Understanding text organization (teacher)
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Understanding text organization (teacher)

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Understanding text organization (teacher) Understanding text organization (teacher) Presentation Transcript

  • Reading Strategy Understanding Text Organization
    • Many teachers assume that a student who can read narrative texts well will be able to read expository texts well.
    • Many students have problems comprehending expository text because they can ’ t see the basic structure of text. (Dymock,2005)
    do we teach text organization? Why
  • do we teach text organization?
    • Text comprehension is improved when students can recognize the underlying structure of text (Williams, 2005).
    • “ Awareness" of text structure helps students understand global ideas, or main theses (Seidenberg, 1989;Weaver & Kintsch, 1991)
    • Students are more likely to remember and interpret the ideas they encounter when they read.
    Why
  • to teach ?
    • How to identify the important structural elements of different types of expository text:
    • Physical presentation
    • Text Structure
    What
  • to teach ? What
  • to teach this strategy? How Teaching Demonstration – Comparison text structure Text Structure Description Signal Words Comparison Two or more events, concepts, objects or places are compared, showing how they are alike and/or different
    • but
    • however
    • nevertheless
    • in contrast
    • different
    • from
    • unlike
    • similarly
    • the same
    • like
  • Comparison – Cold & Flu Differences Differences Similarities Cold Flu
    • runny nose & sneezing
    • headache
    • sore throat
    • a cough
    • aching muscles
    • usually last about a week
    • a high fever
    • a dry cough
    • much worse aching
    • last for longer – at least two weeks
    • can be a deadly disease
    • caused by viruses
    • a more serious illness
  • Inside the classroom - Teaching procedures
    • 1. Introduce the idea that expository texts have different organizational patterns.
    • 2. Tell students it is powerful to understand how writers organize their ideas by applying their knowledge in text organization.
    • 3. Introduce text patterns and explain that text structure can sometimes be identified by certain signal words .
  • Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Sequence Items or events are listed in numerical or chronological order .
    • first
    • second
    • later
    • next
    • then
    • finally
    • dates
    • after
    • when
  • Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Comparison Two or more events, concepts, objects or places are compared, showing how they are alike and/or different
    • but
    • however
    • nevertheless
    • similarly
    • in contrast
    • different
    • from
    • the same
    • like
    • unlike
  • Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Description A topic is described by listing characteristics, features, attributes, and examples.
    • for example
    • for instance
    • such as
    • is like
    • in addition
    • also
    • including
    • in particular
  • Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Cause and Effect The causes of an event and its resulting effect(s) are presented.
    • if/then
    • as a result
    • therefore
    • consequently
    • since
    • because
    • hence
    • thus
    • this led to
  • Expository Text Structures and their Associated Signal Words Text Structure Description Signal Words Problem and Solution A problem and one or more solutions to the problem are presented.
    • problem is
    • solution is
    • if/then
    • to solve the
    • problem …
    • 4. Model ways students can use clues to identify text structures and share an example. (Especially when signal words cannot be found)
    • 5. Introduce graphic organizers for the patterns and help students make order out of the texts
    • 6. Make use of the overhead projector or the computer to involve the class in completing a graphic organizer illustrating the text structure.
    Inside the classroom - Teaching procedures
  • Comparison Differences Differences Similarities Appendix 1
  • Description Appendix 2
  • Sequence Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 Event 4 Event 5 Appendix 3
  • Problem and Solution Appendix 4
  • Cause and Effect Appendix 5
  • Further Practice
    • Provide opportunities for students to have guided and independent practice .
    • Students can work in pairs or individually to identify examples of the structure in other texts.
    • Let more able students model the writing of a paragraph that follows a specific text structure.
    • This will reinforce students ’ understanding of the text structure.
    • Teach for transfer – e.g. Integrated Science
  • Discussion (5 minutes)
    • Please refer to the given text (Passage 1, 2, 3 or 4) in your group selected from a textbook. Skim the parts that are framed.
    • 1. What kind of text structure can we locate in the text?
    • 2. What signal words can we ask students to identify?
    • 3. Which graphic organizer(s) (Appendix 1-5) can we introduce to students?
    • 4. What information can we ask students to put in the organizer(s) based on the text?
  • Comparison Differences Differences Similarities Fish Sharks
    • live in water
    • fish can float
    • Fish have skeletons made of hard bones
    • Shark can ’ t float
    • Sharks have skeletons made of hard cartilage
    • Shark have several rows of teeth
    • Some sharks attack humans
    Passage 1 Signal words: different from, but
  • Description Passage 2 Signal words: for example, also, such as
  • Comparison Similarities Halloween in the past Halloween today
    • playing “ apple bobbing ”
    • dressing up in scary costumes
    • People made lanterns out of turnips
    • People put out food for ghosts
    • People walked around the streets nosily
    • People played tricked on others
    • People make lanterns out of pumpkins and sometimes watermelons
    • People give sweets to children
    • People play “ Trick or Treating ” .
    Signal words: the same as, still, but Passage 2
  • Sequence 1886: Coca-Cola was invented by Dr. John Pemberton 1888: Dr. John Pemberton told the business to Asa Griggs Candler 1903: Asa Candler took out the cocaine from the drink as it was a drug 1898: Asa Griggs Candler licensed the bottling of Coca-Cola. 1965: Coca-Cola was first made in Hong Kong Passage 3
  • Cause and Effect Passage 4 No obvious signal word! But the question gives the hint that the resulting effects of the problem will be followed by the question.
  • Problem and Solution Passage 1 No obvious signal word! But the question gives the hint that solutions to the problem will be followed by the question
  • Is it worth spending time doing this?
    • Students …
    • will be more familiar with different text structures.
    • will gain a better understanding of how ideas are organized in different text structures.
    • will be able to apply their knowledge to predict what they may read in the text.
    • will become more independent readers .
    Resources consulted: http://www.educationoasis.com http://www.itrc.ucf.edu/forpd/about/
  • An important point to note
    • Text connections should lead to text comprehension.
    • Intervention is needed to prevent students from being distracted from the text
    Resources consulted: http://www.educationoasis.com http://www.itrc.ucf.edu/forpd/about/
  • Making Connections Cue Card better understand and digest what they read make sense of the text by using their prior knowledge