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  • LaFevre and Dixon (1986) Evaluated learners who were free to study a text description or worked examples to help them complete a problem assignment. The text and the worked examples were deliberately written to contradict each other. By evaluating the solutions, it was clear that the learners used the examples, not the text, as their preferred resource.
  • Sweller and Cooper (1985) The “All Practice” group took almost 6 times longer to learn how to do the problems and had more training errors than the “Worked Examples & Practice Pairs” group.
  • Webinarfinal

    1. 1. Chapter 10Leveraging Examples in e-Learning<br />From e-Learning and the Science of Instruction <br />Ruth Colvin Clark & Richard E. Mayer<br />
    2. 2. Worked Examples<br />A worked example is a step-by-step demonstration of how to perform a task or solve a problem.<br />Learners prefer worked examples over verbal descriptions. (According to a study by LaFevre and Dixon 1986)<br />
    3. 3. Worked Examples Mean Faster Learning!<br />Solving practice problems demands lots of working memory.<br />Most efficient learning starts with lessons that initially use worked examples that manage cognitive load then transition into practice.<br />
    4. 4. Worked Example Problem Pairs result in Faster Learning and Performance<br />
    5. 5. Worked Examples ExampleA Physics Strings Example<br />From Fundamentals of Physics by D. Halliday and R Resnick 1981, New York.<br />
    6. 6. Worked Examples ExampleRelativity: Time Dialation<br />Click here <br />to see a worked example <br />on youtube<br />
    7. 7. Principle 1: Transition from Worked Examples to Problems via Fading<br />First example: a completed example<br />Second example: the learner is asked to complete one or two steps. The other steps in the process are completed.<br />The learner gradually completes more of the steps.<br />Eventually the learner solves a practice problem completely on his/her own.<br />
    8. 8. Principle 1 Example<br />Problem 4: The bulb of Mrs. Darks dining room table is defective. Mrs. Dark had 6 spare bulbs on hand. However, 3 of them are also defective. What is the probability that Mrs. Dark first replaces the original defective dining room bulb with another defective bulb before replacing it with a functioning one?<br />First Solution Step<br />Total number of spare bulbs: 6<br />Number of defective spare bulbs: 3<br />Probability of a defective spare bulb first: 3/6 = ½ = .5<br />Second Solution Step<br />Total number of spare bulbs after a first replacement trial: 5 <br /> (2 defective and 3 functioning spares.)<br />Probability of a functioning bulb second: 3/5 = .6<br />
    9. 9. Principle 2: Promote Self-Explanations of Worked-Out Steps<br />Self-explanation question is usually a multiple choice interaction<br />The question requires the learner to review the worked out steps and identify principles or concepts behind them.<br />
    10. 10. Principle 2 Example<br />Problem 2: From a box containing 3 red balls and 2 white balls, two balls are randomly drawn. The chosen balls are not put back into the ballot box. What is the probability that a red ball is drawn first and a white ball is second?<br />First Solution Step<br />Total number of balls: 5<br />Number of red balls: 3<br />Probability of a red ball on first draw first: 3/5 = .6<br />What is the rule or principle used in this step?<br />a.) Probability of an event<br />b.) Principle of complementarity<br />c.) Multiplication principle<br />d.) Addition principle<br />
    11. 11. Principle 3: Supplement Worked Examples with Explanations<br />Provide detailed explanations<br />As the lesson progresses, make explanations shorter and available on demand or in response to an error.<br />Write explanations that make clear connections between the steps and underlying principles<br />Position explanations close to the step that is being explained.<br />
    12. 12. Principle 4: Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples<br />Provide relevant visuals explained with audio or text – not both.<br />Provide explanations of worked examples in text.<br />Chunk worked examples<br />Present examples with learner control for pacing<br />
    13. 13. Principle 5: Support Learning Transfer<br />Near transfer: tasks that are performed the same way each time like opening an email program. <br />Far transfer: teaching the learner to use judgment each time like in customer service where each scenerio will be unique.<br />
    14. 14. Design Guidelines for Near-Transfer Learning<br />Mirror the work environment. Example: when teaching a computer skill, use an image of the computer screen that the learner will encounter on the job.<br />
    15. 15. Design Guidelines for Far-Transfer Learning<br />Use varied content<br />Use multiple examples<br />Use interactions that encourage learners to actively compare sets of varied content examples.<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Chapter 11Does Practice Make Perfect?<br />From e-Learning and the Science of Instruction <br />Ruth Colvin Clark & Richard E. Mayer<br />
    18. 18. How important is practice to skill acquisition?<br />
    19. 19. True or False?<br />There is a strong relationship between musical achievement and the number of hours of practice.<br />No relationship was found between college student grade-point average and the amount of time devoted to study. <br />
    20. 20. What skills do you practice regularly and notice you’re getting better or faster each time you practice?<br />Please type your ideas in the chat window.<br />
    21. 21. PracticePrinciples<br />Practice<br />Makes<br />Perfect<br />
    22. 22. Principle 1: Mirror the Job<br />Design activities that mirror the job as much as possible.<br />The more features of the job environment integrated into the interactions, the more likely the cues will be encoded into long-term memory.<br />
    23. 23. Principle 2: Provide Explanatory Feedback<br />Provide practice feedback and a short explanation of why a response is correct or incorrect.<br />
    24. 24. Which feedback do you think is most effective?<br />A. Sorry, that answer is incorrect<br />B. Sorry, that is incorrect. Remember, records are analogous to rows in a spreadsheet. Try again.<br />
    25. 25. Principle 3: Adapt the Amount and Placement of Practice to Job Performance Requirements<br />Practice exercises are expensive. (they take more time to design and learners invest time in completing the practice.)<br />Speed increases with practice and eventually levels out.<br />
    26. 26. Principle 4: Apply Multimedia Principles<br />Include relevant visuals as part of your interaction design.<br />Minimize extraneous text, sounds or visuals during interactions.<br />Does this image enhance the information on this slide?<br />
    27. 27. Principle 5: Transition from Examples to Practice Gradually<br />Use faded work examples to speed learning and improve learning outcomes.<br />