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Appraisal of solar resources

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  • 1. Appraisal of Solar Resources LUIS MARTIN POMARES IrSOLaVSolar Technology Advisors S.L.Plaza de Manolete, 2, 11-C28020 MadridTel. +34 91 383 58 20 February, 2013
  • 2. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 3. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 4. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Introduction Solar resources evaluation is a necessary first step for the study of any energy system. The objective is the determination of the solar radiation collected in a specific site, for its use in a specific solar technology. As inputs, it is necessary to have information related to the source and to the technology. The methodologies can be classified as: classical evaluation (from measurements), and evaluation from satellite images.
  • 5. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS IntroductionTo obtain solar radiation data it is possible:  To measure it: global?, diffuse? Direct normal?  And / or derive the needed variable (classical evaluation)  To estimate using satellite images or NWPM (mainly global).  And / or derive the needed variable (classical evaluation) Once solar radiation data are available, the generation of a series for simulation it is possible. As a first step of all this subjects, it is necessary to study the nature of the solar resource.
  • 6. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 7. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATIONCHARACTERISTICSSolar energy reaches the earth in a discontinuous form, showing cycles or periods: Daily cycle: accounts for 50% of the total availability of daily hours. Another effect of the daily cycle is the modulation of the received energy throughout the day. Seasonal cycle: modulation of the received energy throughout the year.
  • 8. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATIONCHARACTERISTICS: Low Density The maximum possible amount of solar radiation received by the surface of the atmosphere at 1 AU is 1367 W/m2 Large surfaces are needed to achieve high power outputs. To increase the density concentration should be used. A limitation to concentration is that this only has any effect on the direct component of solar radiation.
  • 9. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS:Geographic variation In clear sky conditions: the solar radiation depends mainly on the latitude. Latitude effect is equivalent to the modification of the angle of incidence of solar radiation. For the modulation of the received energy the following can be used:  Solar tracker  Plane inclination The inclination of the reception plane means:  Modification of the latitude effect  Modification of the annual distribution.
  • 10. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS:Random situations Solar radiation on the earth´s surface is modulated by climatic conditions. Clear sky conditions are not common. The latitude indicates a maximum range, but the energy received is determined by local climatic conditions.
  • 11. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 12. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSUN-EARTH RELATIONSHIPS: Sun-earth distance The earth revolves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit, with the Sun in one of its foci. The amount of incoming solar radiation to the earth is inversely proportional to the sun´s square distance. The distance is measured in astronomical units (AU) equivalent to the mean earth-sun distance.
  • 13. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Solar constant and solar geometry Is the amount of solar energy incident in 1m2 of surface perpendicularly exposed to the solar rays and placed at 1 AU of distance. Changes slightly with time, but can be considered as constant. Ion = 1367 W/m2.(WRC). The solar radiation has participation in several electromagnetic spectral ranges. Solar geometry is well knownWe can estimate with high accuracy the solar irradiation at thetop of the atmosphere at every moment and every place
  • 14. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS SUN-EARTH RELATIONSHIPS: Sun declination Considering the ecliptic plane (ECLP) as the plane of earth´s revolution around the Sun and the equatorial plane (EQUP) as the plane containing the equator: Polar axis is tilted 23.5º with respect to the perpendicular of the ECLP. ECLP and EQUP cross in the equinoxes and the distance is maximum in the solstices. The angle in a specific moment between both planes is called DECLINATION
  • 15. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS SUN-EARTH RELATIONSHIPS: Relative position sun-horizontal surface These are trigonometric relationships between the sun´s position in the sky and specific coordinates on the earth surface In a specific moment the following must SOL ZENITH be considered: • zenith (θ ) angle and solarTRAYECTORIA SOLAR (+) MAÑANA W (-) ESTE θz z elevation (α) • azimuth (ψ) = angle between the -ψ ψ α observer meridian and the solar meridianS 0 N • hourly angle (ω) = angle between the +ψ sun position and the south meridian PROYECCION DE LA TRAYECTORIA SOLAR 15º=1hour; +E /-W. E • Sunrise angle (ωs) = sunset angle (horizon)
  • 16. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Hourly radiation over horizontal surface One specific day: the extraterrestrial radiation over a perpendicular surface to the Sun´s rays is expressed as: Placing this surface over the earth, it is necessary to take into account the cosine of the incident angle:
  • 17. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 18. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Hourly radiation over horizontal surface The main phenomena that take place when the solar radiation through the atmosphere are: Absorption by the atmospheric components. Diffusion or scattering.
