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- 1. Chapter 10Leveraging Examples in e-Learning<br />From e-Learning and the Science of Instruction <br />Ruth Colvin Clark & Richard E. Mayer<br />
- 2. Worked Examples<br />A worked example is a step-by-step demonstration of how to perform a task or solve a problem.<br />Learners prefer worked examples over verbal descriptions. (According to a study by LaFevre and Dixon 1986)<br />
- 3. Worked Examples Mean Faster Learning!<br />Solving practice problems demands lots of working memory.<br />Most efficient learning starts with lessons that initially use worked examples that manage cognitive load then transition into practice.<br />
- 4. Worked Example Problem Pairs result in Faster Learning and Performance<br />
- 5. Worked Examples ExampleA Physics Strings Example<br />From Fundamentals of Physics by D. Halliday and R Resnick 1981, New York.<br />
- 6. Worked Examples ExampleRelativity: Time Dialation<br />Click here <br />to see a worked example <br />on youtube<br />
- 7. Principle 1: Transition from Worked Examples to Problems via Fading<br />First example: a completed example<br />Second example: the learner is asked to complete one or two steps. The other steps in the process are completed.<br />The learner gradually completes more of the steps.<br />Eventually the learner solves a practice problem completely on his/her own.<br />
- 8. Principle 1 Example<br />Problem 4: The bulb of Mrs. Darks dining room table is defective. Mrs. Dark had 6 spare bulbs on hand. However, 3 of them are also defective. What is the probability that Mrs. Dark first replaces the original defective dining room bulb with another defective bulb before replacing it with a functioning one?<br />First Solution Step<br />Total number of spare bulbs: 6<br />Number of defective spare bulbs: 3<br />Probability of a defective spare bulb first: 3/6 = ½ = .5<br />Second Solution Step<br />Total number of spare bulbs after a first replacement trial: 5 <br /> (2 defective and 3 functioning spares.)<br />Probability of a functioning bulb second: 3/5 = .6<br />
- 9. Principle 2: Promote Self-Explanations of Worked-Out Steps<br />Self-explanation question is usually a multiple choice interaction<br />The question requires the learner to review the worked out steps and identify principles or concepts behind them.<br />
- 10. Principle 2 Example<br />Problem 2: From a box containing 3 red balls and 2 white balls, two balls are randomly drawn. The chosen balls are not put back into the ballot box. What is the probability that a red ball is drawn first and a white ball is second?<br />First Solution Step<br />Total number of balls: 5<br />Number of red balls: 3<br />Probability of a red ball on first draw first: 3/5 = .6<br />What is the rule or principle used in this step?<br />a.) Probability of an event<br />b.) Principle of complementarity<br />c.) Multiplication principle<br />d.) Addition principle<br />
- 11. Principle 3: Supplement Worked Examples with Explanations<br />Provide detailed explanations<br />As the lesson progresses, make explanations shorter and available on demand or in response to an error.<br />Write explanations that make clear connections between the steps and underlying principles<br />Position explanations close to the step that is being explained.<br />
- 12. Principle 4: Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples<br />Provide relevant visuals explained with audio or text – not both.<br />Provide explanations of worked examples in text.<br />Chunk worked examples<br />Present examples with learner control for pacing<br />
- 13. Principle 5: Support Learning Transfer<br />Near transfer: tasks that are performed the same way each time like opening an email program. <br />Far transfer: teaching the learner to use judgment each time like in customer service where each scenerio will be unique.<br />
- 14. Design Guidelines for Near-Transfer Learning<br />Mirror the work environment. Example: when teaching a computer skill, use an image of the computer screen that the learner will encounter on the job.<br />
- 15. Design Guidelines for Far-Transfer Learning<br />Use varied content<br />Use multiple examples<br />Use interactions that encourage learners to actively compare sets of varied content examples.<br />
- 16.
- 17. Chapter 11Does Practice Make Perfect?<br />From e-Learning and the Science of Instruction <br />Ruth Colvin Clark & Richard E. Mayer<br />
- 18. How important is practice to skill acquisition?<br />
- 19. True or False?<br />There is a strong relationship between musical achievement and the number of hours of practice.<br />No relationship was found between college student grade-point average and the amount of time devoted to study. <br />
- 20. What skills do you practice regularly and notice you’re getting better or faster each time you practice?<br />Please type your ideas in the chat window.<br />
- 21. PracticePrinciples<br />Practice<br />Makes<br />Perfect<br />
- 22. Principle 1: Mirror the Job<br />Design activities that mirror the job as much as possible.<br />The more features of the job environment integrated into the interactions, the more likely the cues will be encoded into long-term memory.<br />
- 23. Principle 2: Provide Explanatory Feedback<br />Provide practice feedback and a short explanation of why a response is correct or incorrect.<br />
- 24. Which feedback do you think is most effective?<br />A. Sorry, that answer is incorrect<br />B. Sorry, that is incorrect. Remember, records are analogous to rows in a spreadsheet. Try again.<br />
- 25. Principle 3: Adapt the Amount and Placement of Practice to Job Performance Requirements<br />Practice exercises are expensive. (they take more time to design and learners invest time in completing the practice.)<br />Speed increases with practice and eventually levels out.<br />
- 26. Principle 4: Apply Multimedia Principles<br />Include relevant visuals as part of your interaction design.<br />Minimize extraneous text, sounds or visuals during interactions.<br />Does this image enhance the information on this slide?<br />
- 27. Principle 5: Transition from Examples to Practice Gradually<br />Use faded work examples to speed learning and improve learning outcomes.<br />

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