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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 22 Exploring Space
  • 2. Electromagnetic Radiation
    • What is it ???
      • Radio waves
      • Visible light
      • Gamma rays
      • X-rays
      • Ultraviolet light
      • Infrared waves
      • Microwaves
  • 3. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 4. Frequency
    • Forms of electromagnetic radiation differ in their frequencies.
    • Frequency : # of wave crests that pass a given point per unit of time.
    • The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency.
  • 5. Speed of Light
    • 300,000 km/s
    • ALL electromagnetic waves travel at this speed in a vacuum (where there is no matter)
  • 6. First to Use a Telescope to Study the Sky
    • Galileo in 1600’s
  • 7. Optical Telescope
    • Use light to produce magnified images.
      • Refracting telescope: convex lenses
      • Reflecting telescope: concave mirror.
  • 8. Observatory
    • Where optical telescopes are located.
  • 9. Edwin P. Hubble Discovered: Universe is Expanding Hubble Space Telescope named after him.
  • 10. Hubble Space Telescope
    • Located outside Earth’s atmosphere
  • 11. Hubble Telescope
  • 12. Hubble Pictures
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Radio Telescope
    • Studies radio waves that travel through space.
    • Useful 24 hours
    • a day.
  • 19. Early Space Missions
    • Allowed astronomers to study space in ways not possible using telescopes.
    • Made possible by rockets.
  • 20. Satellite
    • Any object that
    • revolves around
    • another object
    • in an orbit
    • In 1957 the former
    • Soviet Union
    • launched first artificial
    • satellite: Sputnik I.
  • 21. Satellites Today
    • Thousands of artificial satellites orbit Earth
    • Used for: communication and weather forecasting.
  • 22. Space Probes
    • Do not orbit Earth
    • Travel through space.
  • 23. Space Probes: Pioneer 10
    • Launched 1972
    • 1 st manmade object
    • to travel through
    • asteroid belt.
    • Transmitter
    • failed in 2003
    • Passed Pluto
  • 24. Space Probes: Voyager I & II
    • Launched by U.S. in 1977
    • Expected to collect data until 2020
  • 25. Saturn Taken by Voyager II 1981
  • 26. Images from Voyager Space Probes Voyager 2: 1981 Rings of Saturn
  • 27. Images from Voyager Space Probes - Voyager 2 - 1989 - Neptune
  • 28. Voyager 1990
    • By 1990, Voyager 1 was farther from the Sun than Pluto, and approximately 4 billion miles from the Earth. Thus, NASA gave Voyager 1 one last assignment and had the craft take the first ever pictures of the planets from “outside” the solar system. This is a compilation of those shots.
  • 29. Images from Voyager Space Probes
  • 30. Space Probe: Galileo
    • Launched in 1989
    • Reached Jupiter in 1995
    • Released smaller probe to approach Jupiter.
    • Studied Europa and Io (Jupiter’s moons)
  • 31. Moon Quest
    • Yuri Gagarin: 1 st man in space (Soviet)
    • Project Mercury: began U.S. mission to put a man in space.
    • 1961: Alan Shepard: 1 st U.S. man in space
    • 1962: John Glenn: 1 st U.S. citizen to orbit Earth
  • 32. Men in Space Yuri Gagarin 1 st man to orbit Earth
  • 33. Men in Space Alan Shepherd John Glenn
  • 34. Project Gemini
    • Teams of 2 astronauts in the same Gemini spacecraft orbited Earth. One Gemini team met and connected with another spacecraft in orbit.
  • 35. Robotic Probes Sent to the Moon
    • Ranger
    • Surveyor: landed on moon in 1966
    • Lunar Orbiter: took pictures of moon’s surface
  • 36. Project Apollo
    • 1969: Apollo II landed on the Moon
    • Neil Armstrong: 1 st person to step on Moon
  • 37. Space Stations
    • 1973: U.S. launched Skylab
      • Fell out of orbit in 1979
  • 38. Space Stations
    • Mir
      • Soviet Union
      • Dr. Valery Polyakov spent 438 days in space studying the long-term effects of weightlessness.
  • 39. International Space Station
    • Effort of 16 nations
    • 3 phases
    • Should be completed by 2006
  • 40. Missions to Mars
    • Mars Global Surveyor: orbited Mars and took pictures.
    • Pathfinder: descended to surface of Mars
    • Mars Odyssey: mapping surface of Mars
    • Spirit and Opportunity: rovers launched in 2003: goal to analyze surface of mars
    • Future plans: Phoenix 2008
  • 41. Cassini
    • Launched 1997
    • Destination: Saturn