Chapter 5 Section I
Nonrenewable energy resources <ul><li>Most energy sources are nonrenewable, which means they are used up faster than natur...
Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal formed from the remains of swamp plants and other org...
Coal <ul><li>Coal-most abundant fossil fuel, a rock that contains at least 50 percent plant remains </li></ul>
<ul><li>Hydrocarbons can be extracted from coal to form liquid and gaseous synthetic fuels </li></ul><ul><li>As decaying p...
Oil & Natural Gas <ul><li>Over millions of years the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms form oil and natural g...
<ul><li>Oil is a thick black liquid hydrocarbon </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is a gaseous hydrocarbon that often forms wi...
<ul><li>Americans obtain most of their energy from oil and natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is used mostly for h...
<ul><li>Fossil fuels are removed from the ground through mining or pumping. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Strip mining or open-pit mining, in which upper layers of rock and soil are removed to expose coal, is used when c...
<ul><li>Underground coal mining methods –tunneling, drift mines, and slope mines. </li></ul><ul><li>Since oil and natural ...
<ul><li>Reserve –amount of a fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Nuclear Energy <ul><li>Alternate energy source produced from the fission, or splitting of uranium atoms. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Nuclear energy is considered a nonrenewable resource. </li></ul><ul><li>One problem with nuclear energy is that nu...
<ul><li>Skip #3 </li></ul>
Section II <ul><li>Inexhaustible energy resources include the SUN, wind, water, and geothermal energy. </li></ul>
Solar energy-energy from the Sun <ul><li>South-facing windows act as passive solar collectors, warming exposed rooms. </li...
Wind Farms – uses a large number of windmills to generate electricity <ul><li>Few regions of the world have strong enough ...
 
Hydroelectric energy –electricity generated from running water flowing over dams; dams can create environmental problems.
Geothermal energy – energy obtained from hot magma or dry, hot rocks inside Earth. <ul><li>heating </li></ul><ul><li>acces...
<ul><li>Renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, energy from burning organic material, can be replaced in a rel...
<ul><li>Burning wood, the most commonly used biomass fuel, can cause pollution and disrupt natural habitats when trees are...
<ul><li>Biomass fuel, such as corn, can be distilled into an alcohol, such as ethanol, and mixed with another fuel. </li><...
Garbage – trash burning power plants burn garbage to generate electricity, but the resulting air pollution and toxic ash r...
Section III
Mineral resources <ul><li>Deposits of useful minerals; metals are from ore, deposits in which minerals exist in quantities...
<ul><li>Economic factors such as supply and demand determine whether a mineral deposit is an ore. </li></ul><ul><li>To ext...
Nonmetallic Mineral Resources <ul><li>any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metals </li></ul>
Industrial minerals <ul><li>Include sandstone for glass making, halite for table and road salt, garnet for abrasive sandpa...
Nonmetal Mineral Resources <ul><li>used for building materials including aggregate (for concrete), gypsum (for plaster and...
<ul><li>Recycling uses old materials to produce new ones and helps reduce demand for mineral resources, which are nonrenew...
Virginia Mineral Resources <ul><li>coal – for fuel </li></ul>
Limestone – building stone
gravel – construction (concrete and road beds)
Crushed rock <ul><li>construction (concrete and road beds) </li></ul>
Titanium <ul><li>lightweight, durable (wheelchairs, auto and airplane parts,  </li></ul><ul><li>non-toxic (repair broken b...
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Chapter 5 follows

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Section I
  2. 2. Nonrenewable energy resources <ul><li>Most energy sources are nonrenewable, which means they are used up faster than natural processes can replace them. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal formed from the remains of swamp plants and other organisms that were buried and altered over millions of years. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Coal <ul><li>Coal-most abundant fossil fuel, a rock that contains at least 50 percent plant remains </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Hydrocarbons can be extracted from coal to form liquid and gaseous synthetic fuels </li></ul><ul><li>As decaying plant material loses gas and moisture, carbon concentration increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of coal formation –peat, lignite coal, bituminous coal, and anthracite coal, the cleanest-burning type of coal </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oil & Natural Gas <ul><li>Over millions of years the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms form oil and natural gas. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Oil is a thick black liquid hydrocarbon </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is a gaseous hydrocarbon that often forms wit oil, but above it, since natural gas is a lighter molecule. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Americans obtain most of their energy from oil and natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is used mostly for heating and cooking. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is used in many ways including as heating oil, or gasoline, and in manufacturing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Fossil fuels are removed from the ground through mining or pumping. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Strip mining or open-pit mining, in which upper layers of rock and soil are removed to expose coal, is used when coal deposits are near the surface. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Underground coal mining methods –tunneling, drift mines, and slope mines. </li></ul><ul><li>Since oil and natural gas are under pressure, they can be pumped up a narrow pipe to the surface. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Reserve –amount of a fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current reserves of coal will last about 250 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States reserves of natural gas will last about 60 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane hydrates, located in ocean floor sediments, are believed to contain high amounts of carbon and might someday be a useable source for clean-burning methane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving fossil fuels will help slow down the current consumption rate. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>Alternate energy source produced from the fission, or splitting of uranium atoms. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Nuclear energy is considered a nonrenewable resource. </li></ul><ul><li>One problem with nuclear energy is that nuclear power plants produce highly radioactive nuclear waste; EPA has determined that nuclear waste must be stored and contained for at least 10,000 years. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Skip #3 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Section II <ul><li>Inexhaustible energy resources include the SUN, wind, water, and geothermal energy. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Solar energy-energy from the Sun <ul><li>South-facing windows act as passive solar collectors, warming exposed rooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar cells actively collect Sun energy and convert it to electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy is not readily useable on cloudy days or at night. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Wind Farms – uses a large number of windmills to generate electricity <ul><li>Few regions of the world have strong enough wind to generate electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind does not always flow steadily, so it is an unreliable resource. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Hydroelectric energy –electricity generated from running water flowing over dams; dams can create environmental problems.
  20. 21. Geothermal energy – energy obtained from hot magma or dry, hot rocks inside Earth. <ul><li>heating </li></ul><ul><li>accessible only in a dew areas - Iceland </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, energy from burning organic material, can be replaced in a relatively short time such as during a human life span. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Burning wood, the most commonly used biomass fuel, can cause pollution and disrupt natural habitats when trees are cut down. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Biomass fuel, such as corn, can be distilled into an alcohol, such as ethanol, and mixed with another fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, the production processes for biomass fuels, such as ethanol, use more energy than the ethanol produces. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Garbage – trash burning power plants burn garbage to generate electricity, but the resulting air pollution and toxic ash residue can present problems.
  25. 26. Section III
  26. 27. Mineral resources <ul><li>Deposits of useful minerals; metals are from ore, deposits in which minerals exist in quantities large enough to be mined at a profit. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Economic factors such as supply and demand determine whether a mineral deposit is an ore. </li></ul><ul><li>To extract a useful substance from an ore, it must be concentrated and refined, which uses energy; smelting is one method of refining some ores. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Nonmetallic Mineral Resources <ul><li>any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metals </li></ul>
  29. 30. Industrial minerals <ul><li>Include sandstone for glass making, halite for table and road salt, garnet for abrasive sandpaper </li></ul>
  30. 31. Nonmetal Mineral Resources <ul><li>used for building materials including aggregate (for concrete), gypsum (for plaster and wallboards), and building stone (granite, limestone, and sandstone) </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Recycling uses old materials to produce new ones and helps reduce demand for mineral resources, which are nonrenewable. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Virginia Mineral Resources <ul><li>coal – for fuel </li></ul>
  33. 34. Limestone – building stone
  34. 35. gravel – construction (concrete and road beds)
  35. 36. Crushed rock <ul><li>construction (concrete and road beds) </li></ul>
  36. 37. Titanium <ul><li>lightweight, durable (wheelchairs, auto and airplane parts, </li></ul><ul><li>non-toxic (repair broken bones </li></ul><ul><li>found in coastal plains – black sand </li></ul>

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