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Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)
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Cognitive Training Component (Brainfitness program)

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Sharpen Your Brain's Auditory System Improve communication, hearing, and memory for seniors

Sharpen Your Brain's Auditory System Improve communication, hearing, and memory for seniors

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  • Reduced schedules of brain activity: conscious choice (e.g. retirement) or by unconsciously „resting on their laurels“  reduced stimulation of sensory, cognitive and motor systems and reduced stimulation for attention, reward, and novelty-detecting neuromodulatory systems  causes negative changes in neuronal metabolism (neurotransmitters, receptors, key functional biochemical constituents of neurons) and neuronal architecture (dendrites, axonal arbors, spines, synapses, gray matter)  leads to impaired learning and memory capacities  impoverished, nonstimulating, noncomplex environments lead to neuroplastic changes, which can however, be reversed through environmental enrichment 2) Noisy processing: Deterioration of peripheral sensory organs (e.g. loss of hair cells in the cochlea, loss of photoreceptors in the retina, changes in skin properties) Brain must adjust to these degraded sensory inputs by lengthening space and time integration constants in an effort to detect relevant signals These adaptive changes are made at a cost: brain systems with long space and time integration constants cannot accurately represent the details of spatiotemporally complex signals Temporally and spatially noisy responses to stimuli which slow the speed of information processing 3) Acetylcholine: modulates synaptic plasticity and controls memory and rate of learning (hilft dem Gehirn, sich zu konzentrieren und das Gedächtnis zu schärfen) Dopamine: mediates many aspects of cognitive, emotive and motor functions; implicated in the prediction of reward (Belohnungssystem; Dopamin verstäkrt die Belohnung) Serotonin: regulates time scale of reward prediction Norepinephrine: controls mental alertness and attentional focus (Aufmerksamkeit) 4)
  • Reduced schedules of brain activity: conscious choice (e.g. retirement) or by unconsciously „resting on their laurels“  reduced stimulation of sensory, cognitive and motor systems and reduced stimulation for attention, reward, and novelty-detecting neuromodulatory systems  causes negative changes in neuronal metabolism (neurotransmitters, receptors, key functional biochemical constituents of neurons) and neuronal architecture (dendrites, axonal arbors, spines, synapses, gray matter)  leads to impaired learning and memory capacities  impoverished, nonstimulating, noncomplex environments lead to neuroplastic changes, which can however, be reversed through environmental enrichment 2) Noisy processing: Deterioration of peripheral sensory organs (e.g. loss of hair cells in the cochlea, loss of photoreceptors in the retina, changes in skin properties) Brain must adjust to these degraded sensory inputs by lengthening space and time integration constants in an effort to detect relevant signals These adaptive changes are made at a cost: brain systems with long space and time integration constants cannot accurately represent the details of spatiotemporally complex signals Temporally and spatially noisy responses to stimuli which slow the speed of information processing 3) Acetylcholine: modulates synaptic plasticity and controls memory and rate of learning (hilft dem Gehirn, sich zu konzentrieren und das Gedächtnis zu schärfen) Dopamine: mediates many aspects of cognitive, emotive and motor functions; implicated in the prediction of reward (Belohnungssystem; Dopamin verstäkrt die Belohnung) Serotonin: regulates time scale of reward prediction Norepinephrine: controls mental alertness and attentional focus (Aufmerksamkeit) 4)
  • Das Training besteht aus 6 Übungen, die in ihren Anforderungen zunehmend komplexer werden und die darauf ausgerichtet sind, von basalen sensorischen Diskriminationsleistungen wie Lautunterscheidung zunehmend auch alltagsrelevante Funktionen zu trainieren. Das Programm existiert bereits in englischer Form. Unser amerikanischer Kooperationspartner, Prof. Merzenich, hat uns zugesichert, dass er uns bei der Übersetzung des Programms ins Deutsche behilflich sein wird. Unsere Aufgabe besteht darin, in Kooperation mit Linguisten der Universität Konstanz geeignetes Sprachmaterial zusammenzustellen. Hier einige Demonstrationen der einzelnen Trainingsaufgaben. Die Aufgaben werden zunehmend schwieriger, so dass die Personen stets an ihrer individuellen Leistungsschwelle trainiert. Zudem trainieren die aufgaben zunächst basale Fähigkeiten wie Lautdiskrimination, Tonfolgen-Diskrimination. Später werden die Aufgaben zunehmend komplexer und alltagsnäher. 6 Übungen Listen and Do (akustische Instruktion, die ausgeführt werden muss) Match it (Memory mit Silben) Sound replay (Silben in der richtigen Reihenfolge ordnen) Story teller (Geschichte zuhören und Fragen beantworten) High or Low (sweeps) Tell us apart (ba, da, ga) Jede Übung trainiert an der Leistungsschwelle und wird zunehmend schwieriger; zudem die Übungen zunehmend komplexer und orientieren sich immer stärker an alltäglichen Anforderungen
  • Training 40 Sitzungen (1h pro Tag): Prätraining phase (Daten aus ersten 10 Sitzungen), Posttraining phase (daten aus letzten 10 Sitzungen) Global auditory memory score: RPBANS = Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status  basiert auf 12 neuropsychologischen Tests, 6 davon mit auditorischer Kognition (list learning, story memory, digit span forwards, delayed free list recall, delayed list recognition, delayed free story recall) Differenz prä-post in der EG im global auditory memory score: p = .02 Effektstärke global auditory memory score d = .25  entspricht schwachem Effekt Speed of Processing: Die Länge des Sweeps bei dem 80% korrekt geantwortet wurde. Je kürzer desto besser. Forward word recognition: Bei wie vielen Wörtern waren noch 80% korrekt.
  • p-values for interactions: Training group x Time Effect size d: Cohen‘s d 1200 Personen wurden gescreent um ca. 500 taugliche zu finden; davon einige Dropouts und Ausfälle
  • Transcript

    • 1. In aging, negative cortical plasticity has four mutually reinforcing components that create a downward spiral of degrading brain function
      • Noisy processing
      • Deterioration of sensory organs
      • Poor signal quality received in cortex
      • Brain must adjust by lengthening space and time integration constants
      • Costs: temporally and spatially noisy processing of stimuli and slowing of information processing speed
      • Reduced schedules of brain activity
      • Reduced engagement in cognitively demanding activities ( retirement, not learning new things)
      • Lack of continuous refinement of receptive fields/cortical organization
      • Less stimulation for attention/reward
      •  Brain disuse
      • Negative learning
      • Adaptation to degraded processing
      • Changes in behavior accelerate cognitive decline
      • E.g.: difficulties in understanding the rapid speech of a child on the phone
      • turn up volume or
      •  avoid such conversations
      • Weakened neuromodulatory control
      • Changes in metabolism of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine)
      • Changes in connectivity of relevant brain areas
      • Weakened control of the brain over its own plasticity
      Mahncke, Bronstone, & Merzenich (2006), Progress in Brain Research
    • 2. Requirements for behavioral training to drive large-scale plasticity
      • Refine stimulus processing
      • Increase fidelity
      • Use complex, dynamic inputs
      • Decrease spatial/temporal integration constants
      • Support generalization and in-context function
      • Intense schedules of activity
      • Thousands of trials
      • Frequent engagement
      • Adaptively increase task demands
      • Strengthen critical life skills
      • Force engagement in difficult tasks
      • Shape new behaviors
      • Positively reinforce enhanced function
      • Enhance neuromodulation
      • Activation, arousal, reward, novelty
      • Increase demands on attentional control
    • 3. Enhancing neuroplasticity through adaptive, computer-based cognitive training programs practicing sensory discrimination abilities
    • 4. The Brain Fitness Program – a plasticity-based adaptive cognitive training program for the auditory domain Story Teller High or Low Tell us Apart Match It Sound Replay Listen and Do Copyright PositScience
    • 5. Plasticity-based adaptive cognitive training for the auditory domain improves memory in healthy elderly persons
      • Improvement in trained tasks:
      • Generalization: Improvement in global auditory memory in the experimental group, but not in the active and non-active control groups
      • Stability: Effect stable also at 3 months follow-up
      Mahncke, Connor, Appelman, Ahsanuddin, Hardy, Wood, Joyce, Boniske, Atkins, & Merzenich (2006), PNAS Persons with improvements 93% 77% 91% 80% 91% Average improvement 41% 10% 18% 13% 18% Speed of Processing Spatial syllable match memory Forward word recognition span Working memory Narrative Memory
    • 6. The IMPACT study: Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training
      • Experimental treatment (ET):
      • Brain Fitness Program
      • N = 223
      • Active control (AC):
      • Viewed DVD-based educational programs on history, art, and literature
      • Answered written quizzes after each training session
      • N = 213
      Smith , Housen, Yaffe, Ruff, Kennison, Mahncke, & Zelinski (2009), Journal of the American Geriatrics Society higher is better higher is better lower is better lower is better Cognitive Self-Report Questionnaire
    • 7. The German prototype version of the Brain Fitness Program Story Teller Frequency Discrimination High or Low Syllable Discrimination Correct Order Match It Copyright Kolassa/Leirer, Universität Konstanz, PositScience
    • 8. Insight – a plasticity-based adaptive cognitive training program for the visual domain Jewel Diver Bird Safari Sweep Seeker Master Gardener Road Tour Copyright PositScience

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