Words can be arranged in manyways as there are many ways toarrange words.
The Birth of Transformational Generative GrammarAfter rejecting linear finite state grammars and after showing thelimitations of phrase- structure(PS) descriptions, a formalized versionof immediate constituent analysis, Chomsky developed a grammarwith a tripartite structure.( Youssef Aoun & Dominiques Sportiche1980.Transformational Grammar& the Study of Language) generative component a set of phrase-structure rules generating the underlying structures a set of morphophonemic rules that convert sequences of morphemes into transformational sequences of phonemes component modifying structures into surface structures transformations modifying the output strings of elements generated by the PS –rules into strings that can serve as the input to the morphophonemic rules.
TRANSFORMATIONAL Transformational grammar or transformational-generative GRAMMAR grammar (TGG) is a generative DEFINITIONS grammar, especially of a naturallanguage, that has been developed in theChomskyan tradition of phrase structure grammars. (English grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_grammar )
TRANSFORMATIONAL It is a theory of grammar that accounts for the GRAMMAR constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and DEFINITIONS phrase structures. "In transformational grammar, the termrule is used not for a precept set down by an external authoritybut for a principle that is unconsciously yet regularly followed in the production and interpretation of sentences. A rule is a direction for forming a sentence or a part of a sentence, which has been internalized by the native speaker." (D. Bornstein, An Introduction to Transformational Grammar. Univ. Press of America, 1984)
TRANSFORMATIONALTG [transformational grammar] is not a GRAMMARmathematical grammar. The processes it DEFINITIONSdescribes are not mathematical processesand the symbols it describes are not usedwith their mathematical meaning.
TRANSFORMATIONAL "Chomskys grammar is a generative grammar of the transformational type.‘ he means that among the rules are those for GRAMMAR transforming one type of sentence into DEFINITIONS another(affirmative into negative, simple into compound or complex, and so forth);(W.F. Bolton, A Living Language: The History and Structure of English. Random House, 1982)
TRANSFORMATIONAL "The credit for making the concept of transformation popular and significant belongsprimarily to Zellig S. Harris and Noam Chomsky. GRAMMAR . . . Harris introduced the concept of DEFINITIONStransformation to linguistics in order to reinforce the effectiveness of the method of reducing utterances to certain basic sentence structures. " (Kazimierz Polanski, "Some Remarks on Transformations," in Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries, ed. by D. Kastovsky, et al. Walter de Gruyter, 1986)
TRANSFORMATIONALThe transformational grammarwas a theory of how grammaticalknowledge is represented and GRAMMARprocessed in the brain. Developed DEFINITIONSby Noam Chomsky inthe1960s, the transformationalgrammar consisted of:
TRANSFORMATIONAL1. Two levels of representation of the GRAMMARstructure of sentences which includes DEFINITIONSan underlying, more abstractform, termed deep structure, and theactual form of the sentenceproduced, called surface structure.
ACCORDING TO GROVER HUDSON, ESSENTIALINTRODUCTORY LINGUISTICS. BLACKWELL, 2000) "A deep structure is . . . After all raisings apply, plus relevant morphological and the underlying form of a phonological rules (as for sentence, before rules forms of do), the result . . . is the linear, concrete, surface like auxiliary inversion structure of sentences, and wh-fronting apply. ready to be given phonetic form."
D-Structure is an abstract S-structure corresponds to representation of a sentence. It the version of a sentence can represented in the form of that can be spoken and a hierarchical tree diagram, or heard. "phrase structure Surface structures are tree, depicting the abstract derived from deep grammatical relationships structures by a series between the words and phrases within a sentence. of transformations.
TRANSFORMATIONALExample:The dog bit the cat.(D-Structure) GRAMMARThe cat was bitten by the dog. DEFINITIONS( S-Structure)where an optional transformationcalled "passive" had applied.
TRANSFORMATIONAL2. A system of formalrules specifying how GRAMMARdeep structures are to DEFINITIONSbe transformed intosurface structures.
Note:In TGG, sentences are generated by a (subconscious) setof procedures. It is part of the mind ability.The goal is ….. To figure out what we (subconsciously)know……. A theory of the linguistic intuition (unconsciousknowledge) of a native speaker. The ‘rules’ in TG do not tell us how to produce language> They tell us the ‘ORDER’ in which to put words and phrases. TGG allow us to generate an infinite number of sentences via transformations.
Transformation is a rule that takes aninput typically called the Deep Structure(in the Standard Theory) or D-structure(in the extended standard theory A typical transformation in TG isor government and binding theory) and the operation of subject-auxiliarychanges it in some restricted way to result inversion (SAI).in a Surface Structure (or S-structure). This rule takes as its input a declarative sentence with an auxiliary. John has eaten all the heirloom tomatoes. > Has John eaten all the heirloom tomatoes?
the rules relating deep and surface structures- ….”(Noam Chomsky, lecture given in January 1969 at Gustavus Adolphus College in Minnesota. Rpt. in Language and Mind, 3rd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)
Transformations TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR1. Passive Agent Deletion. [Someone] ate the cake.When the subject agent is not identified, we use an indefinitepronoun to fill the slot where it would appear in the deep structure. The cake was eaten.In many instances, we delete the agent in passive sentences. The cake was eaten [by someone].T-G grammar proposes a deletion rule that eliminates theprepositional phrase containing the subject agent. We can say,therefore, that sentence has undergone two transformations,passive and passive agent deletion." (James Dale Williams, TheTeachers Grammar Book, 2nd ed. Lawrence Ehrlbaum, 2005)
2. ExtrapositionA construction (or transformation) in which a clause that acts as asubject is moved (or extraposed) to the end of the sentence andreplaced by dummy it in the initial position.An extraposed subject is sometimes called a postponed subject.The use of it as a subject (or dummy subject) in sentences about timeand weather (e.g., Its raining again.) and in certain idioms (e.g., ItsOK). Also known as ambient "it" or empty "it."Unlike the ordinary pronoun it, dummy it refers to nothing at all; itsimply serves a grammatical function. In other words, dummy it hasa grammatical meaning but no lexical meaning.
3. end-focus It is the principle that state that the most important information in a clause or sentence is placed at the end. End- focus is a normal characteristic of sentence structures in English. [T]he dramatist deliberately uses a marked word order to focus attention [on] that part of the information that is comically most surprising."(Terence Murphy, "Exploring the Concept of Emergent Coherence in a Corpus ofKorean ESL Texts." Learning Culture and Language Through ICTs: Methods for Enhanced Instruction, ed. by Maiga Chang. IGI Global, 2009)
In the sentence, Sean Connery was "To be technically born in Scotland, the last open-class accurate, end focus is item is the noun Scotland. By given to the last open- default, it is the focus, the new piece class item or proper of information in this sentence.noun in a clause (Quirkand Greenbaum 1973). In contrast, Sean Connery is the topic .." (subject) of the sentence, or the old piece (Michael H. Cohen, James P. of information on which the speaker Giangola, and Jennifer makes some comment. Balogh, Voice User InterfaceDesign. Addison-Wesley, 2004) Old information is generally placed in the subject, whereas new information is generally housed in the predicate.
"[T]here are end-focusing processes that produce marked end focus. Someone parked a large furniture van lastParked right outside our front doorlast night it was, a large furniture night right outside our front door.van. A large furniture van, right outside our front door last night, parked! Some of these end focuses are clearly more marked than others, as the reader can confirm by reading them aloud--they involve a successively more indignant intonation pattern!" (Keith Brown and Jim Miller, Syntax: A Linguistic Introduction to Sentence Structure, 2nd ed. Routledge, 2002)
4. End-Focus and Genitives (Possessive Forms) "Quirk et al. (1985) argue that the According to these principles, the choice between the s-genitive and more complex and the of-genitive is, among other communicatively more important things, determined by the principles constituents tend to be placed of end-focus and end-weight. toward the end of the NP. Accordingly, the s-genitive should be preferred when the possessum is more important than the possessor, while the of-genitive should be favored if the possessor is the more communicatively important (and complex) element . . .." (Anette Rosenbach, Genitive Variation in English: Conceptual Factors in Synchronic and Diachronic Studies. Mouton de Gruyter, 2002)
5. Reversed Wh-Clefts"Reversed wh-clefts have the main focus at the beginning of thefirst unit, not at the end after be, as in regular wh-clefts. Somecombinations (thats what/why/how/the way) are stereotyped, asare the thing is/the problem is. All you need is LOVE. (regular wh-cleft) LOVE is all you need. (reversed wh-cleft) What you should do is THIS. (regular wh- cleft) THIS is what you should do. (reversed wh- cleft)The effect is to put the new information as end-focus, but to indicate its selectively new statusvery clearly.(Angela Downing and Philip Locke, English Grammar: A University Course, 2nded. Routledge, 2006)
Wh-movement S-Structure Who will John see.D-Structure John will see who.
Grammaticality - correctness in terms of grammar It is possible for a sentence to be both grammatical and meaningless. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.(Chomsky)…meaningful but ungrammatical (non)-sentences Man the bit sandwich the.The meaning of which is fairly clear, but no native speaker would accept as wellformed.
Innate Linguistic KnowledgeChomsky is clear that a generativegrammar models only the knowledgethat underlies the human ability tospeak and understand.
I-Language and E-Language ( Chomsky, 1986) Internal language is the External Language mentally represented encompasses all other linguistic knowledge that notions of what a a native speaker of a language is, for example language has, and is that it is a body of therefore a mental object knowledge or behavioral — from this perspective; habits shared by a most of theoretical community. linguistics is a branch of psychology.