Context is powerful. Good strategy is impossible without a deep understanding of the context in which strategising occurs.
 

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Context is powerful. Good strategy is impossible without a deep understanding of the context in which strategising occurs.

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Context is related uniquely to strategy. Good strategy is determined in context. The strategy process follows the Pettigrew model, with the environment leading to scenarios and opportunities and ...

Context is related uniquely to strategy. Good strategy is determined in context. The strategy process follows the Pettigrew model, with the environment leading to scenarios and opportunities and threats; organisational capabilities leading to strengths and weaknesses via the business idea. All this is filtered through the organisational paradigm, the beliefs and assumptions taken for granted in the organisation. Strategy is determined by Strategic Intent and vision, constrained by the Current Reality.

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Context is powerful. Good strategy is impossible without a deep understanding of the context in which strategising occurs. Presentation Transcript

  • 1. © BMI-CSLORC 1 LEADERSHIP REINVENTION PROGRAMME The Power of Context Leaders make the impossible happen CENTRE FOR STRATEGY, LEADERSHIP AND ORGANISATIONAL REINVENTION www.leadershipreinvention.co.za
  • 2. © BMI-CSLORC 2 BEYOND VISION, STRATEGIES, PLANS AND BUDGETS : A NON-TRADITIONAL VIEW BEYOND VISION, STRATEGIES, PLANS AND BUDGETS : A NON-TRADITIONAL VIEW Specific steps and timetables to implement the strategies Plans converted into financial projections and goals A sensible and appealing picture of the future A logic, and first level of detail, for how the vision can be achieved BUDGETSBUDGETS MANAGEMENT DOES MANAGEMENT DOES VISIONARY LEADERSHIP DEVELOPS VISIONARY LEADERSHIP DEVELOPS PLANSPLANS STRATEGIESSTRATEGIES VISIONVISION CONTEXTCONTEXT TRANS- FORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CREATES TRANS- FORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CREATES WAY OF BEING. INVENTING AN IMPOSSIBLE GAME. REINVENTION, TRANSFORMATION
  • 3. BMI-CSLORLR 3 DOING Content Context Shortsight Longsight Foresight Vision ContextFar Hindsight Near Hindsight Blind spots Bright sparks Blind spots Bright sparks Data Facts, observations, data points Information Data with meaning Knowledge Information with insight Wisdom Knowledge with context (Source: Based on Dr. Kanes Rajah: 2005) Partial knowledge Incorrect knowledge False knowledge No knowledge BEING Process STRATEGY AND PARADIGMS
  • 4. BMI-CSLORLR 4 DOING Content Context Shortsight Longsight Foresight Vision ContextFar Hindsight Near Hindsight Blind spots Bright sparks Blind spots Bright sparks Data Facts, observations, data points Information Data with meaning Knowledge Information with insight Wisdom Knowledge with context (Source: Based on Dr. Kanes Rajah: 2005) Partial knowledge Incorrect knowledge False knowledge No knowledge BEING Process STRATEGY AND PARADIGMS More than anything, what you want to know is when change is going to begin. This sense is known as mastery of incipience, and the skill is often praised as the highest form of wisdom. (Ramo: 2009: 161). . . . truth emerges through debate, study, reflection, meditation, and, at long last, insight delivered like lightning. (paraphrase of Ramo, 2009: 212). . . . The environment is far more powerful than any individual. It is never stable and in its sudden changes from one state to another, more important than the desires of any of us . . . Context is everything . . . (Ramo: 2009: 160).