  • 19. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSInteraction of solar radiation withthe atmosphere Radiation at the top of atmosphere Absorption (ca. 1%) Ozone.……….….... Rayleigh scattering and absorption (ca. 15%) Air molecules..…… Scatter and Absorption (ca. 15%, max. 100%) Aerosol…….………..…...…… Clouds………….……….. Reflection, Scatter, Absorption (max. 100%) Water Vapor…….……...……… Absorption (ca. 15%) Direct normal irradiance at ground
  • 20. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Hourly radiation over horizontal surface The main phenomena that take place when the solar radiation through the atmosphere are: Absorption by the atmospheric components. Diffusion or scattering. As a consequence, the solar radiation has modified its nature, and mainly its directional component: G = I cos θ + D + R
  • 21. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSolar radiation components RADIATION REFLECTED BY CLOUDS GROUND ALBEDO ABSORPTION SCATTERING DIRECT NORMAL RADIATION DIFUSE RADIATION
  • 22. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSPhenomena through the atmosphere
  • 23. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 24. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS SOLAR RADIATION ON THE EARTH SURF Direct solar radiation Is the radiation coming directly from the Sun disk. Have a vector character and can be concentrated. Can be 90% of the solar radiation on clear sky days, and can be null in cloud covered days. As a directional component, the contribution on a surface is the perpendicular projection over this surface: beam radiation is the radiation perpendicular to the suns rays, then: Ih = I cos θ With solar trackers it can be maximised. I ≅ DNI
  • 25. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS SOLAR RADIATION ON THE EARTH SURF Diffuse solar radiation A part of the solar radiation that is lost when it is absorbed by the atmospheric components. Another part is reflected by these components producing direction changes and energy reduction. Diffuse radiation = the part of this radiation that reaches the earths surface. Diffuse radiation has three components: Circumsolar Horizon band Blue sky
  • 26. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS SOLAR RADIATION ON THE EARTH SURF Reflected solar radiation Is the radiation coming from the reflection of the solar radiation on the ground or on other nearby surfaces. Usually is small, but can be around 40% of the solar radiation.
  • 27. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSLey of Beer In  I0  e(  k L )  I0  e(   m )  I0  T In   In d    I0  e(  k L ) d   ISC e  m Clear sky models or transmitance models Bn  I CS  (TRToTgTwTa  0.013) Yang Bn  ICS  exp[0.8662 TLAM 2 mp  R ] C ESRA
  • 28. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS The concept of optical massAproximation to plane- parallel 1 m cos Karsten equation m  (sin  0.15(  3.885)1.253 )1
  • 29. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSAir mass: variability 35 30 25Masa relativa de aire 20 15 10 5 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
  • 30. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Sensibility of ESRA model to TL Influence of TLINKE and altitude above sea level on DNI for clear sky Dia juliano=200, z=500, Lat=37º N Long=-2º E TL=4, dia juliano=200, Lat=37º N Long=-2º E 1200 1000 TL=2 z=0 m TL=4 900 z=500 m 1000 TL=6 z=1000 m 800 700 800DNI (Wh m-2) 600 DNI (Wh m-2) 600 500 400 400 300 200 200 100 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0 5 10 15 20 25 Hora Hora
  • 31. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSComponents and non-dimensioanlindexes Components of solar radiation in horizontal surface IG  IB cos  ID Clear sky or transparency index IG kt  I0 Difuse radiation fraction ID kd  IG Beam radiation transmitance IB kb  I0
  • 32. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSEstimation of beam solar radaition Correlations to estimate difuse radiation fraction G (1  kd ) Ib  1.0  0.09kt kt  0.22  sen( )   kd  0.9511  1.1604kt  4.388kt 2  16.638kt 3  12.336kt 4 0.22  kt  0.8  0.165 k  0.8   t  Correlations to estimate beam transmitance I b  kb I o kb  0.002  0.059kt  0.994kt 2  5.205kt 3  15.307kt 4  10.627kt 5
  • 33. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION ON THE EARTH SURFPhenomena through the atmosphere  Spectral distribution of solar radiation for a s standard atmosphere -- an "average" atmosphere with specified characteristics -- compared to the extraterrestrial radiation at the average Earth/sun distance.  Direct normal radiation  Diffuse radiation The relationship between direct and diffuse radiation depends on the position of the sun in the sky. The sun in Figure is at an elevation angle of about 42º, giving a relative air mass of about 1.5. (If the sun is directly overhead, the relative air mass is 1, by definition.)
  • 34. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 35. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS SOLAR RADIATION DATA Due to the climatic factors that modify the solar radiation received on the earth´s surface, it is impossible to know beforehand the energy that will be received by the system. Then it is necessary to use data of solar radiation of the past years. In the evaluation of solar radiation on a specific site, can assume two cases: In the evaluation of solar radiation on a specific site, can assume two cases: Estimation of the solar radiation (global or its components), in sites with any information related to solar radiation:  FROM MEASUREMENTS (AND/ OR USING CLASSICAL EVALUATION MODELS) The estimation of the solar radiation and its components, in sites without any previous information.  EVALUATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES  EVALUATION FROM NWPM (AND/ OR USING CLASSICAL EVALUATION MODELS)
  • 36. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION UNCERTAINTY OF ONE INSTRUMENT Distribution of the observations. If there are n comparisons of an operational instrument holding constant the measured variable and all other relevant parameters, and establishing a true value using a reference standard, the results can be represented as in Fig. The accuracy with which a meteorological variable should be measured changes with the specific purpose which it is intended that measure. For most operational and research purposes, the determination of required accuracy aims to ensure compatibility of data, both in space and time. In cases where it is difficult to ascertain the absolute accuracy, it is usually enough to take measures to ensure that the data are sufficiently compatible for users.
  • 37. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION SOLAR RADIATION
  • 38. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSMeasuring Solar Radiation:Pyrheliometers Direct Normal Radiation EKO MS-54  Measures direct beam irradiance  Typically used for calibration transfers  Normally defined with an opening angle of 5 Middleton DN5  If used in conjunction with pyranometers, the optical flat protecting entrance should match the optical material of the pyranometer domes  Relatively easy to characterize  4 major manufacturers: • EKO Instruments (Japan) • Eppley Instruments (USA) • Kipp & Zonen (Netherlands) • Middleton Solar [Carter Scott Design] (Australia)  Normally mounted on passive or active solar tracking systems
  • 39. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSMeasuring Solar Radiation: PyranometersGlobal Horizontal Radiation Tilted Irradiance  Most pyranometers use a thermopile as means of converting solar irradiance into an electrical signal.  Silicon cell pyranometers are also available, but are not recommended b WMO.  Advantage of the thermopile is that it is spectrally neutral across the entire solar spectrum (domes may have spectral dependencies).  Disadvantage is that the output is temperature dependent and the instruments must ‘create’ a cold junction.
  • 40. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Measuring Solar Radiation: Silicon Pyranometers Instrument’s spectral response is non-linear and does not match solar spectrum.  General calibrations are through comparison with pyranometers, therefore there are spectral mismatch problems.  LiCor is the primary instrument manufacturer and recognizes these problems:  “The spectral response of the LI-200 does not include the entire solar spectrum, so it must be used in the same lighting conditions as those under which it was calibrated.” –Pyranometer sensors are calibrated against an Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) under natural daylight conditions. Typical error under these conditions is ±5%. (LiCor) –Similar problems arise when using sensors calibrated in one climate regime and used in a different regime.
  • 41. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Rotating Shadowband Radiometer RSR2 LI-COR Terrestrial Radiation Sensors Irradiance Inc. (www.irradiance.com) LI-200 Pyranometer is a silicon photodiode calibrated from LI-COR ±5% RSR2 Head unit includes a moving shadowband that momentarily casts a shadow over a LI-200 pyranometer Motor controller contains circuit to control the exact movement of shadowband LI-200 Pyranometer Correction provided by Algorithm Measurement:  Global Horizontal Irradiance  Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance Calculation:  Direct Normal Irradiance RSR2 Headunit RSR2 Motor Controller
  • 42. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSEspectral measurements
  • 43. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSolar trackers
  • 44. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSData logger For continuous recording automatic data logger are required. The main requirement in terms of exposure must be the lack of obstructions to the solar beam at all times and seasons. Furthermore, the exact location of the instrument must be chosen so that the incidence of fog, smoke and air pollution is as representative as possible of the surrounding geographic area.
  • 45. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSMeasuring Solar Radiation:Typical BSRN-like stations
  • 46. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSMeasurement recomendations  Know exactly what temporal reference of the masurements you are using (TSV, GMT, Local etc)  Register with enough temporal resolution, almost 10 minutes to register the dinamic of cloud transients.  Follow BSRN recomendation for maintenance of instruments. Cleaning every day radiometers, calibrate once per year each instrument,…  Secure the relation G=B cos θ + D. Some solar trackers have embeded this filter in its program to activetes realtime alarms when measurement is worng.
  • 47. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 48. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE ANDNWP MODELS FROM SATELLITE  The satellite  Methodology  Example of models application FROM NWP MODELS  General overview  Main models  Main characteristics
  • 49. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSMeteorological Satellite population
  • 50. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSatellite classificationAccording to the type of orbit :Polar satellites: placed in polar orbits, modifying its perspective and distance to the earth. The resolutions of these satellites are around 1m to 1km.Geostationary satellites: placed in the geostationary orbit that is, the place in the space where the earths attraction force is null. It is an unique circumference where all the geostationary satellites are situated in order to cover the whole earths surface. The resolutions of these satellites are higher in the sub satellite point on the equator, and go decreasing in all directions.
  • 51. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSMeteorological satellites  In meteorology studies frequents observations and with high density on the earth’s surface are required. Conventional systems do not provide a global cover.  An important tool to analyse the distribution of the climatic system are the METEOROLOGICAL SATELITES. These can be:  Polar satellites.  Geoestationary: In EUROPE and part of ASIA, the system of geosttationary meteorolgical satellites is called METEOSAT.
  • 52. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSMeteosat Satellite coverage Meteosat Prime Meteosat East Spatial resolution 2.5 km at sub satellite, eg. About 3x4 km in Europe Temporal resolution 1h. Current Coverage: Meteosat Prime up to 1991-2005, Meteosat East 1999 - 2006
  • 53. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE:ADVANTAGES  The geostationary satellites shows simultaneously big land areas.  The information of these satellites is always referred to the same window and can be put on top.  There are the possibility to know previous situations using satellite images of previous years.  The utilization of the same detector to evaluate the radiation in different places.
  • 54. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSolar radiation derived fromsatellite imagesSatellite to irradiance: general procedure • Meteosat – Goes - Mtsat • 60’, 30’ or 15’ images in the visible position assessment geometric corrections – pixels averaging model to obtain global irradiance
  • 55. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSummary of the methodologyMETHODOLOGY OF THE STATISTICAL MODELS:• Cloud cover index determination.• Hourly clearness index determination (hourly global radiation).• Daily clearness index determination (daily global radiation).BASED ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN:• The measurement of the solar radiation.• The value of the digital count form the satellite image (corresponding to the measures locations)
  • 56. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSClearness index=Global radiation  The geostationary satellites shows simultaneously big land areas.  A relationship is evaluated using the ground data simultaneous to the satellite images. This relationship is applied to the whole image.  As meaningful variables:  Cloud cover index.  Declination
  • 57. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSAOD (Aerosol Optical Depthestimations) Estimations from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging spectroradiometer) on NASA’s Terra satellite http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ AOD and water vapor vertical content estimations from satellite
  • 58. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE ANDNWP MODELS FROM SATELLITE  The satellite  Methodology  Example of models application FROM NWP MODELS  General overview  Main models  Main characteristics
  • 59. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM NWP MODELS  Executed based on the initial conditions from which differential equations describing the evolution of the atmosphere are solved.
  • 60. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM NWP MODELS
  • 61. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 62. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSGeneration of series for simulation  Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) is a methodology for such a purpose that has evolved along the time.  The starting point was the method developed in Sandia National lab that partially used the database SOLMET/ERSATZ (1951-1976) [5] formed by 248 stations, from which 26 had available measurements of solar radiation components for the EEUU.  The method consisted in the concatenation of typical months to generate a year with 8760 values of the considered variables: average, maximum and minimum temperature and dew temperature, wind velocity and global solar irradiance.  Filkenstein-Schafer statistic was used to select typical months. Several improvements and variations to the initial TMY methodology have been suggested along the time yielding to newer versions like TMY2 y TMY3.
  • 63. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSGeneration of series for simulation  Nevertheless, the essence of the method remains practically unchanged. However, TMY methodology was developed to create typical meteorological years and not typical solar years, which have, despite the similarity, a different meaning in the framework of the CPS industry.  Since 2010 a selected group of Spanish institutions and companies closely related to the CSP industry have been working within the AENOR framework (Spanish Association for Standardization and Certification) on standards for the industry.  Part of this work consists of the development of a methodology for generating a year of solar irradiance data and other influencing variables to be used by the CSP industry.
  • 64. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSGeneration of series for simulation  Due to the wide range of different data that can be used for generating the ASR six types of data have been established:  direct measured data  indirect measured data  derived data  synthetic data  satellite data and  data from numerical model (NWP model).  This distinction implies different request to the quality, usage and treatment of the data according to its different nature.  Therefore, the procedure allows the generation of the ASR by combining these kinds of data whenever the boundary conditions of quality and representativeness are fulfilled
  • 65. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSGeneration of series for simulation
  • 66. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Index• INTRODUCTION• SOLAR RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS• CLASSICAL EVALUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION• INTERACTION OF SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE• STUDY OF DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATA• SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM SATELLITE AND NWPM• GENERATION OF TIME SERIES FOR SIMULATION• SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES ON THE INTERNET
  • 67. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSRadiometric Databases Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN)
  • 68. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSRadiometric Databases Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) World radiation data centre (WRDC) Meteonorm
  • 69. SSERadiometric Databases: SSE from NASA http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/  Surface Meteorology and  Solar Energy (SSE) Datasets  And Web interface  Monthly data  Free uponGrowing over the last 7 years to nearly 14,000 registrationusers, nearly 6.4 million hits and 1.25 million  1ºx1º (120x120data downloads km) resolution
  • 70. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSolar radiation derived from satellite imagesSWERA ProjectThe SWERA project provides easy access to high quality renewable energy resourceinformation and data to users all around the world. Its goal is to help facilitate renewableenergy policy and investment by making high quality information freely available to key usergroups. SWERA products include Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and time series data
  • 71. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORS Comercial data from satellite• Irsolav• Solemi (DLR)• 3Tier• Solargis• ….
  • 72. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSome measurements in India
  • 73. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSome measurements in India
  • 74. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSSome measurements in India
  • 75. SOLAR TECHNOLOGY ADVISORSIrSOLaV activities Ciemat promoted a spin-off company for solar resource characterization services (www.irsolav.com). Thus IrSOLaV interacts with the industry needs and supply data and consulting services on solar resource and also collaborates with Ciemat in R&D. IrSOLaV and Ciemat develops R&D programs in the solar resource field and collaborates with international scientific groups (DLR, NREL, NASA, JRC, CENER, Universities…) through European projects (COST project) or other initiatives (Task 46 SHC/IEA) Within Spain IrSOLaV and CIEMAT collaborates with universities (UAL, UJA, UPN) and support the industry through agreements for doing specific research on solar resource knowledge (forecasting, model improvements, atmospheric physics, etc)
  • 76. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION !