Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Lesson electricity

250 views
142 views

Published on

0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

Views
Total views
250
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
1
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Lesson electricity

1. 1. Grupul Scolar Industrial “Anghel Saligny” This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Tools used in electricity Lesson1: The Screwdriver A screwdriver is a tool used to put in and tighten screws. They are also used to remove them. The screwdriver is made up of a head or tip, which engages with a screw, a mechanism to apply torque by rotating the tip, and some way to position and support the screwdriver. A typical hand screwdriver comprises an approximately cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be held by a human hand, and an axial shaft fixed to the handle, the tip of which is shaped to fit a particular type of screw. Screwdrivers are of many shapes, and the tip can be rotated manually or by an electric motor. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: Recommended words or expressions: screws , torque , manually , handle , screwdriver , hand. A ____(a)_____ is a tool used to put in and tighten __(b)___. The screwdriver is made up of a head or tip, which engages with a screw, a mechanism to apply ____(c)___ by rotating the tip. A typical hand screwdriver comprises an approximately cylindrical ____(d)___ of a size and shape to be held by a human ___(e)__, and an axial shaft fixed to the handle, the tip of which is shaped to fit a particular type of screw. Screwdrivers are of many shapes, and the tip can be rotated ____(f)____ or by an electric motor.
2. 2. II. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: screwdrivers screw shape to held tool tip torque surubelnita surub forma a tine unealta varf cuplu de rasucire Answers to the previous tasks: I a. screwdrivers, b. screws, c. torque, d. handle, e. hand, f. manually II. O surubelnita este o unealta utilizata pentru introducerea si strangerea suruburilor. Sunt de asemenea utilizate pentru a le desface. Surubelnita este alcatuita dintr-un cap sau varf care interactioneaza cu surubul, un mecanism care aplica un cuplu de forte prin rotirea varfului. O surubelnita manuala tipica contine un maner aproximativ cilindric cu o forma modelata pentru a fi tinuta de mana umana, si un ax fixat in maner, a carui varf este modelat pentru a fi corespunzator tipului particular de surub. Surubelnitele sunt de multe forme, iar varful poate fi rotit manual sau de catre un motor electric.
3. 3. Measuring apparatus. Lesson 2: Voltmeter A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit. Digital voltmeters give a numerical display of voltage by use of an analog to digital converter. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: For measuring the electrical potential between two points in an electrical circuit you should use a ___a)____ Analog voltmeters move a ___b)____ across a scale. A voltmeter which gives a numerical display of voltage is named ____c)____voltmeter.
4. 4. II. Choose and mark the right answer A voltmeter is mounted: a. In series with the electric circuit b. In parallel with the electric circuit c. Outside of the electric circuit III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: voltmeter potential analog digital display convertor voltmetru potential analog digital afisaj convertor Answers to the previous tasks: I. a-voltmeter, b-pointer, c-digital II. b. III. Voltmetrul este un instrument folosit pentru a masura diferenta de potential electric dintre doua puncte intr-un circuit electric. Voltmetrele analogice prezinta un ac indicator, ce se deplaseaza pe o scara gradata proportional cu tensiunea din circuit. Voltmetrele digitale afiseaza o valoare numerica a tensiunii din circuit prin utilizarea unui convertor analogic-digital.
5. 5. Measuring apparatus Lesson 3: Ammeter An ammeter is a measuring instrument used to measure the electric current in a circuit. The ammeter has to be inserting in series in the electrical circuit. Electric currents are measured in amperes (A), hence the name. Smaller values of current can be measured using a mill-ammeter or a micro-ammeter. Exercises: I. Choose and mark the right answer An ammeter is mounted: a. In series with the electric circuit b. In parallel with the electric circuit c. Outside the electric circuit II. Fill the gaps with the correct words: An ..…a)…… is a measuring instrument used to measure the electric current in a circuit. The ammeter has to be inserting in ……b)……in the electrical circuit. Electric …..c)……. are measured in amperes (A).
6. 6. III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary ammeter current smaller to measure amperes -ampermetru -curent -mai mici -a masura -amperi Answers to the previous tasks: I. a, II. a-ammeter, b-series, c-currents III. Ampermetrul este un instrument folosit pentru masurarea curentului electric in circuit. Curentul electric este masurat in Amperi (A), de la care vine si numele aparatului. Valori mai mici ale intensitatii curentului pot fi masurate folosind un miliampermetru sau microampermetru. Measuring apparatus Lesson 4: Wattmeter The wattmeter is an instrument for measuring the electric power in watts of any given circuit. The traditional analog wattmeter is an electrodynamics instrument. The device consists of a pair of fixed coils, known as current coils, and a movable coil knowns as the potential coil. Electronic wattmeters are used for direct, small power measurements or for power measurements at frequencies beyond the range of electrodynamics -type instruments.
7. 7. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: The ..…a)….…is used for measuring the electric power in watts. The analog wattmeter is a ……b)……instrument. The current coils are a ……c)… positions. The movable coil is known as the …..d)….....coil. Electronic wattmeters are used for …….e)…… power measurements. II. Appreciate with True and False the next propositions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wattmeter is used for measuring electric potential between two points. Analog wattmeter is an electrostatic device. Analog wattmeter has two coils. The movable coil is known as current coil. The current coil is movable. Watt is the measuring unity for electric power. III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: electrodynamics wattmeter pair coil frequencies electrodinamic wattmetru pereche bobina frecvente Answers to the previous tasks: I. a) -wattmeter, b) - electrodynamics, c-fixed, d-potential, e-direct. II. 1-F, 2-F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-F, 6-T III. Wattmetrul este un instrument folosit in orice circuit pentru masurarea puterii electrice in watt. Wattmetrul analogic traditional este un instrument electrodinamic. Dispozitivul este format dintr-o pereche de bobine fixe numite bobine de curent si o bobina mobila numita bobina de potential. Wattmetrele electronice sunt folosite pentru masurari directe de mica putere sau la masurari de putere la frecvente mai mari in gama instrumentelor electrodinamometrice.
8. 8. Tools used in electricity Lesson 5: Soldering iron A soldering iron is a hand tool most commonly used in soldering. It supplies heat to melt the solder so that it can flows into the joint between two workpieces. A soldering iron is composed of a heated metal tip and an insulated handle. Heating is often achieved electrically, by passing an electric current through the resistive material of a heating element. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: The soldering iron supplies...….a) …….to melts the solder. The solder can ……b)…….into the joint between two workpieces. A heated metal tip and an .....c)...... handle are the main parts of an soldering iron. Heating is often achieved …d)………….. II. Choose and mark the right answer Appreciate with True and False the next propositions: 1. Heating is often achieved chemically. 2. The soldering iron supplies micro waves in order to melt the solder. 3. The solder can flows into the joint between two workpieces. 4. A soldering iron is a hand tool.
9. 9. III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: soldering iron heat to melt flows insulated resistive lipire fier caldura a se topi curge izolat rezistiv Answers to the previous tasks: III. a-heat, b-flows, c-insulated, d-electrically IV.1-F, 2-F, 3-T, 4-T III. Fierul de lipit este o unealta de mana folosita pentru lipit. Furnizeaza caldura pentru a topi aliajul pentru ca acesta sa se scurga in spatiul dintre cele doua piese. Ciocanul de lipit este compus dintr-un varf metalic incalzit si un maner izolat. Incalzirea se face de obicei electric, prin trecerea unui curent electric prin materialul rezistiv al elementului de incalzire.
10. 10. Tools used in electricity Lesson 6: Desoldering pump A desoldering pump is a device which is used to remove solder from a printed circuit board. There are two types: the plunger style and bulb style. The plunger style is usually a small, spring-loaded device that sucks the solder off the soldered connection. It is applied to a heated solder connection. The bulb style works much like the plunger style, the only difference being that a bulb is used to create the vacuum. A desoldering iron is a soldering iron with a desoldering bulb attached to it. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: The desoldering pump is able to remove …..a)….. from a printed circuit board. There are two types: plunger style and…..b)…… style. The …..c)…. has a spring-loaded device that …..d)…….the solder from a heated solder connection. The bulb style has a bulb which is used to create the …..e)…. . II. Choose and mark the right answer The bulb is used to: a) cut the connection b) heat the solder c) create vacuum
11. 11. III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: desoldering printed circuit board bulb sucks dezlipire circuit imprimat placa bulb aspira Answers to the previous tasks: IV. a-solder, b-bulb, c-plunger, d-sucks, e-vacuum V. c VI.Pompa de dezlipit este un dispozitiv care este folosit pentru indepartarea lipiturii de pe o placa de circuite imprimate. Ele sunt de doua tipuri, de tip piston si de tip bulb. Cele de tip piston sunt de obicei mici, actionate printr-un arc care absoarbe sudura de pe conexiune. Este folosita la o conexiune sudata incalzita. Cea de tip bulb functioneaza ca cea de tip piston, singura diferenta fiind faptul ca este folosit un bulb pentru a creea vidul. Un dispozitiv de dezlipit este un dispozitiv de lipit cu un bulb de dezlipit atasat.
12. 12. Electric apparatus Lesson 7: Role of the fuse A fuse was patented by Thomas Edison in 1890. The essential component of the fuse is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Device failure or short circuit overload is often the reason for excessive current. A fuse interrupts excessive current so that further damage by overheating or fire is prevented. Overcurrent protection devices are very important in electrical systems to limit threats to human life and property damage. Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal current and of excessive current, only for short periods. Gramar: Articles : Use an only before a, e, i, o, and u. For the others use a. Fill in the blanks: 1. The main component of the fuse is ….metal wire. 2. Wiring regulations often define …. maximum fuse current rating for particular circuits. 3. …. fuse is selected to allow passage of normal current and of excessive current only for short periods. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: Recommended words or expressions: short, wire, overcurrent, interrupt A metal ___a) ___or strip that melts when too much current flows is the main component of the fuse. The reasons for excessive current are device failure or ___b) ___ circuit overload. Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal current and to ____c)____ the excessive current. Devices which provide protection against ____d)____are able to limit threats to human life and property damage.
13. 13. II. Choose and mark the right answer Fuses are selected to: a) Allow passage of overcurrent b) Increase the value of electric resistance c) To interrupt the excessive current III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: wire failure short circuit threats damage allow passage fir defect scurtcircuit vatamari stricaciune, deteriorare permite trecerea Answers to the previous tasks: V. a-short, b-wire, c-interrupt, d-overcurrent VI.c III. Siguranta a fost patentata de catre Thomas Edison in 1890. Componenta esentiala a unei sigurante este un fir metalic sau banda, care se topeste cand trece un curent prea mare, care intrerupe circuitul in care este conectat. Defectarea aparatului sau scurtcircuitul este adeseori motivul pentru un curent excesiv. Dispozitivele de protectie la scurtcircuit sunt foarte importante in circuitele electrice pentru limitarea vatamarii vietii umane si distrugerea proprietatii.
14. 14. Measuring apparatus. Lesson 8: Oscilloscopes In recent years besides standard classic analogical oscilloscope, began to be used other types of oscilloscopes based on advanced technologies. These digital oscilloscopes category, include memory oscilloscopes (DSOs-digital Storage Oscilloscopes), phosphor oscilloscopes (phosphor Digital Oscilloscopes-DPOs) and the sampling oscilloscope (sampling Oscilloscopes). In contrast to analogical oscilloscope, digital oscilloscope uses an analogical-digital converter to convert the measured size of digital information. It retains a waveform as a series of samples, and stores the samples until they accumulate enough samples to describe the measured signal. Using digital conversion allows the oscilloscope to display any frequency in the field, with high stability, brightness and clarity. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: Recommended words or expressions: conversion, waveform, signal, analogical-digital Digital oscilloscope uses an ____a)____converter. It retains a ____b)____as a series of samples. The measured____c)_____is described by using enough samples. Digital ____d)____allows the oscilloscope to display any frequency in the field, with high stability, brightness and clarity. II. Appreciate with True and False the next propositions: 1. Analogical-digital converter converts the measured size of digital information in analogical signal. 2. Analogical oscilloscopes store the sample. 3. Digital oscilloscopes accumulate enough samples to describe the measured signal.
15. 15. III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: sample store digital stability brightness clarity esantion inmagazineaza numeric stabilitate stralucire claritate Answers to the previous tasks: VII.a-analogical-digital, b-waveform, c-signal, d-conversion VIII.1-T, 2-F, 3-T III. In ultimii ani pe langa osciloscopul analogic standard, au inceput sa fie utilizate alte tipuri de osciloscoape bazate pe tehnologii avansate. Aceste categorii de osciloscoape digitale includ osciloscoape cu memorie (DSOsdigital Storage Oscilloscopes), osciloscoape cu fosfor (phosphor Digital Oscilloscopes-DPOs) si osciloscop cu esantionare (sampling Oscilloscopes). In contrast cu osciloscopul analogic, osciloscopul digital utilizeaza un convertor analogic digital pentru a converti marimea masurata a informatiei digitale. Acesta retine o forma semnalului ca o serie de esantioane, si inmagazineaza esantioanele pana cand sunt acumulate suficiente pentru descrierea semnalului masurat. Utilizarea conversiei digitale permite osciloscopului sa afiseze orice frecventa in domeniu, cu mare stabilitate, stralucire si claritate.
16. 16. Measuring apparatus Lesson 9: Digital memory oscilloscope (DSO-Digital Storage Oscilloscope) A digital oscilloscope is generally known as a memory oscilloscope. It allows storing information on the signal waveform measured as binary. For this reason it may make a series of operations such as signal analysis, its storage, printing or other, through oscilloscope or through external computer system (PC) coupled to it. The signal can be viewed even after he disappeared. Among other facilities oscilloscope with memory allows the capture and view events that happen only once, known as transient events. Compared with analogical oscilloscope allows a permanent signal storage and visualization but instead may not always show the real time variation of the measured signal. Exercises: I. Fill the gaps with the correct words: Recommended words or expressions: oscilloscope, computer, analysis, binary. The signal waveform measured by a digital oscilloscope is stored as ___a) ____The stored information allows to make a signal ___b) ___, printing or other facilities. These operations may be implemented through ___c)____or through external ___d)___ system coupled to it. II. Appreciate with True and False the next propositions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Analogical oscilloscopes are able to make a signal analysis. Digital oscilloscope may store the binary information. Analog oscilloscope allows a capture of transient events. Digital oscilloscopes always show the real time variation of the measured signal.
17. 17. III. Translate the lesson in Romanian language Glossary: binary capture once transient analysis binar captura o data tranzitoriu analiza Answers to the previous tasks: IX.a-binary, b-analysis, c- oscilloscope, d- computer X. 1-T, 2T-, 3-F, 4-F. III. Un osciloscop digital este cunoscut in general ca un osciloscop cu memorie. Acesta permite inmagazinarea binara a informatiilor despre forma de unda a semnalelor. Din acest motiv osciloscopul digital poate face o serie de operatii ca analiza semnalului, inmagazinarea acestuia, tiparirea sau altele, prin intermediul osciloscopului sau printr-un sistem de calcul extern (PC) cuplat la acesta. Semanlul poate fi vazut chiar dupa ce a disparut. Printre alte facilitati osciloscopul cu memorie permite captura si vizionarea unor evenimente care se petrec doar odata, cunoscute ca evenimente tranzitorii. Comparativ cu osciloscopul analogic permite o permanenta stocare si vizualizare a semnalului, insa nu ar putea sa arate intotdeauna variatia in timp real a semnalului masurat. Recapitulative Lesson Recap. Fill in the boxes answering the questions. 1) The device used for removable connecting electrically operated devices to a power supply is called __________plug. 2) Used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit 3) Used for measuring electric current in a circuit. 4) Electronic device that stores electric energy 5) The hand tool commonly used for soldering is called soldering _______ 6) Used to put in and tighten screws 7) Used for measuring electric power