CHAPTER 2 / CHEMISTRY OF MATTER MATTER=ANYTHING WHICH HAS MASS AND VOLUME.
PHYSICAL STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>1. GAS= LOWEST DENSITY, PARTICLES NOT BOUND TO EACH OTHER, RAPID MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES. ...
STRUCTURE OF MATTER <ul><li>ELEMENTS= SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE COMPOSED OF ONLY ONE TYPE OF ATOM.  THEY CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN ...
ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>MODERN ATOMIC THEORY= THE ATOM IS 3 DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE WITH “SUBATOMIC PARTICLES” FORMING A NU...
PERIODIC CHART <ul><li>THIS SHOWS THE ELEMENTS AND INFORMATION ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE. </li></ul><ul><li...
ATOMIC NUMBER <ul><li>LOOK ON THE PERIODIC CHART AND FIND THE WHOLE NUMBER IN EACH SQUARE. THIS IS THE ATOMIC NUMBER. </li...
ISOTOPES <ul><li>ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT MAY CONTAIN DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS.  THESE ARE “ISOTOPES” </li></ul><ul><...
ISOTOPES <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON EXISTS AS 3 ISOTOPES:  CARBON-12 ( 6 P AND 6 N) </li></ul><ul><li>CARBO...
ISOTOPES <ul><li>MEDICAL USES </li></ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIAL USES </li></ul><ul><li>USED TO DETERMINE THE AGE OF ROCKS AND F...
COMBINATIONS OF ATOMS <ul><li>1. “DIATOMIC” MOLECULES:  ATOMS MAY LINK TO IDENTICAL ATOMS IF HIGHLY REACTIVE: </li></ul><u...
COMBINATIONS OF ATOMS <ul><li>2. “COMPOUNDS”= COMPOSED OF ATOMS OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS COMBINED CHEMICALLY. (PAGE 40) </li>...
PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES <ul><li>PHYSICAL PROPERTIES= CHARACTERISTICS DETECTED BY THE SENSES. </li></ul><ul><li>MASS  VOLU...
PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES <ul><li>CHEMICAL PROPERTIES= DESCRIBE THE CHANGES THAT OCCUR DURING “CHEMICAL REACTIONS” BETWEEN ...
CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><li>THESE ARE THE FORCES WHICH HOLD COMPOUNDS TOGETHER. </li></ul><ul><li>COVALENT BONDS: ATOMS OF DI...
CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><li>“ IONIC BONDING”=OUTER SHELL ELECTRONS ARE EITHER GAINED OR LOST WHICH CREATES CHARGED (+,-) PART...
BONDING BETWEEN PARTICLES <ul><li>“ METALLIC BONDING”= METAL ATOMS ARE BOUND TOGETHER TIGHTLY AS ELECTRONS ARE FREE TO MOV...
MIXTURES <ul><li>2 OR MORE SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE NOT CHEMICALLY COMBINED AND EASILY SEPERATED. </li></ul><ul><li>HETEROGENE...
 
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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 / CHEMISTRY OF MATTER MATTER=ANYTHING WHICH HAS MASS AND VOLUME.
  2. 2. PHYSICAL STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>1. GAS= LOWEST DENSITY, PARTICLES NOT BOUND TO EACH OTHER, RAPID MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES. </li></ul><ul><li>2. LIQUID= INTERMEDIATE DENSITY, PARTICLES ARE BOUND TO EACH OTHER BY “INTERMOLECULAR FORCES”, PARTICLES VIBRATE. </li></ul><ul><li>3. SOLIDS= HIGHEST DENSITY, PARTICLES STRONGLY BOUND TO EACH OTHER BY “INTERMOLECULAR FORCES”, PARTICLES VIBRATE. </li></ul>
  3. 3. STRUCTURE OF MATTER <ul><li>ELEMENTS= SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE COMPOSED OF ONLY ONE TYPE OF ATOM. THEY CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO SIMPLER SUBSTANCES </li></ul><ul><li>BY NORMAL PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL MEANS. </li></ul><ul><li>ATOMS= THE SMALLEST STRUCTURE OF AN ELEMENT. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>MODERN ATOMIC THEORY= THE ATOM IS 3 DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE WITH “SUBATOMIC PARTICLES” FORMING A NUCLEUS AND MOVING AROUND THE NUCLEUS. </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEUS= PROTONS AND NEUTRONS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONS ORBIT THE NUCLEUS AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT! </li></ul>
  5. 5. PERIODIC CHART <ul><li>THIS SHOWS THE ELEMENTS AND INFORMATION ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE. </li></ul><ul><li>COLUMNS= ELEMENTS WITH SIMILAR PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. </li></ul><ul><li>ROWS= INCREASING ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS OF THE ELEMENTS. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ATOMIC NUMBER <ul><li>LOOK ON THE PERIODIC CHART AND FIND THE WHOLE NUMBER IN EACH SQUARE. THIS IS THE ATOMIC NUMBER. </li></ul><ul><li>ATOMIC NUMBER = # OF PROTONS AND ALSO THE # ELECTRONS IN A STABLE ATOM. </li></ul><ul><li>ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ISOTOPES <ul><li>ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT MAY CONTAIN DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS. THESE ARE “ISOTOPES” </li></ul><ul><li>OF THE ELEMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>MASS NUMBER= THE # PROTONS + </li></ul><ul><li># NEUTRONS </li></ul><ul><li>ISOTOPES OF THE SAME ELEMENT HAVE DIFFERENT “MASS NUMBER”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ISOTOPES <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON EXISTS AS 3 ISOTOPES: CARBON-12 ( 6 P AND 6 N) </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON-13 ( 6 P AND 7 N ) </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON-14 ( 6 P AND 8 N ) </li></ul><ul><li>HEAVIER ISOTOPES ARE “UNSTABLE AND RADIOACTIVE”. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ISOTOPES <ul><li>MEDICAL USES </li></ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIAL USES </li></ul><ul><li>USED TO DETERMINE THE AGE OF ROCKS AND FOSSILS. </li></ul>
  10. 10. COMBINATIONS OF ATOMS <ul><li>1. “DIATOMIC” MOLECULES: ATOMS MAY LINK TO IDENTICAL ATOMS IF HIGHLY REACTIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>OXYGEN, NITROGEN, FLOURINE, BROMINE, CHLORINE, IODINE, HYDROGEN. (DIATOMIC GASES) </li></ul>
  11. 11. COMBINATIONS OF ATOMS <ul><li>2. “COMPOUNDS”= COMPOSED OF ATOMS OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS COMBINED CHEMICALLY. (PAGE 40) </li></ul><ul><li>WATER (HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN) AND CARBON DIOXIDE ( CARBON AND OXYGEN) ARE COMPOUNDS. </li></ul>
  12. 12. PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES <ul><li>PHYSICAL PROPERTIES= CHARACTERISTICS DETECTED BY THE SENSES. </li></ul><ul><li>MASS VOLUME </li></ul><ul><li>COLOR TEXTURE </li></ul><ul><li>HARDNESS DENSITY </li></ul>
  13. 13. PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES <ul><li>CHEMICAL PROPERTIES= DESCRIBE THE CHANGES THAT OCCUR DURING “CHEMICAL REACTIONS” BETWEEN SUBSTANCES. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: THE RUSTING OF IRON (STEEL): IRON + OXYGEN--- RUST </li></ul><ul><li>(IRON OXIDE) </li></ul>
  14. 14. CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><li>THESE ARE THE FORCES WHICH HOLD COMPOUNDS TOGETHER. </li></ul><ul><li>COVALENT BONDS: ATOMS OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS SHARE ELECTRONS OF THE OUTER ENERGY SHELL. ( WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE ) </li></ul><ul><li>COVALENT COMPOUNDS ARE OFTEN GASES OR LIQUIDS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CHEMICAL BONDING <ul><li>“ IONIC BONDING”=OUTER SHELL ELECTRONS ARE EITHER GAINED OR LOST WHICH CREATES CHARGED (+,-) PARTICLES WHICH ATTRACT EACH OTHER. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: TABLE SALT ( SODIUM CHLORIDE) </li></ul><ul><li>IONIC COMPOUNDS ARE SOLID CRYSTALS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. </li></ul>
  16. 16. BONDING BETWEEN PARTICLES <ul><li>“ METALLIC BONDING”= METAL ATOMS ARE BOUND TOGETHER TIGHTLY AS ELECTRONS ARE FREE TO MOVE THROUGHOUT A PIECE OF METAL. </li></ul><ul><li>“ HYDROGEN BONDING”= THE WATER MOLECULE IS “POLAR” ( +,- REGIONS). </li></ul><ul><li>EACH HYDROGEN ATOM IS ATTRACTED TO AN OXYGEN ATOM FROM A NEIGHBORING MOLECULE. ( PAGE 42 ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. MIXTURES <ul><li>2 OR MORE SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE NOT CHEMICALLY COMBINED AND EASILY SEPERATED. </li></ul><ul><li>HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE= COMPONENTS ARE NOT EVENLY MIXED. ( SALAD, PIZZA, M&M’S) </li></ul><ul><li>HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE= COMPONENTS ARE EVELY MIXED. ( SALT WATER “SOLUTION” ) </li></ul>
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