SKIN: The Most Overlooked Organ


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

SKIN: The Most Overlooked Organ

  1. 1. The Most Overlooked organBy: Loan la bio120<br />SKIN<br />
  2. 2. What is skin?<br /> Skin forms the largest organ of the body, covering the entire outside of the body and weighing approximately six pounds. It accounts for about 16 per cent of a person’s weight. It performs many vital roles as both a barrier and a regulating influence between the outside world and the controlled environment within our bodies. It serves as protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.<br />
  3. 3. Why the skin is important<br />Protects the body against physical injury. <br />Provides some protection for the body against numerous pathogenic microbes and chemical agents. <br />Helps to restrict fluid and water loss. <br />Helps to prevent excessive water absorption by imparting water resistance to the skin. <br />Is involved in temperature regulation of the body. <br />Is the body’s main sensory organ for temperature, pressure, touch and pain. <br /> Provides protection from UV light. <br />Plays a key role in metabolism, including vitamin D synthesis and biotransformation of some chemicals. Lack of vitamin D can lead to soft bones and many associated problems.<br />
  4. 4. What is skin made of?<br />The skin is made up of three main layers:<br />Epidermis<br />Dermis<br />(also known as corium)<br />Subcutaneous<br />(also known as hypodermis)<br />
  5. 5. Terms we will be seeing<br />blood vessels - Tubes that carry blood as it circulates. Arteries bring oxygenated blood from the heart and lungs; veins return oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart and lungs.<br />dermis - (also called the cutis) the layer of the skin just beneath the epidermis.<br />epidermis - the outer layer of the skin.<br />hair follicle - a tube-shaped sheath that surrounds the part of the hair that is under the skin. It is located in the epidermis and the dermis. The hair is nourished by the follicle at its base (this is also where the hair grows).<br />hair shaft - The part of the hair that is above the skin.<br />hair erector muscle - a muscle is connected to each hair follicle and the skin - it contracts (in response to cold, fear, etc.), resulting in an erect hair and a "goosebump" on the skin.<br />melanocyte - a cell in the epidermis that produces melanin (a dark-colored pigment that protects the skin from sunlight).<br />Pacinian corpuscle - nerve receptors that respond to pressure and vibration; they are oval capsules of sensory nerve fibers located in the subcutaneous fatty tissue<br />sebaceous gland - a small, sack-shaped gland that releases oily (fatty) liquids onto the hair follicle (the oil lubricated and softens the skin). These glands are located in the dermis, usually next to hair follicles.<br />sweat gland - (also called sudoriferous gland) a tube-shaped gland that produces perspiration (sweat). The gland is located in the epidermis; it releases sweat onto the skin.<br />subcutaneous tissue - fatty tissue located under the dermis.<br />
  6. 6. Epidermis explained<br />Epidermis: Is the thin outside barrier which is made up of three sub-layers:<br />stratum corneum (horny layer)This layer contains continually shedding, dead keratinocytes (the primary cell type of the epidermis). The keratin, a protein formed from the dead cells, protects the skin from harmful substances.<br />keratinocytes (squamous cells)This layer contains living keratinocytes (squamous cells), which help provide the skin with what it needs to protect the rest of the body.<br />basal layerThe basal layer is the inner layer of the epidermis, containing basal cells. Basal cells continually divide, forming new keratinocytes and replacing the old ones that are shed from the skin's surface<br />The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment).<br />
  7. 7. Dermis explained<br />Dermis: The lower or inner layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin. The dermis contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, hair follicles, and glands that produce sweat, which helps regulate body temperature, and sebum, an oily substance that helps keep the skin from drying out. Sweat and sebum reach the skin's surface through tiny openings in the skin that act as pores. The dermis layer is made up of two sub layers: The papillary layerThe upper, papillary layer, contains a thin arrangement of collagen fibers. The papillary layer supplies nutrients to select layers of the epidermis and regulates temperature. Both of these functions are accomplished with a thin, extensive vascular system that operates similarly to other vascular systems in the body. Constriction and expansion control the amount of blood that flows through the skin and dictate whether body heat is dispelled when the skin is hot or conserved when it is cold. The reticular layerThe lower, reticular layer, is thicker and made of thick collagen fibers that are arranged in parallel to the surface of the skin. The reticular layer is denser than the papillary dermis, and it strengthens the skin, providing structure and elasticity. It also supports other components of the skin, such as hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. <br />
  8. 8. Dermis cont.<br /> The dermis contains most of the skin's specialized cells and structures, including;<br /> Blood vessels, which supply nutrients and oxygen to the skin and take away cell waste and cell products. The blood vessels also transport the vitamin D produced in the skin back to the rest of the body. <br />Lymph vessels, which bathe the tissues of the skin with lymph, a milky substance that contains the infection-fighting cells of the immune system. These cells work to destroy any infection or invading organisms as the lymph circulates to the lymph nodes. <br />Hair follicles, each of which is a tube-shaped sheath that surrounds the part of the hair that is under the skin and nourishes the hair. <br />Sweat glands, of which the average person has about 3 million. Sweat glands are classified according to two types: Apocrine glands are specialized sweat glands that can be found only in the armpits and pubic region. These glands secrete a milky sweat that encourages the growth of the bacteria responsible for body odor. <br />Eccrine glands are the true sweat glands. Found over the entire body, these glands regulate body temperature by bringing water via the pores to the surface of the skin, where it evaporates and reduces skin temperature. These glands can produce up to two liters of sweat an hour, however, they secrete mostly water, which doesn't encourage the growth of odor-producing bacteria. <br />Sebaceous, or oil, glands, which are attached to hair follicles and can be found everywhere on the body except for the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. These glands secrete oil that helps keep the skin smooth and supple. The oil also helps keep skin waterproof and protects against an overgrowth of bacteria and fungi on the skin. <br />Nerve endings. The dermis layer also contains pain and touch receptors that transmit sensations of pain, itch, pressure and information regarding temperature to the brain for interpretation. If necessary, shivering (involuntary contraction and relaxation of muscles) is triggered, generating body heat. <br />Collagen and elastin. The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, made by fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are skin cells that give the skin its strength and resilience. Collagen is a tough, insoluble protein found throughout the body in the connective tissues that hold muscles and organs in place. In the skin, collagen supports the epidermis, lending it its durability. Elastin, a similar protein, is the substance that allows the skin to spring back into place when stretched and keeps the skin flexible. <br />
  9. 9. Subcutaneous explained<br />The Subcutaneous layer, which is made up of subcutaneous tissue, is the deepest layer of the skin and consists mainly of fat cells known as adipose.  These fat cells act as shock absorbers and protect the body from mechanical trauma.  They also work as heat insulators and help to keep body temperatures stable. <br />The loss of this layer causes facial sagging and the formation of the deep wrinkles especially associated with old age.<br />An over developed subcutaneous layer leads to obesity but on the other end of the scale, wasting of the subcutaneous layer will cause skin wrinkling, sagging and premature aging.<br />You need your skin to be padded with sufficient fat pads in the subcutaneous layer to keep it plumped up and young looking.<br />
  10. 10. Resources <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />