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Atmosphere   15
 

Atmosphere 15

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    Atmosphere   15 Atmosphere 15 Presentation Transcript

    • Atmosphere
      • thin layer of air that protects the Earth’s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful Sun rays.
    • Atmospheric makeup
      • mixture of gases, solids, and liquids.
    • Early atmosphere was much different than today
      • volcanoes produced nitrogen and carbon dioxide, but little oxygen.
      • More than 2 billion years ago simple organisms began producing oxygen.
      • Eventually oxygen formed an ozone layer that protected Earth from harmful rays.
      • Green plants and diverse life forms developed.
    • Atmospheric gases include nitrogen (78%), oxygen(21%), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and argon.
      • Atmosphere is changing with the introduction of pollutants: increasing human energy use is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide.
      • Pollutants mix with oxygen and other chemicals to form smog.
    • Solids include dust, salt, and pollen.
    • Liquids include water droplets and droplets from volcanoes.
    • Five main layers of the atmosphere!!!
    • Lower layers
      • Lowest layer, where humans live, is the troposphere, which extends about 10 km up, and contains most of the vapor and gases.
      • Extending from 10 km to 50 km above Earth, the Stratosphere contains ozone.
    • Upper Layers
      • Mesosphere extends from 50 km to 85 km and is the layer in which meteors are visible.
      • Thickest part of atmosphere is from 85 km to 500km and is called the thermosphere for its high temperatures.
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    •  
    • Within the mesosphere and thermosphere is a layer of charged particles called the ionosphere that can help carry radio waves.
      • Exosphere – outer layer of atmosphere in which the space shuttle flies, has very few molecules.
    •  
    • Atmospheric Pressure
      • PRESSURE IS GREATEST IN THE TROPOSPHERE.
      • PRESSURE DECREASES WITH ALTITUDE DUE TO FEWER PARTICLES OF GASES.
    •  
    • Temperature in atmospheric layers
      • The troposphere is warmed primarily by the Earth’s surface; temperature decreases as altitude increases in this layer.
      • Temperature increases as altitude increases in the stratosphere, particularly the upper portion because ozone absorbs energy from the sun.
      • Temperatures decrease with altitude in the mesosphere.
      • Thermosphere and exosphere are the first to receive the Sun’s rays so they are very warm.
      • SEE GRAPH PAGE 431
    •  
    • Ozone Layer
      • about 19km to 48 km above Earth in the STRATOSPHERE . This layer of 3-atom oxygen molecules (O 3 ) protects the Earth from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays.
      • Life on Earth, as we know it, depends on THE OZONE LAYER!
      • Pollutants called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are destroying the ozone layer.
      • CFCs are used in refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol sprays, and foam packaging.
      • If these products develop a leak CFCs can enter the atmosphere.
      • The ozone layer has a large hole over Antarctica.
    • Section II – Energy transfer in the Atmosphere
      • Some energy from the Sun is reflected into space, some is absorbed by the atmosphere, and some is absorbed by land and water on Earth’s surface.
    • Heat
      • Energy that flows from an object or location with a higher temperature to one with a lower temperature.
    • #1:Radiation
      • Energy transfer in rays or waves. Solar energy travels to earth by radiation!!
    • #2:Conduction
      • transfer of energy when molecules bump into each other through “contact”.
    • #3:Convection
      • Transfer of heat by the “flow” of GASES (WIND) AND LIQUID ( OCEAN CURRENTS).
      • FACTORS WHICH CAUSE WIND:
      • “ DENSITY”- COLD AIR IS MORE DENSE THAN WARM AIR BECAUSE MOLECULES ARE CLOSER TOGETHER.
      • “ HIGH PRESSURE” AREAS ARE AREAS OF DENSER , COLDER AIR.
      • WIND BLOWS FROM HIGH PRESSURE REGIONS TO “LOW PRESSURE” REGIONS .
    • The Water Cycle
      • water moves back and forth between Earth’s atmosphere and surface.
    • EVAPORATION: SOLAR ENERGY CAUSES LIQUID TO BECOME A VAPOR.
    • Water vapor in the atmosphere can cool and return to liquid form through condensation. (CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION)
      • When water vapor condenses, clouds of tiny water droplets may form.
      • Water droplets collide to form larger drops.
      • As water drops grow, they fall back to the Earth as precipitation.
    •  
    • Earth’s atmosphere is unique
      • it holds just the right amount of the Sun’s energy to support life.
    • Section 3 – Air Movement
    • Wind is the movement of air molecules from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure
    • Different areas of Earth receive different amounts of the Sun’s radiation.
      • Wind patterns: warm (tropical) air rises and cold (polar air) sinks to form patterns of wind.
    • The Coriolis Effect
      • rotation of the Earth causes moving air and water to move in patterns based on latitude.
    • Global Winds
      • wind patterns, caused by convection currents combined with the Coriolis Effect, affect the world’s weather
      • Diagram and info. Page 441
      • Near the equator, very little wind and daily rain patterns called the doldrums
    • Surface winds
      • Between the equator and 30 ° latitude (north and south) are steady “trade winds”, blowing to the west.
      • Between 30 ° and 60° latitude (north and south) the prevailing westerlies blow to the east, in the opposite direction of the trade winds.
      • Polar easterlies blow from northeast to southwest near the north pole and from southeast to northwest near the south pole.
    • Upper troposphere
      • narrow belts of strong winds called jet streams
      • Jet streams move faster in the winter.
      • Moves storm systems across the country.
    • Local wind systems affect local weather.
      • Sea Breezes – a convection current blows wind from the cooler sea toward warmer land during the day.
      • Land Breezes – at night, air moves off the land toward the water as the land cools more rapidly than the water.