistical method: based on self-adaptive time seriesProbabilistic wind power forecast: confidence intervalsBased on artificial neural network..Probabilistic wind power forecast: confidence intervals
  33. 33. On the morning of Sunday November 2nd at 8:00 h with one of the lowest demands ofthe year (~20 000 MW), wind prediction error hit 3 200 MW.Increase in error from 5:00 to 7:00 h too fast to have time to shut down thermal plants.Spanish system ran out of downward reserves very rapidly and the only solution toExhaustion of downward reserve due to wind forecast errorsWind reduction instructions, November 2nd 200833Spanish system ran out of downward reserves very rapidly and the only solution tobalance the system was to decrease wind production from 7:22 to 9:30 h.
  34. 34. January 23rd and 24th 2009: Storm Klaus. Winds up to 220 km/h hit the Iberianpeninsula.Most turbines in the north of Spain shut down due to their over-speed protection.Difference between real and forecasted wind production was greater than 6 000 MW onExhaustion of upward reserve due to wind generation trippingWind reduction instructions, January 23rd and 24th 200934Difference between real and forecasted wind production was greater than 6 000 MW onsome hours, but since demands were low and thermal plants were connected in realtime due to alert situation there was enough upward reserve to deal with these errors.
  35. 35. System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline35Distributed Generation (Observability/Controllability)Grid constrains (RdT/RdD)Behavior facing disturbances (Voltage dips)Power balance feasibility and RES courtailmentsVoltage controlImpact of forecast errors(SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)CECRE: Control Centre for Renewable EnergiesConclusions
  36. 36. Target: achieve a greater level of integration for renewable energy sources withoutcompromising system securityMain function: Organise special regime electric production according to the needs of theelectric system.Control Centre for Renewable Energies (CECRE)36
  37. 37. System OverviewInstalled capacity in Spain todayIssues and solutions integrating RE nowadaysDemand coverageOutline37Distributed Generation (Observability/Controllability)Grid constrains (RdT/RdD)Behavior facing disturbances (Voltage dips)Power balance feasibility and RES courtailmentsVoltage controlImpact of forecast errors(SIPREOLICO/SIPRESOLAR)CECRE: Control Centre for Renewable EnergiesConclusions
  38. 38. ConclusionsIntegrating non manageable generation is a challenging task: Low availability, production notcorrelated with consumption, lack of firmness of generation programs and power balance difficulties.Although these, CECRE and the RESCC have helped to reach a high penetration of special regimegeneration in the System making these technologies compatible with security of supply.Wind forecast has been improving in the last years, being now a basic tool for hot reserveevaluation. Its accuracy for time scopes from 5 hours to 24 hours in advance affect required levels of38evaluation. Its accuracy for time scopes from 5 hours to 24 hours in advance affect required levels ofreserve and helps dispatching manageable generation to counteract wind fluctuations.CSP plants can adapt their production to the demand necessities, even more if they can storageheat into salts. But it is necessary to pass the power controllability tests carry out by the SO.Complying with the new RD 1565/2010 will let the TSO to receive the real time measurementsachieving visibility and controllability of the solar PV generation.In addition, if facilities are grouped in control centers with real-time contact with the SystemOperator through the CECRE, implies that curtailments take less time to be done so less strictlimitations could be planned and placed, increasing RES production and installation.
  39. 39. Thanks for your attention!39María Sánchez Llorentemasanchez@ree.es

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