  • 5. © BMI-CSLORC 5 We cannot just collect mass quantities of information and expect the sense to appear. What we sometimes fail to see about the nature of information is that it usually cannot be understood independent of its context. When we harvest packets of information and throw them into large baskets, we can make it harder to understand what they mean because we separate them from their context. IT’S ALL ABOUT CONTEXT! Is it a number or a letter? Effect of a context of letters Effect of a context of numbers (Source: Wind and Crook: 2005)
  • 6. © BMI-CSLORC 6 As with our physical vision, the key to navigating the complexity of our current environment, and making sense of it, is to cultivate a process of zooming in and zooming out. Through this process, we can counter a natural tendency to be either too nearsighted or farsighted. Zooming in to see the detail Zooming out to see the context IT’S ALL ABOUT CONTEXT! (Source: Wind and Crook: 2005)
  • 7. BMI-CSLORLR 7 CONTEXT IN WHICH DECISIONS OCCURS FUTURE CONTENT OF DECISIONS PAST PROCESS OF DECISION MAKING PRESENT (Based on Pettigrew, 1988) WHAT? HAVING I HAVE HOW? DOING I DO THE REINVENTION PROCESS (Based on Pettigrew) WHY? BEING I AM
  • 8. © BMI-CSLORC 8 Strategic analysis Strategic choice Strategy implementation Environmental analysis Identifying options Evaluating options Stakeholder expectations Selecting a strategy Resources and strategic capability Planning and allocating resources structure Managing strategic change and culture (Based on Johnson and Scholes) THE REINVENTION PROCESS (Derived from the Strategic Planning Process)
  • 9. © BMI-CSLORC 9 Strategic analysis Strategic choice Strategy implementation Environmental analysis Identifying options Evaluating options Stakeholder expectations Selecting a strategy Resources and strategic capability Planning and allocating resources structure Managing strategic change and culture (Based on Johnson and Scholes) THE REINVENTION PROCESS (Derived from the Strategic Planning Process)
  • 10. © BMI-CSLORC 10 STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS Continuous Reinvention TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP As a way of Life ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES POTENTIAL RESOURCES CAPABILITIES CURRENT REALITY TAKING A STAND, DECLARATIONS OF POSSIBILITY CONVERSATIONS, REQUESTS AND PROMISES CREATING THE FUTURE DEVELOPING PRESENCE ALERT TO POSSIBILITIES THE REINVENTION PROCESS (Derived from the Strategic Planning Process) SCENARIOS DEVELOPING A WORLDVIEW AWARENESS UNDERSTANDING THE SELF PARADIGMS OR MENTAL MODELS Beliefs and assumptions held in common and taken for granted (Based on Johnson and Scholes)
  • 11. © BMI-CSLORC 11 STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS Continuous Reinvention TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP As a way of Life ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES POTENTIAL RESOURCES CAPABILITIES CURRENT REALITY TAKING A STAND, DECLARATIONS OF POSSIBILITY CONVERSATIONS, REQUESTS AND PROMISES CREATING THE FUTURE DEVELOPING PRESENCE ALERT TO POSSIBILITIES THE REINVENTION PROCESS (Derived from the Strategic Planning Process) SCENARIOS DEVELOPING A WORLDVIEW AWARENESS UNDERSTANDING THE SELF PARADIGMS OR MENTAL MODELS Beliefs and assumptions held in common and taken for granted (Based on Johnson and Scholes)
  • 12. © BMI-CSLORC 12 Trends in the Property Market are inextricably responsive to, and influenced by INVESTMENT CLIMATE, INVESTOR CONFIDENCE and PROPERTY DELIVERY. InvestorConfidence Investment Climate Closed System Open System Paradigm Regression Paradigm Paralysis Paradigm Shift Paradigm Reinvention Property a Poor Investment Property a Preferred Investment MIAMI SCENARIO BOUYANT GROWTH Planned development Property the preferred investment High affordability High confidence Innovative industry Profitable industry ALGARVE SCENARIO AVERAGE GROWTH Mixed development Property a good investment Average affordability Average confidence Limited innovation Average performing industry IPANEMA SCENARIO NO/LOW GROWTH Haphazard development Property an average investment Low affordability Low confidence Low innovation Surviving industry MOMBASA SCENARIO NEGATIVE GROWTH Sporadic development Property a poor investment Poor affordability No innovation Struggling industry THREE DRIVING FORCES Property a preferred investment High Investor Confidence Appropriate Property Delivery LEADS TO HIGH ROAD SCENARIO IT’S ALL ABOUT CONTEXT!
  • 13. © BMI-CSLORC 13 CORE DRIVING FORCES • Investment Climate • Investor confidence • Property delivery PLAYERS • Property Owners • Property Buyers • Property Sellers • Home Owners • Home Buyers • Home Sellers SUBJECTS • Estate Agents • Contractors • Subcontractors • Financial Inst’s • Manufacturers • Distributors REFEREES • SARB • Treasury • NHBRC • Institute of Realtors • Estate Agency Affairs Board CROWD • Provincial Govt • Local Authorities • Deeds Office • Conveyancers PROACTIVE • Demand creators • Entrepreneurial • Innovative • Risk Takers REACTIVE • Demand responders • Responsive • Service oriented • Risk Managers RESPONSIVE • Demand facilitators • Reactive • Mediators • Gatekeepers • Risk Averse PASSIVE • Demand Observers • Intermediaries • Risk Avoiders Algarve Scenario AVERAGE GROWTH •Mixed development •Property a good investment •Average Affordability • Average confidence Ipanema Scenario LOW GROWTH •Unplanned development •Property an average investment •Low Affordability •Low confidence Miami Scenario BOUYANT GROWTH •Planned development •Property the preferred investment • High Affordability • High confidence Mombasa Scenario NEGATIVE GROWTH •Chaotic development •Property a poor investment • Poor Affordability • No confidence Key Stakeholders Strategic Posture Strategic Issues Scenarios Key uncertainties, Critical Success Factors INVESTMENTINVESTMENT CLIMATECLIMATE • Cost related • Policy related • Value related • Market related • Finance related • Activity related • Lifestyle related • Confidence related INVESTORINVESTOR CONFIDENCECONFIDENCE • Player influences • Subject influences • Referee influences • Onlooker influences • Neighborhood • Safety and Security • Promotional • Market influences PROPERTY DELIVERYPROPERTY DELIVERY • Public Sector • Private Sector • Building Sector • Service Providers • Financial Institutions • Critical Resources • Key Capabilities • Consumer IT’S ALL ABOUT CONTEXT! THE LEADER HAS TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTEXT, SEE THE POSSIBILITIES AND INTERVENE TO CREATE THE FUTURE THE LEADER HAS TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTEXT, SEE THE POSSIBILITIES AND INTERVENE TO CREATE THE FUTURE
  • 14. © BMI-CSLORC 14 CONTEXT DEFINED “ As a man thinks within himself, so he is.” (Proverbs 23 : 7) THE WAY WE ARE BEING IS THE SOURCE OF OUR REALITY WHICH IS THE SOURCE OF OUR ACTIONS
  • 15. © BMI-CSLORC 15 CONTEXT DEFINED To alter the way you are being, you must engage with the phenomenon of context. CONTEXT IS THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT THAT DETERMINES THE LIMITATIONS OF YOUR ACTIONS AND THE SCOPE OF THE RESULTS YOUR ACTIONS CAN PRODUCE.
  • 16. © BMI-CSLORC 16 CONTEXT DEFINED THE TERM CONTEXT ENCOMPASSES THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS OR INVISIBLE PREMISES ON WHICH AN ORGANISATION AND ITS STRATEGY ARE BASED. UNLESS THE CONTEXT IS ARTICULATED, ACKNOWLEDGED, AND GRAPPLED WITH, SHIFTS OF FUNDAMENTAL IMPORTANCE CANNOT OCCUR. UNLESS THE CONTEXT IS SHIFTED, IT IS VIRTUALLY IMPOSSIBLE TO CREATE AN ENTIRELY NEW REALM OF POSSIBILITIES.
  • 17. © BMI-CSLORC 17 CONTEXT IN PHYSICS ALL SCIENTISTS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY TREATED TIME AS THE UNIVERSAL CONSTANT (AND THE SPEED OF LIGHT THE VARIABLE). EINSTEIN SPECULATED THAT THE SPEED OF LIGHT MIGHT BE THE CONSTANT, AND HE LOOKED ELSEWHERE FOR THE VARIABLE THAT COULD ACCOUNT FOR THE ELASTICITY OF THE COSMOS. THE ONLY CANDIDATE WAS TIME.
  • 18. © BMI-CSLORC 18 CONTEXT IN PHYSICS THIS FORCED HIM TO LOOK “OUTSIDE THE BOX” FOR SOLUTION. HIS SPECULATION ABOUT TOTALLY NEW POSSIBILITIES LAUNCHED HIM ON THE INTELLECTUAL ODYSSEY THAT PRODUCED THE GENERAL AND SPECIAL THEORIES OF RELATIVITY - AND REVOLUTIONISED THE WORLD OF PHYSICS. HE CREATED A NEW CONTEXT FOR HOW WE LOOK AT THE WORLD AROUND US.
  • 19. © BMI-CSLORC 19 CONTEXT IN MANAGEMENT THE CONSTANT ACCEPTED AS VALID WITHOUT QUESTION IN ALL MANAGEMENT THEORIES IS THAT EFFECTIVE PRESCRIPTIONS AND METHODOLOGIES PRESCRIBE doing this OR not doing that. DOING IS THE APPARENT CONSTANT; To manage is to do. MANAGERS ARE SELECTED AND PROMOTED BASED ON THEIR ABILITY to get things done. But what if something else is the constant AND doing is actually the variable?
  • 20. © BMI-CSLORC 20 CONTEXT IN MANAGEMENT WHO WE ARE BEING MUST BE SO COMMITTED TO A FUTURE WE BELIEVE IN THAT WE JUST “MAKE IT HAPPEN” STANDING IN THAT COMMITMENT, IN THAT FUTURE, AND CONTINUING TO TAKE ACTION REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES, WE CAUSE RESULTS TO OCCUR - ONE WAY OR ANOTHER. BEING THE RIGHT WAY MAKES DOING THE RIGHT THING A LOT MORE LIKELY. BEING THE FUTURE SHAPES ACTIONS SO THAT BIG BREAKTHROUGHS ARE PRODUCED WHICH ARE CONSISTENT WITH THE FUTURE WE DECLARED.
  • 21. © BMI-CSLORC 21 CONTEXT IN LEADERSHIP The foremost challenge for leaders today, is to maintain the clarity to stand confidently in the abundant universe of possibility, no matter how fierce the competition, no matter how stark the necessity to go for the short-term goal, no matter how fearful people are, and no matter how urgently the wolf may appear to howl at the door. It is to have the courage and persistence to distinguish the downward spiral from the radiant realm of possibility in the face of any challenge. As a species we are exquisitely suited to thrive in an environment of threat where resources are scarce, but not always ready to reap the benefits of harmony, peace and plenty. Our perceptual apparatus is structured to alert us to real and imagined dangers everywhere. (Zander: 2000)
  • 22. © BMI-CSLORC 22 CONTEXT IN LEADERSHIP Yet we do have the capacity to override the hidden assumptions of peril that give us the world we see. We can open a window on a world where all is sound, our creative powers are formidable, and unseen threads connect us all. Leadership is a relationship that brings this possibility to others and to the world, from any chair, in any role. This kind of leader is not necessarily the strongest member of the pack – the one best suited to fend off the enemy and gather in resources – as our old definitions of leadership sometimes had it. The ‘leader of possibility’ invigorates the lines of affiliation and compassion from person to person in the face of the tyranny of fear. Any of us can practice this kind of leadership. (Zander: 2000)
  • 23. © BMI-CSLORC 23 CONTEXT IN LEADERSHIP This new leader carries the distinction that it is the framework of fear and scarcity, not scarcity itself, that promotes divisions between people. He asserts that we can create the conditions for the emergence of anything that is missing. We are living in the land of our dreams. This leader calls upon our passion rather than our fear. She is the relentless architect of the possibility that human beings can be. But the gravitational pull of the ‘downward spiral’ is strong indeed. It is the milieu in which we dwell. How do we reliably bring forth possibility in this context and take to our wings? (Zander: 2000)
  • 24. © BMI-CSLORC 24 CONTEXT IN LEADERSHIP The practice is to invent and sustain frameworks that bring forth possibility. It is about restructuring meanings, creating visions, and establishing environments where possibility is spoken – where the buoyant force of possibility overcomes the pull of the downward spiral. The steps to the practice of framing possibility are: Make a new distinction in the realm of possibility: one that is a powerful substitute for the current framework of meaning that is generating the downward spiral. Enter the territory. Embody the new distinction in such a way that it becomes the framework for life around you. Keep distinguishing what is ‘on the track’ and what is ‘off the track’ of your framework of possibility. (Zander: 2000)
  • 25. © BMI-CSLORC 25 CONTEXT IN LEADERSHIP PRESIDENT KENNEDY WINSTON CHURCHILL ROSA PARKES EDITH CARSON MAHATMAH GHANDI MARTIN LUTHER KING SIR COLIN MARSHALL PAST PRESIDENT NELSON MANDELA PRESIDENT THABO MBEKI
  • 26. © BMI-CSLORC 26 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION Mahatma GhandiMahatma GhandiMahatma GhandiMahatma Ghandi
  • 27. © BMI-CSLORC 27 Martin Luther King We are simply seeking to bring into full realisation the American dream – a dream yet unfulfilled. A dream of equality of opportunity, of privilege and property widely distributed: a dream of a land where men no longer argue that the colour of a man’s skin determines the content of his character, the dream of a land where every man will respect the dignity and worth of human personality. (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., July 19, 1962) CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 28. © BMI-CSLORC 28 Rosa Parks Known for the incident in 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. Her subsequent arrest led to the Montgomery bus boycott, a major campaign in the fight against discrimination. It didn’t merely spark a revolutionary alteration in racial attitudes; she embodied a powerful stand that forced an entire country to take notice. CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 29. © BMI-CSLORC 29 On that bleak December day in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955. Rosa Parks refused to surrender her seat on a bus to a white man, even though the segregation laws required it, even though the driver yelled at her, even though she knew she would be arrested, jailed, and possibly even lynched. Rosa Parks' simple act of courage spawned a movement, inspired a generation, and changed a nation. CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION At dusk on December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus and took her stand.
  • 30. © BMI-CSLORC 30 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 31. © BMI-CSLORC 31 This was the woman whose arrest had inspired the year-long bus boycott in Montgomery, when thousands of blacks walked to work rather than sit in the 'coloured' section of the busses. This was the woman who helped introduce the world to a dynamic young preacher named Martin Luther King Jr. This was the quiet crusader, whose life was so viciously threatened that she had to flee with her family to Detroit. Rosa Parks, with her gentle smile, her glasses and braided hair, always so self-deprecating, always so demure. CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 32. © BMI-CSLORC 32 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 33. © BMI-CSLORC 33 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 34. © BMI-CSLORC 34 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION Rosa Parkes Deceased 4 October 2005 aged 92
  • 35. © BMI-CSLORC 35 “ STAND BEHIND ME in my nation-building and reconciliation drive ….. stretch across the divide to unite the Nation …..” President Mandela’s emotive challenge to all South Africans CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION The ingredients for a political miracle
  • 36. © BMI-CSLORC 36 President Mandela’s commitment to building a non-racial society - SOMETHING HE ONCE DECLARED HE WAS PREPARED TO DIE FOR - left him with no alternative but to TRANSFORM THE COUNTRY from its conflictual past into a UNITED NATION. CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 37. © BMI-CSLORC 37 . . . which other country has a moral colossus to match Nelson Mandela? We are the envy of every single nation on earth. He has become an icon of forgiveness, compassion, magnanimity and reconciliation for the entire globe. How blessed we are that he was at the helm to guide our ship of state through the choppy waters of transition. (Extract from Archbishop Desmond Tutu's Nelson Mandela Lecture: November 2004) CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 38. © BMI-CSLORC 38 Written into the South African constitution is the vision of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: ‘. . . a need for understanding, but not for vengeance, a need for reparation but not for retaliation, a need for ubuntu but not for victimisation.’ (Zander: 2000) CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 39. © BMI-CSLORC 39 In the realm of possibility, there is no division between ideas and action, mind and body, dream and reality. Leaders who become their vision often seem uncommonly brave to the rest of us Whether from the middle of the action, or from the sidelines, they are the conduit for carrying the vision forward. (Zander: 2000) CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 40. © BMI-CSLORC 40 President Nelson Mandela . . . “The Reconciliation man” CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A NATION
  • 41. © BMI-CSLORC 41 CONTEXT EXAMPLES President Nelson Mandela . . . “The Reconciliation man”
  • 42. © BMI-CSLORC 42 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT The preamble to the Constitution calls on the Government to: • Heal the divisions of the past and establish a society bas4ed on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights; and to • Build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful place as a sovereign state in the family of nations. It was on these injunctions on which Mandela focused so successfully. Fotr this he has been honoured at home and abroad as a nation builder, a uniting force, a reconciler and a magnanimous leaders with an extraordinary heart, who made a point of reaching out to his adversaries.
  • 43. © BMI-CSLORC 43 This is a typical slide Illuminating the needs of the “hopeless” Continent Pres. Mbeki’s brainchild CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT
  • 44. © BMI-CSLORC 44 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT “According to the traditional paradigm, the incorrect proposition is made that Africa will succeed only if the north increases charitable donor aid to fill the African begging bowl. Fortunately, the G-8 has understood Africa’s rejection of this relationship.” (President Thabo Mbeki, 3 July 2002)
  • 45. © BMI-CSLORC 45 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT “ I am an African!” President Thabo Mbeki
  • 46. © BMI-CSLORC 46 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT Our country, through President Thabo Mbeki, has been in the forefront of the creation of the African Union and in the conception and promotion of the New Partnership for Africa's Development and African Renaissance. We will be home to the African parliament. That is a remarkable turnaround. The ugly caterpillar has metamorphosed into a beautiful butterfly. South Africans proclaim their national identity proudly. (Extract from Archbishop Desmond Tutu's Nelson Mandela Lecture: November 2004)
  • 47. © BMI-CSLORC 47 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT “ … to be a true African is to be a rebel in the cause of the African renaissance, whose success in the new century and millenium is one of the great historic challenges of our time” President Thabo Mbeki
  • 48. © BMI-CSLORC 48 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 49. © BMI-CSLORC 49 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 50. © BMI-CSLORC 50 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 51. © BMI-CSLORC 51 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 52. © BMI-CSLORC 52 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 53. © BMI-CSLORC 53 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 54. © BMI-CSLORC 54 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 55. © BMI-CSLORC 55 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 56. © BMI-CSLORC 56 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 57. © BMI-CSLORC 57 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 58. © BMI-CSLORC 58 CONTEXT RESPONSE
  • 59. © BMI-CSLORC 59 CONTEXT EXAMPLES
  • 60. © BMI-CSLORC 60 CONTEXT EXAMPLES
  • 61. © BMI-CSLORC 61 “The Kananaskis conference will go down in history as a defining moment in the process both of the evolution of Africa and the birth of a more equitable system of international relations.” President Thabo Mbeki (27 June, 2002) Mbeki gets approval from G8 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT
  • 62. © BMI-CSLORC 62 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT
  • 63. © BMI-CSLORC 63 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT Of all the commendable things Mbeki did during his presidency, what loomed highest was his African Renaissance vision, which had already taken root with programmes such as NEPAD and the APRM. No one – not even his worst enemies – would be able to take this away from him. (Chikane: 2012: 45)
  • 64. © BMI-CSLORC 64 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT History will show that Mbeki carried the flag of success and was tripped just before crossing the winning line because of internal party dynamics and not governance or policy issues. When the dust has finally settled I believe that the valley of the shadow of Polokwane - that dark cloud – will not forever cover the hills of success Mbeki scaled. The time will come when these successes will be celebrated. (Chikane: 2012: 89)
  • 65. © BMI-CSLORC 65 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING A CONTINENT Rev Chikane, responding to a question asking him to compare former president Thabo Mbeki’s leadership to that of Mr Zuma. "I would like to avoid doing comparisons with a sitting president," he replied. He, however, said Mr Mbeki was "on another level" going on to refer to his educational qualifications. Mr Mbeki has a master of economics degree from the University of Sussex.
  • 66. © BMI-CSLORC 66 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING THE WORLD US President Barack Obama (L) bows as he shakes hands with Japanese Emperor Akihito (C) Is Obama obeisant or is this act a symbolic form of contrition and reconciliation for the public disdain and humiliation of Emperor Hirohito by General Douglas MacArthur after the surrender of Japan in 1945? Then untidily clad MacArthur met immaculately dressed Hirohito, saying in effect: “ I am MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, and I am the boss.”
  • 67. © BMI-CSLORC 67 CONTEXT IN TRANSFORMING THE WORLD General Douglas Mac Arthur and Emperor Hirohito (Source: Google) The emperor of Japan came to have a conference with General MacArthur. MacArthur, before the meeting, told the Emperor that they were to take one picture. This photograph, which was published in the local Japanese newspapers, was very shocking. It shows MacArthur in an open shirt with "No neck tie," as the Japanese press said, towering over the little man who was the "larger than life" Emperor. The Emperor, whose image was very impressive to the Japanese people before this photograph, appeared meek and little in comparison to MacArthur, who was the symbol of American influence in Japan. The picture also signified that MacArthur would stand by the Emperor, who was possibly going to be tried for war crimes.
  • 68. © BMI-CSLORC 68 TO REINVENT YOURSELF AND TO BUILD THE MUSCLES To make the impossible happen The challenge is