Understanding text organization (teacher)Presentation Transcript
Reading Strategy Understanding Text Organization
Many teachers assume that a student who can read narrative texts well will be able to read expository texts well.
Many students have problems comprehending expository text because they can ’ t see the basic structure of text. (Dymock,2005)
do we teach text organization? Why
do we teach text organization?
Text comprehension is improved when students can recognize the underlying structure of text (Williams, 2005).
“ Awareness" of text structure helps students understand global ideas, or main theses (Seidenberg, 1989;Weaver & Kintsch, 1991)
Students are more likely to remember and interpret the ideas they encounter when they read.
to teach ?
How to identify the important structural elements of different types of expository text:
to teach ? What
to teach this strategy? How Teaching Demonstration – Comparison text structure Text Structure Description Signal Words Comparison Two or more events, concepts, objects or places are compared, showing how they are alike and/or different
1. Introduce the idea that expository texts have different organizational patterns.
2. Tell students it is powerful to understand how writers organize their ideas by applying their knowledge in text organization.
3. Introduce text patterns and explain that text structure can sometimes be identified by certain signal words .
Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Sequence Items or events are listed in numerical or chronological order .
Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Comparison Two or more events, concepts, objects or places are compared, showing how they are alike and/or different
Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Description A topic is described by listing characteristics, features, attributes, and examples.
Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Cause and Effect The causes of an event and its resulting effect(s) are presented.
as a result
this led to
Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Problem and Solution A problem and one or more solutions to the problem are presented.
to solve the
4. Model ways students can use clues to identify text structures and share an example. (Especially when signal words cannot be found)
5. Introduce graphic organizers for the patterns and help students make order out of the texts
6. Make use of the overhead projector or the computer to involve the class in completing a graphic organizer illustrating the text structure.
Provide opportunities for students to have guided and independent practice .
Students can work in pairs or individually to identify examples of the structure in other texts.
Let more able students model the writing of a paragraph that follows a specific text structure.
This will reinforce students ’ understanding of the text structure.
Teach for transfer – e.g. Integrated Science
Discussion (5 minutes)
Please refer to the given text (Passage 1, 2, 3 or 4) in your group selected from a textbook. Skim the parts that are framed.
1. What kind of text structure can we locate in the text?
2. What signal words can we ask students to identify?
3. Which graphic organizer(s) (Appendix 1-5) can we introduce to students?
4. What information can we ask students to put in the organizer(s) based on the text?
Comparison Differences Differences Similarities Fish Sharks
live in water
fish can float
Fish have skeletons made of hard bones
Shark can ’ t float
Sharks have skeletons made of hard cartilage
Shark have several rows of teeth
Some sharks attack humans
Passage 1 Signal words: different from, but
Description Passage 2 Signal words: for example, also, such as
Comparison Similarities Halloween in the past Halloween today
playing “ apple bobbing ”
dressing up in scary costumes
People made lanterns out of turnips
People put out food for ghosts
People walked around the streets nosily
People played tricked on others
People make lanterns out of pumpkins and sometimes watermelons
People give sweets to children
People play “ Trick or Treating ” .
Signal words: the same as, still, but Passage 2
Sequence 1886: Coca-Cola was invented by Dr. John Pemberton 1888: Dr. John Pemberton told the business to Asa Griggs Candler 1903: Asa Candler took out the cocaine from the drink as it was a drug 1898: Asa Griggs Candler licensed the bottling of Coca-Cola. 1965: Coca-Cola was first made in Hong Kong Passage 3
Cause and Effect Passage 4 No obvious signal word! But the question gives the hint that the resulting effects of the problem will be followed by the question.
Problem and Solution Passage 1 No obvious signal word! But the question gives the hint that solutions to the problem will be followed by the question
Is it worth spending time doing this?
will be more familiar with different text structures.
will gain a better understanding of how ideas are organized in different text structures.
will be able to apply their knowledge to predict what they may read in the text.