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Chapter 5
 

Chapter 5

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    Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 5 Section I
    • Nonrenewable energy resources
      • energy resources that can be used up; that take millions of years to form and are used faster that can be replenished
    • Fossil Fuels
      • form from the remains of plants and other organisms that were buried and altered over millions of years
    • Coal
      • 1 – contains at least 50% plant remains
      • 2- generates electricity
      • 3 – current reserves will only last another 250 years
    • Oil
      • produced from microscopic marine organisms
      • produce gas, fuels, lubricants, plastics, AND FERTILIZERS ($$$$$$)!!!
    •  
    • Natural Gas
      • produced from microscopic marine organisms
      • 1 – mainly used for heating and cooking
      • current US reserves will only last another 60 years
    • Nuclear Energy
      • splitting of heavy elements to produce energy (fission)
    • Nuclear Energy
      • URANIUM-235 IS THE FUEL FOR FISSION REACTIONS IN POWER PLANTS.
      • ADVANTAGES: NO AIR OR WATER POLLUTION / SMALL AMOUNT OF FUEL GIVES A LARGE AMOUNT OF HEAT!
      • DISADVANTAGES: RADIACTIVE WASTE MUST BE MANAGED AND STORED FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME!
    • Section II
      • Renewable energy resources – energy resources that are replaced over a relatively short time – 100 years or less
    • Inexhaustible
      • energy resources that are constant and will not run out
    • Solar – energy from the sun
      • “ SOLAR CELLS” used in satellites, calculators, streetlights, cars, etc. TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY!
      • not readily usable on cloudy days or at night
    • Wind Farms – areas with strong enough winds
      • windmills and wind vanes create electricity
      • few regions of the world have strong enough or steady enough winds
      • visual pollution
    •  
    • Hydroelectric - running water flowing over dams, down waterfalls and rapids
      • electricity from dams
      • water wheels for grinding; individual local use
      • dams create environment problems
    • Geothermal – energy obtained from Earth’s interior; hot magma or dry hot rocks
      • HEAT USED TO MAKE STEAM TO CREATE ELECTRICITY.
      • ICELAND / HAWAII
    • Biomass Energy – energy from burning organic material
      • alcohol – corn can be distilled into ethanol and used as a fuel – with or without another fuel added to the ethanol. GASAHOL USED IN VIRGINIA.
      • Wood – most commonly used biomass fuel – burning for heat
      • 1 – causes pollution
      • 2 – disrupts natural habitats when trees are cut down
    • Garbage – trash burning power plants burn garbage to generate electricity
      • air pollution and toxic ash residue
    • Section III
    • Mineral Resources
      • Deposits of energy resources that can be mined
    • “ ORE”: A MIXTURE OF PARENT MATERIAL AND A VALUABLE, USABLE RESOURCE SUCH AS IRON, COPPER, OTHER METALS.
      • METALLIC MINERAL RESOURCES:
      • 1 – minerals that can be mined at a profit
      • 2 – quantities large enough to be worth removing
      • 3 – relatively easy to separate from parent material.
      • 4 – has to be in demand – supply and demand
    • Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
      • any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metals
    • Industrial minerals
      • sandstone for glass making, halite for table and road salt, garnet for abrasive sandpaper
    • Nonmetal Mineral Resources
      • used for building materials including aggregate (for concrete), gypsum (for plaster and wallboards), and building stone (granite, limestone, and sandstone)
    • Virginia Mineral Resources
      • coal – for fuel
    • Limestone – building stone
    • gravel – construction (concrete and road beds)
    • Crushed rock
      • construction (concrete and road beds)
    • Titanium
      • lightweight, durable (wheelchairs, auto and airplane parts,
      • non-toxic (repair broken bones
      • found in coastal plains – black sand