Fregosobejarano terrorizin women


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Fregosobejarano terrorizin women

  1. 1. Mrr ROSA I,.INDA FREGOSO AND CYNTHIA ßEJARANO, ED IIORS TERRORIZING WOMEN þeminicid.e in the Arnéricøs w l Á PR"r^ .t B llARCEl.À AGAPDI D. loS ROs ,,, 4 t,,Àl iNt,yr( r, r , q DUor^r Àñt roDoN .0t0
  2. 2. rN r¡ Ëtf oRY oF IH E WOIYEN AND GIRI.S WHO HAVE BEÉN If URDÊRED AND D SAPPEARFDO 2oro Duke lJujvcrsitÌ ÌressAII rights rcscrvcdPrintcd il) tlìc Unrted Sntcs ofAtnclica tu acid-frcc paper-ælypcscf iD Cârtcr âr)d Col}c Galliar.dwirh Gjll Sâns displâyby KcystoDelypcscdrìJì, lDc.l.,ibraly of Congr css Carâlogng-in-Publícâtjon Diti ¡pl)c¡r orì dÌc I¡srPriirtcd l)agc ofthrs lxJok.
  3. 3. T x,iii A c I¿n ox lcd.I1Ì en tt I I rcccivcd financial su¡r¡tort fol this pxtjcct 1ì.or¡ thc Social Scicucc divisiou ancl tbc (ìhicalo/l,arino lìcsc¡rch Cclltcl ar rlÌc Ullivcrsity of ROSA-LIN I)A ÈRË GOSO Calili¡rnia, Santa ()uz (ucsc), ar.rd rhe Ollìcc of rhc Provost at thc AND CYN ì lllA ßl:lAf.(ANO Univer.sity of Southeur Califolnia (uso). My thaoks to rhc $rall jrl rhc Social Scic¡cc¡s cìivisioll at ucso ¡ncl School of (lincnìâric Artx âr uso for: cxpediting thcsc fr¡nds, In thc coursc of working on thìs book I havc bcncfìted f¡orl lìr,cly and s¡riritccl discussions rvitlt graclrratc stuclcnrs iD llìy scrìiuars ol) hunÌarl r:ights and fcnillism at ucsc ancl ou huutall v!, lighrs ir thc Amcr:icâs ar usc. I am inclcbrcd to thc filnlnakc¡ Lourdcs Porrillo for i[tlodLrcirg mc to thc issuc offernìnicide. Special thanks to lntroduct¡on: my collcaguc Jonathan Irox (I-atin,Amcr.ican and studies, ucsc) for his genelous corìlmcnrs. I an cspccially gratcful to ury sister Angcla A CartograPhY of Feminicide Frcgoso for pcrmission to publisl.r her photographs and for traveling in the Américas rvith rlc to montlrly ¡rrotcsts iu Ciudad luárcz. Tcr my partner, Hcrrnan Gra¡ and my fâmì,, thank you for your support a¡rd cncouragcnÌcrlr. My decpest apprcciation and respcct go es tofmniliøs tnd activis ts on thc front lLue of thc struggle to cnd injnsticcs. lt is fron.r their cour.âflcous Iinsiston beinSshocked l am never toing to become immune lth nk ancl dc¡eunined acts, tlÌeir persistcrìcc, pcrsevcraÍìcc) and unyiçldi¡g thats a kind offaìlure to see so much fhuman atrocity] thatyou dle insistcncc thatwc lcarn how to for:gc a bctte¡ futute for ourchildrcn and lnslde lwantto be surPrised and shocked everytirne a morc hurnanc ancl just wuld. Ion¡ Morr¡son Uncensor-od -Tòni lYorison ROSA I..INDA FREGOSO ât the ongo- Wc ate clriven to write this book by our shock and outr:age ing atrocities wlìosc fissutcs rcplicatiou itrpcril our humarl comDlLr-Wc are both inclcl¡ted to research assistants at our rcspccti¡e iltstitu- rcfuse totious. Cynthia thanks thc graduatc aù^sistauts wlìo helpcd compilc clara niiies, As Toni Morrison asscLts, e insist on bciug shocked r99os arldfor this project: Il¡lilia lìc¡ual, Mario Cano, Lydia Gucrrcro, Pravccn become itnmune to thc latgc-scalc violcncc tlrat began irr tbeKanumala, and A¡uith Patcl, all from ¡l¡,rsu. Rosa-l.,inda thanks her that, as Arjun Appadutai (zoo6, ro) remincls us, "aPpcarIs] to be^typ-ucsc graduatc assistant Sarìdra ,Alvârez for coorclinating tlìe iltitial so- i.nlly by a of rage aud cxcess of l.tancd" Our focus "..onlpnni.ctthc low-intcÍlsity warfate rvaged on womcns bodicsliciting of manusclipts and Evclyn Palada ald Irene Sánchcz at ucsc i¡r dìis book is onancl Noelia Sacnz at uso for invalì.1âble assistaltce. tlìat llow loutine in many LatiD luncrican countrics is Wc also thank John Chcncy at usc and l). 1ì.avcrs Scon, also at usc, ?rior to the brutality comnittcd against woment bodics during tl.rcfor his assistancc in thc prcpâration of rhis manuscript for lìnal subrlis- ethDic colìflicts iu Bosnia-Hcrzegoviua l{wanda, drc i¡rtcurationalsion to Dr¡ke Univcrsity lÌcss. At Dukc, we are especially indcbted to comu.tturity had bceu slow in recogniz,ing thc historical Icality of-war- tirnc violcnce against wolncrl the fact that gcuder-bascd violeucc"is auKer Wissokcl fo¡ his advice, wisdom, and support for this project. We ldrankdre ttucc anonynous rcadcrs whosc l.rard qucstions, ¡rrobing com- integral ancl pcnasive compolcnt ofwarfarc" (Moshan r998, I )mcnts, and suggcstions havc rladc tl-tis a much l¡ctter wotk. Wi nr" ttaua, goit-tg tcl llccorr-rc inlmul-lc, $o rvc name gendct-basecl Iwo alonc, thc inci- Wc also ackLrowlcclge the fcminist activíst Esrlìer Chá,cz Câru¡ f<¡r hcr violencc as -a"¡r,rrl arltar,,,r., Sincc W<¡ld War " duúrrg almccl conflicts arc slxxkirg, liotl thc (ìcrnta¡rworr.rens rights aclvocacy aud tirclcss work to cncl gcnder. violeiìcc i) clents of rapcCiuclad )uárcz. Shc clicd on l)ccct¡bcr 25, zoo9, afìcr a long battle wirh Nazi soldicrs rapin[ Iewish ancl S<¡vict woucn to thc raPing of Vict- llaDìesc wol)lcn by-U S. sotclic¡s ancl thc scxual âtlocitics colr]l-l-littedcancer lìinall1,, wc cxpress oul heartfelt appleciation ancl gradnrde ro 2thc acti/ists, âftorncys, jour-nahsts, acadcnrics, fihlulakers, and co¡lmu- agailst rvolucu durirg civil rvars ir.r l-iberia aud Sicrra l¡:ouclity nenrbcls u4ro havc coluittcd tJrc¡lsch,cs to ¡lÌrs joìrntcy iìncl to llhcrc havc l¡col cvetl ll-lol-c cascs rlf hott-cud<lus tcrlillillg âssâultstlrc c<¡nl r-ilrut<lls Lc¡ 7i.nlnzitt¡ l4/ow r:tt: ):em.i.n.i.cir:/.c i.n tfu Ànyricøt, rvlxt com¡Dittccì iìgaillst lvomcll tlt:titrg cort ntct it t stt rgc¡lcy wlls ill Latilì¡isk tlrcir livcs to tcll Íl¡esc stt¡rics. Ni un.ø tmá¡
  4. 4. z l:1r!1so øndllEøtano lutloti üiat 3 Arì-ìc:dcar thc usc of raPc as a tool of tcrr(x by 5cç¡¡¡i1¡, f<¡rccs ilt El lìostilitics" (CJrarlcsworth rggg, 3lJ9). -ürc clTccts ol violcr)cc do not Salvador; Perlr, aDcì Ì.laiti; iu dcath caD.r¡rs and tortulc chambcrs dnri0g ncccssâfil), cnd whcn lxrstilities alc ovcr Alongsiclc "clircct violcncc" -ArgeutìDas and Chilcs Dir.ty War.s. In, thc Doror.ious lìatral- thcrc is "indircct violcncclor "thc lor.rg tcrrrr ellccts of armcd conßict, ion 3-ró scxually rl.ìd lapccl r,i,clmeit which oftcn disploportionately affcct worìrcn" (lltei.t.ts zoo3, rr9). l)risoncrs; < thc dlirrys jÌ-ycar $,a1, Guatcmalau scc,,iiry for..,,o¡r".1 i,r,lig.rro.r, *o,,.,",, Largc-scalc violence lnay involve a courbination of cvcryda¡ arbÌtraq and ¿1irJs. intcr¡rcrsonal (private) ønl wicles¡rlcacl and systcmatic (public) gcnclcr- Eveu as mass rapitrg of $,or)ìcn ill reccrìt arrììed conflicts continues,3 t-¡ascd atrocitics clccurring troth in "pcacctinrc" ø/d in tiuìcs of u,al (scc tlle intcll]ationâl corln,)1rÍrìty Do longel disavows sc)íuâl viole|cc ofthis Lagarde y dc los fuos, this volurìrc)," nragr-ritudc. Duc in largc measurc ro rhe p¡escncc of fernalc jouutalists covcriug tlrc rva| iÍr thc forurer Y[goslavia, imnìcrNc lredia and politicâl During thc last decadc ofdre twcnticth ccntury, we witne$$cd unspcak- âttentioll focrNcd on geDdcr-bascd violcncc as aD intcgral and pcrvasivc ablc forms ofclegladation and violation of womcns boclies aud their- t.¡c- rvea¡ron of war. llut it has taken ycars of femitìist advocacy ir) law altd ing: disapl:earanccs, murdcrs, rlangled, bumed ând torturcd boclics, ilìtcrnariorìal forums tc¡ shift public and uDdcrstanding of râped girls and wornen, Lroth in the context of wartime and so-callcd gcncleL-bascd peisccì.rtiolt il waÍilne. .The devclopurcnt of intctna_ "peacctinc."7 Wonens rights advocates, rcscarchcrs, and fcn-ìinist lcgâl tional laws addrcssing gendcr-bascd violcnce during the twcnticth ccrÌ_ sclrola¡:s are usirg thc terr:ns fclnicid.c and fcmiricid.e to rcfcr to this ttrr-y," accorclitg to Nicolc llva ErL¡ (ry98, ao7) ,..deutorÌstratcs I clcar ¡rhenomcnon. progrcssion fioru an atmosphcrc of unspoken tolerance, in which rapc Ihis voluurc exan.rircs thc growing incidcnts of fer.ninicide as it has aucl scxual assault wcr.c considcr.ed incvitablc byproducrs of war, to n bccu elabo¡ated in tbe writings of felniDist rescarchcrs, witrless sun¡i- clirÌtatc apploachìog ;rero-toler.ance, in gcnrler_bascd violence is vors, r,r,omens rights and humau rights advocates, and lcgal theorists gradually rnderstood as a discrctc qjmiltal catcgory rcquiring special working on and frorn rcgions in LatirAmcrica. We aim to stâgc a trâns- rccognition rutdcr intcrnational hullanitar.ian law.,, disciplinary dialogue betwcen acadcr¡ics, Iegal theorists, and p|actition- Largely at thc bchest ofthc Women,s Caucus for. Gcnder eLs ofhuman rights, from thcglobal South and North, whose culnulativc Ju$ticc, rape and othcr folms of scxual yiolcnce a¡c dcfiuccl within the nc*lu .,r,r- expcrtise and knowledge offcr a new discursivc fra[ring ancl critical stitutcd lutclnati<tnal Cr.ininal Courr (rcc) at the Ha¡¡ aJ..war grounding for rurderstanding the phenoncnon of what is uow widcly crirlrcs" and "climes against lrr,ulaniq/, ifthey occur ..syircmatic as and rccognìzed as feminicide ,swidcspr:ead attacks against civilians., Onc of the ma¡orfcats of thc Worn_ Ihc conccpts of fcl.rinicide and fcr¡icide arc uscd iuteichangcably incns Caucus is thc cxtensio¡r of thcse critcria to emrneratc pcrsecutiol-ì tl-ìc literaturc on gendcr-based violclcc and anrollg tlìe contrilrutorsbascd on gender as constirLrring a ..c¡irrre agaìlìst hunìanity., fu dìe to tlis volunc. Thesc arc evolvilg concepts tllat, as noted iu ÌJuerxr-Wtrnrctfs Caucus srrcccssfully argrrcd irr r 992, ..Ccrrdcr ct.¡tncs arc jrìci Hausens chapter; are "still urder constructior: Ilo$cvei, we will makcclcnts ofviolcncc rargcriug o[ alïecting womcn exclusivelyor clispropor_ a case for arìd, in dre process, corìtributc solllc a[alytic toolstionâtcly, nor bccausc thc vicims of. suclì cril¡cs al.c of a particu.lar for thinkiDg about thc cûlcept in historical, theoretical, arrd politicalreligion or racc, but becutse they ate worlen,, (Moshan r99g, r5ji em_ tcrnrs. In arguing for the use of the tctm feminicid,e ovcr funicùle, we¡rbasis aJdcd 1. draw from a fcminist analyticrl pelspectivc that intc{rupts esseiìtiali$t Yet geuder-bascd violcncc ofa widcsprcad and systclììâtic natur.e d<¡es r:rotions of femalc identiry that cquatc gcndei aucl biological scx andnot occurjust durirrg war or aflucd conflicts; lalgc_scale violeiìce âgaitsr, looks iustead to thc gendered oaû,rrc of practiccs and lrchaviors, alongrvomen oftcn continucs il "post-conflict ,situatit¡ns^.Nor are all..gcndcr with thc pcrfclmancc of gender xrrms. As fcninist thinkcrs have lougcri¡lcs" u,idcsplcad ancl systcmatic; rl.ìarìy everyday lìfc and conrcr.rded, gcndcr is a sociaLly constructcd catcgory in which thc per-involve privatc individuals, actiDg alolc or il groups, targeiirg civil formancc ofgcnder norms (radrcl tl.ran a natulal biological cssencc) isians.aAs mernbcrs <tf thcWol.llcn,s Caucus assertccl, gcnclcr vìolations clct what givcs urcaning tcl catcgotics of the "fcmininc" ancl 1¡asculinc."lìot lìa/c to be systcnatically or prcvalently cDacteá to trc ,,brutal,, ancl Insteaci of a sccnario in which gcncler and sex neccssarily corìcuq thc"extrcmc,"s aDd thcy oftcu Occul.outsicle tl)c ..cxìstcncc ofsotle ty¡rc <lf concc¡:lt of fcrrinicìdc allows u.s to nlap tlìc powcf clynanrics and rcla-
  5. 5. 4 ]ì1¿lltso d1li B¿711øn0 Itt!)odú!¡o1¡, ri(]¡ns ofgendcr, ¡,clxuality! lacc, ând clâss ulldcrÌyiug violcncc ancl, il.t so As ed itor.s of tlris rolu n c, on r tr ansla tio n of JÞtlitticirlio itttct føtrinicitlc d(>rng, $hifr thc anal¡.tic focus to horv gcl]dcr.Dorms, iucguitics, ancl rattcr tllai fcmicìtle is dcsigllcd to rcvclsc tlìc lìicrarclÌics of klou4edgc pow(:rrclationshìps i¡lcrcasc worneDs vLrlncl.¡l¡iliû, to violclrcc, and challengc clair.ns about unidircctional (North-to-South) Éìows ol Ourclabcxati<¡r of feminiciclc is basccl on thc kn.,u,lcdgc rrrrì cx¡rer.tise tlavcling thcory lJascd on a dccadc ofworhng oo the issuc, botlr of us of,fcmìnist and lcgal scholar.s, Lcsearchers, and activisrsiorking in thc have rviuresscd the L¡ack and forth of thcor), lnakirg and political prac- ficf ds of hunan rights and gct.ìdcr tusticc thl ougllout l"âril.t ArlrJ.ica. In ticcs thãt ilìfouì or¡r cu¡¡cnt rurdcrstallding of fcminiciclc ancl thc rva;,s ¡ref,cnìng the conccpt fcnìil.ticidc or/cr fcmiciclc, v,c aim to regisrer thc in rvhich thc conccpt lìas changccì and evolved as its tl.rilking tlavclcd shift in meanings as rhc conccpt travclecì fiou.r its rrsagc in thJEnglish- South, whcrc othcr circun.rstanccs sl.rape thc cxperiencc ofgcndcr-bascd lanåarãge (Norrh) to a Spar]ish-spcakiDg (South) iontcxt. In ãthcr violcDce âgainrìt worucn. Oul cartoglaphy of fcrliricidc pr)poscs a rc- ¡,grds, rvc arc lsttg feminicidc to r:l¡¡k our discut.sive ancl ¡uatc¡ial configurarion of knou4edge hicrarchics that colìtests thc rlotion of contriburkms ar)d pc$pccrivcs as tralìsborclcr feminìst thillkcrs fiom thc global South (the lrrréricas) il.ì irs rcclefiniri<lr.l one rhat excccds thc seamlcss translation - that is, tlìc idca that Latin An.rericar.r fe¡ninists rnerely dcrivârivc. Altlxlugh wc havc tra sIate¿t - luve melcly appro¡rliated thcolics from fcminists of tJrc global North Iiterally froDr fe?ntuicid¿ widroì.rt rnodifying or advancing llc, ncanings in rcsponse to local the Spanislr wordf minicidio, u,hicl.t, in rurn, c.lcr.ivcs fi-orìr the Ë,nglislt contcxts. lìathcr, irr thc process ofborrowirg the conccpt and adaptirg fen+ìcidt- a concept dcvclopccì b¡ among othcrs, the U.S._based õr¡i, it to local cilcr¡mstanccs, we havc geitcratcd uew undcrstandings about nisr sociologist Diana l{usscll the t¡alslatiorì wc ârc speaking ofis alsct - discursivc. Þ-rorr â I ingudstic attglcfcru.inicirlio (rcther d-rattfcilcidio) femiuicidc. The concept of fcminicidc tl.rus highlights the "local histo- is a rics" of thcolctical l cflcction on the part ofI-atin Ancrican, Latina, ând rnorc accur?te translation for fenicù{.e, givcn the pâlticularities of dìe U.S.-bascd researcltcts; htulal rights and gendcr-justicc advocates, Spanish languagc, wlìich r.equircs thc use of ..i,, to crcate comporutd witncss-sun ivÒ[s, ând lcgal scholars as wc camc irto confact u,ith bocl- words fror¡ two tclms with eg,m(togìcal roots ìn Ladn l{eruinø ior,,fe_ ics of knowlcdgc claboratcd clscwhcrc. male"; cøedn, øentm fot .,to kill,,).e Bvcn so, tlìcsc interyr;htious ignorc llnilding on the gcneric clefinition of .fewicirle as "thc r¡urdcr of thc cultrual clemcnts ofuanslati<¡r. lu other words, a pr.otc ìnto,,cuñural,, womcrr ar:d gitls lrzurure Tícy arcfclnalc" (Russcll zoora, r 5 ), wc dcfìnc (and not just "ln4uistic") rranslation yields diffcicnt undcrstandJlgs feminici,dr as thc r)rurclels of won.rcn and ¡çirls forurded ou a gcnder alrrlrt how concepts, dìeorics, and lu-rowlcclges are tmnsfor-urccl in thjr powcr strxcrurc. SecoDd, femiDicidc is gcndcr-Lrased violeDcc that is tlavels to odrer gc<lgraphic contexts, andinthis particular casc, to thc wavs both public and private, implicâtirìg botl.r the state (dircctly or indi- in wlriclr a cotrccpt s:uch asfcmhtì.cùlc is rca¡propr.iarcd in rcsponse loá to rrccdy) and individual perpctrâtors (privatc or state âctols); it tlìrìs cil-¡:ul-rìstarìces (Gunew zooz). eDcolnpasscs s)¡stcmatic) rvidcsprcad, and cvcryday il.