• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Ch 19 ppt
 

Ch 19 ppt

on

  • 1,186 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,186
Views on SlideShare
1,159
Embed Views
27

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
42
Comments
0

1 Embed 27

http://mms.amherst.k12.va.us 27

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Ch 19 ppt Ch 19 ppt Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • The Seafloor Section 1
    • Seafloor geography
      • Continental shelf – the gradually sloping end of a continent that extends under the ocean
        • Atlantic coast – 100 km – 350 km into the sea
        • Pacific Coast – 10 km – 30 km
        • Ocean depth at continental shelf – avg. 200 m
    • Continental slope
      • Extend from edge of continental shelf to the ocean floor
      • Descends from 200 m to 4,000 m deep
    • Abyssal Plains
      • Sediments constantly settle on the bottom filling in valleys creating flat seafloor called abyssal plains
        • Ocean depth at abyssal plain – 4,000 m to 6,000 m
      • Seamounts – under-water inactive volcanic peaks
    • Volcanic Island
      • Volcano that breaches the surface of the water forming an island
    • Mid-ocean Ridges
      • The area in an ocean basin where new ocean floor has formed
        • Forms due to oceanic plates moving apart and lava hardening
    • Subduction Zones
      • Subduction zones are marked by trenches – long, narrow steep sided depression where one crustal plate sinks beneath another
      • Mariana Trench 11 km ( 10,000 m) below sea level (deeper than Mt. Everest is tall)
    • Seafloor Mineral Resources
      • 1 - Continental Shelf
        • petroleum and natural gas deposits
        • Sand and gravel can be dredged
        • Rivers deposit minerals that are concentrated in one place by ocean currents called placer deposit
      • 2 - Deep Water Deposits
      • Hot water comes out of cracks near mid-ocean ridges and quickly cools causing minerals to fall out
        • Ex: sulfur, iron, copper, silver, zinc
      • Hard to mine economically b/c so deep
      • How would you mine them?
    • Section 2 Life in the Ocean
    • Photosynthesis
      • Using energy from sun to produce energy
      • Sun goes through water up to 100 m deep
    • Producers/Consumers
      • Producers – org. that produce their own food
        • ex: algae, seaweed, kelp, phytoplankton
      • Algae in oceans are an important source of oxygen
      • Consumers – org. that eat (consume) producers
        • Ex: shrimp, fish, dolphins, sharks, killer whales
    • Food Chain/Food Web
      • Org. transfer energy from one to another
      • Ex:
      • algae copepods herring cod
      • seal killer whale
    •  
    • Chemosynthesis
      • Org. such as bacteria that chemosynthesize or use sulfur to create energy
    • Reproduction
      • Corals and sponges release reproductive cells into water for currents to distribute
      • Others like salmon and sea turtle return to the same place each year to spawn or nest
    • Ocean Life
      • Most org. live above continental shelf since most of food is located here
      • b/c relatively shallow & sun passes to the bottom
    • Plankton
      • Org. that drift with the current
        • Ex: algae and jellyfish
      • Phytoplankton – producers – plants that drift
      • Zooplankton – consumers – hatchlings, crabs, diatoms
    •  
    • Nekton
      • Animals that actively swim
        • Ex: fish, whales
      • Org. control buoyancy using air bladder
      • Bioluminescence – luciferin molecule – used to attract bait, defense mechanism
    • Benthos
      • Plants/animals living on the seafloor
        • Ex: sea cucumber, sea urchins, flounder, sea anemone, sponges
    • Beach Habitat
      • Sand fleas/mole crabs, worms
      • Makes holes in sand when water covers holes they filter feed
      • Where sand is constantly covered – fish turtles horseshoe crabs
      • Org. deal with lots of change
    • Rocky Shore Habitat
      • Starfish, anemones, mussels, barnacles, attach to rocks
      • Tide pools area where water remains during low tide
        • Good place to lay eggs b/c safe from predators
    • Estuary
      • Area where mouth of a river opens into an ocean, lots of biological life
      • Brackish water – fresh water & salt water mix
      • Great place for hatchlings – many plants for protective cover and food
      • Important economic food source
      • Oysters, shrimp, clams, crab
    •  
    • Chesapeake Bay
      • VA’s estuary
      • Very easy to pollute b/c rivers flow directly in them
      • Pollutants:
        • Pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, oil, biosolids, fertilizers
    • Coral Reefs
      • Coral thrive in sunlit warm water
      • Animal build hard calcium capsules around its body
        • Calcium from ocean
      • Reef forms as org. connect to each other
      • Other animals begin to live there
    • Section 3 Ocean Pollution
    • Pollution
      • Anything not native to the environment that causes damage to org. by interfering w/ their life processes
      • Oceans are environmentally and economically important
      • Human activity have consequences for the ocean
    • Pollution Introduction
      • 4 ways:
        • Deliberate dumping
        • Lost overboard accidentally
        • Air pollutants the enter through rain
        • Carried by rivers - runoff from lawns (herbicides), crop fields, construction sites (sediment)
    • Sewage
      • Combined Sewage Overflow – Lynchburg
      • Algal blooms – caused by fertilizers, sewage inc. amount of algae, algae dies, bacteria that decompose use up all oxygen, cause fish kills
    • Chemical Pollutants
      • Pesticides, insecticides, herbicides
      • Industrial waste contain heavy metals like mercury and lead, polycarbonated biphenyls (PCBs)
      • biological amplification – when harmful chemicals can build up in the tissues of organisms that are at the top of the food chain
    •  
    • Oil
      • Mostly from runoff of streets, parking lots, dumped into drains/ground
      • Oil spills – use bacteria that eat oil and change its chemical composition called bioremediation
    • Solid Waste
      • Balloons, plastic bags sea turtles eat mistaken for jellyfish
      • Biohazardous waste – needles can make beaches unsafe
    • Sediment
      • Forestry, construction, agriculture not practicing good erosion control techniques
      • Sediment covers coral reefs & fill estuaries
    • Bathymetric Maps
      • Isobaths – contour lines used to measure areas of equal depth
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •