Chapter 22 Exploring Space
Electromagnetic Radiation <ul><li>What is it ??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible ligh...
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Frequency <ul><li>Forms of electromagnetic radiation differ in their frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency :  # of wave...
Speed of Light <ul><li>300,000 km/s </li></ul><ul><li>ALL electromagnetic waves travel at this speed in a vacuum (where th...
First to Use a Telescope to Study the Sky <ul><li>Galileo in 1600’s </li></ul>
Optical Telescope <ul><li>Use light to produce magnified images. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refracting telescope:  convex lense...
Observatory <ul><li>Where optical telescopes are located. </li></ul>
Edwin P. Hubble Discovered:  Universe is Expanding Hubble Space Telescope named after him.
Hubble Space Telescope <ul><li>Located outside Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul>
Hubble Telescope
Hubble Pictures
 
 
 
 
 
Radio Telescope <ul><li>Studies radio waves that travel through space. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li...
Early Space Missions <ul><li>Allowed astronomers to study space in ways not possible using telescopes. </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Satellite <ul><li>Any object that  </li></ul><ul><li>revolves around  </li></ul><ul><li>another object  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Satellites Today <ul><li>Thousands of artificial satellites orbit Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Used for: communication and weat...
Space Probes <ul><li>Do not orbit Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Travel through space. </li></ul>
Space Probes:  Pioneer 10 <ul><li>Launched 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  manmade object  </li></ul><ul><li>to travel throug...
Space Probes:  Voyager I & II <ul><li>Launched by U.S. in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to collect data until 2020 </li>...
Saturn Taken by Voyager II 1981
Images from Voyager Space Probes Voyager 2:  1981 Rings of Saturn
Images from Voyager Space Probes -  Voyager 2 -  1989 -  Neptune
Voyager 1990 <ul><li>By 1990, Voyager 1 was farther from the Sun than Pluto, and approximately 4 billion miles from the Ea...
Images from Voyager Space Probes
Space Probe:  Galileo <ul><li>Launched in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Reached Jupiter in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Released smalle...
Moon Quest <ul><li>Yuri Gagarin:  1 st  man in space (Soviet) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Mercury:  began U.S. mission to pu...
Men in Space Yuri Gagarin 1 st  man to orbit  Earth
Men in Space Alan Shepherd John Glenn
Project Gemini <ul><li>Teams of 2 astronauts in the same Gemini spacecraft orbited Earth.  One Gemini team met and connect...
Robotic Probes Sent to the Moon <ul><li>Ranger </li></ul><ul><li>Surveyor:  landed on moon in 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar...
Project Apollo <ul><li>1969:  Apollo II landed on the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>Neil Armstrong:  1 st  person to step on Moon...
Space Stations <ul><li>1973:  U.S. launched Skylab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fell out of orbit in 1979  </li></ul></ul>
Space Stations <ul><li>Mir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Valery Polyakov spent 438 day...
International Space Station <ul><li>Effort of 16 nations </li></ul><ul><li>3 phases </li></ul><ul><li>Should be completed ...
Missions to Mars <ul><li>Mars Global Surveyor:  orbited Mars and took pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathfinder:  descended t...
Cassini <ul><li>Launched 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Destination:  Saturn </li></ul>
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Ch 22 2

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Ch 22 2

  1. 1. Chapter 22 Exploring Space
  2. 2. Electromagnetic Radiation <ul><li>What is it ??? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamma rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwaves </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  4. 4. Frequency <ul><li>Forms of electromagnetic radiation differ in their frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency : # of wave crests that pass a given point per unit of time. </li></ul><ul><li>The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Speed of Light <ul><li>300,000 km/s </li></ul><ul><li>ALL electromagnetic waves travel at this speed in a vacuum (where there is no matter) </li></ul>
  6. 6. First to Use a Telescope to Study the Sky <ul><li>Galileo in 1600’s </li></ul>
  7. 7. Optical Telescope <ul><li>Use light to produce magnified images. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refracting telescope: convex lenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting telescope: concave mirror. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Observatory <ul><li>Where optical telescopes are located. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Edwin P. Hubble Discovered: Universe is Expanding Hubble Space Telescope named after him.
  10. 10. Hubble Space Telescope <ul><li>Located outside Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hubble Telescope
  12. 12. Hubble Pictures
  13. 18. Radio Telescope <ul><li>Studies radio waves that travel through space. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>a day. </li></ul>
  14. 19. Early Space Missions <ul><li>Allowed astronomers to study space in ways not possible using telescopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Made possible by rockets. </li></ul>
  15. 20. Satellite <ul><li>Any object that </li></ul><ul><li>revolves around </li></ul><ul><li>another object </li></ul><ul><li>in an orbit </li></ul><ul><li>In 1957 the former </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>launched first artificial </li></ul><ul><li>satellite: Sputnik I. </li></ul>
  16. 21. Satellites Today <ul><li>Thousands of artificial satellites orbit Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Used for: communication and weather forecasting. </li></ul>
  17. 22. Space Probes <ul><li>Do not orbit Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Travel through space. </li></ul>
  18. 23. Space Probes: Pioneer 10 <ul><li>Launched 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st manmade object </li></ul><ul><li>to travel through </li></ul><ul><li>asteroid belt. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>failed in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Passed Pluto </li></ul>
  19. 24. Space Probes: Voyager I & II <ul><li>Launched by U.S. in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to collect data until 2020 </li></ul>
  20. 25. Saturn Taken by Voyager II 1981
  21. 26. Images from Voyager Space Probes Voyager 2: 1981 Rings of Saturn
  22. 27. Images from Voyager Space Probes - Voyager 2 - 1989 - Neptune
  23. 28. Voyager 1990 <ul><li>By 1990, Voyager 1 was farther from the Sun than Pluto, and approximately 4 billion miles from the Earth. Thus, NASA gave Voyager 1 one last assignment and had the craft take the first ever pictures of the planets from “outside” the solar system. This is a compilation of those shots. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Images from Voyager Space Probes
  25. 30. Space Probe: Galileo <ul><li>Launched in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Reached Jupiter in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Released smaller probe to approach Jupiter. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied Europa and Io (Jupiter’s moons) </li></ul>
  26. 31. Moon Quest <ul><li>Yuri Gagarin: 1 st man in space (Soviet) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Mercury: began U.S. mission to put a man in space. </li></ul><ul><li>1961: Alan Shepard: 1 st U.S. man in space </li></ul><ul><li>1962: John Glenn: 1 st U.S. citizen to orbit Earth </li></ul>
  27. 32. Men in Space Yuri Gagarin 1 st man to orbit Earth
  28. 33. Men in Space Alan Shepherd John Glenn
  29. 34. Project Gemini <ul><li>Teams of 2 astronauts in the same Gemini spacecraft orbited Earth. One Gemini team met and connected with another spacecraft in orbit. </li></ul>
  30. 35. Robotic Probes Sent to the Moon <ul><li>Ranger </li></ul><ul><li>Surveyor: landed on moon in 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar Orbiter: took pictures of moon’s surface </li></ul>
  31. 36. Project Apollo <ul><li>1969: Apollo II landed on the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>Neil Armstrong: 1 st person to step on Moon </li></ul>
  32. 37. Space Stations <ul><li>1973: U.S. launched Skylab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fell out of orbit in 1979 </li></ul></ul>
  33. 38. Space Stations <ul><li>Mir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Valery Polyakov spent 438 days in space studying the long-term effects of weightlessness. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. International Space Station <ul><li>Effort of 16 nations </li></ul><ul><li>3 phases </li></ul><ul><li>Should be completed by 2006 </li></ul>
  35. 40. Missions to Mars <ul><li>Mars Global Surveyor: orbited Mars and took pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathfinder: descended to surface of Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Mars Odyssey: mapping surface of Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit and Opportunity: rovers launched in 2003: goal to analyze surface of mars </li></ul><ul><li>Future plans: Phoenix 2008 </li></ul>
  36. 41. Cassini <ul><li>Launched 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Destination: Saturn </li></ul>
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