ìterpcrsolÌâl vio- Years ago, the Cuban anthr-opologist Þturando Ortiz (rqzs . l.r9+ol) lcuce. lhitd, femiricicle is systemic violencc rooted in social, lrclitical,developed a dleory oi: transculturatiou as a nodel fo¡ ,lr"pping tt.r" cconomic, and cultural incqualitics. In this seiue, the focus ofour anal-changing dyuamics of culturc resultìng fr-orrr rhc mltual ând *.rt,lãir.._ ysis is notjust on gclìder but âlso <r1Ì tlìr: intersection of gcr.rdcr dynamicstional exchangcs across onc culturalsystcn to thc othcr. We frorr-l with thc clucltics of racisrl and ecorìornic injustíccs in local as wcll ashis ir.rsigÌ.rt to elaborâtc â car.tography of feminicicìc that takcs into con- global contcxts.r0 Finall¡ our flaning <>f thc conccpt follows Lrgardessideration its transcultural elcr¡ents; tltc clynauric, fìuid, aucl mumal critical l.ruman rìghts fouur,rlatiol of femìnicide as a "crime agairxt hu-inflr.rences resultiug froru culntrâl ir.ìtcractions bcrween scholars ancl n.ranity" (scc Lagarde y cle los l{íos, this volume ) ,gendcr-justice advocates iD the globaÌ South âDd North. Our prefcrei.rçcfor fiminicide ovcr.fenùcidc io tlis at ttboloB), is borh polirical,ju tÌrat wc In thc Latir Amcr-icalì scttilg, the first docurrcntcd usc of the conccptaim to aclvarrce a clitical translrclrtler pcrs¡:rcctivc, aud theorctical. in tlìât fetnintcidio is itt tbe l)oninican lcpu blic, whcre during thc r 98os femi-wc àspirc l() ccrìtc, tlìc r.clcvalcc of tllc, rrjcs origin.tti¡)g ilr tlrc glohal nisr acti¡ists ancl rvonens grouPs used the tenn irì tlìeir campaiglìs roSouth for thc fomation olan altcrnativc paracligm lknowlcctgc, iogics, cnd violencc âBaiost womcn ilì tlìe region (sec (}ln-ritô Latillo-ameri-subicctivities, rraditiûts). In takirg this ont. dcsir-eis toîis cauo clo Car iLrc para a l)cfcsa dos Dircitos da Mulhcl zooT). As noted in "¡rprn".ll,ulantlc thc colonialisr l.orr¡rrlarion of l,âriD Alncrica as ..a ficlcl ofstuclv thc prclàcc îo d)is ¡olì.urìc. Mar:cc)a Lagarclc first intloclucecl lhc tct ¡rltâtlcJ tùau ¡ placc wherc t.hc<)rl, is proclucc<1" (Mi¡¡Dob zooo. r 93 ) . inro acaclcllrc ill r987 (scc À4orárcz Fra¡¡oso zooz). Arouncl thc sar¡e
  6. 6. 6 licJloso ñn.l llcjrLltl o Iqtrodtacti!1t j tirre, tl]c sociologist ]ulia MQDá Fngoso uscd thc tcrmf minitirlia to work as a cenccptuãl t<xrl mrt ooll, f<¡r autiviolcncc acìvocacy but to dcscrjbe the scxual rnurdcrs of:womcn ald girls first obseruccl ald docu- fulthcr a fcminist analytics on gcndei bascd violence. It is thus crucial lìrcttcd ilì t993 irì rhe Mcxico-U.S. bordcr rcgion of Cirrda<ì Juárcz_ by tlrat wc l¡nild orr the dcfr,lnitioo of .føùnicid¿ tyitlt sufficicnt concc¡.rtual llsrcrChávcz Cauo, drc wonlcls riglìts activist alìd foundcr ofrhe city,s prccision ancl clar:i1y what can and shoulcl lre cousiclcrcd fenrinicide.rg firsl rape crisis cl:nter I I Othcrs, such as the scl.rolars Ana Ca¡cedo Caba- ,As a dcscrrtivc tcrrn for thc lise in genclcr-bascd r¡urders,fcniniddl iras aÌcì Montsclrat Sagot of Costa Ilica and I-Iilda Mor.alcs of Guatc- bcgs the c¡r.restìolr a[¡c¡ut thc clilìtc colltcxt iD thc rcgiou. Stucliqs <¡D r]1alè, prcfcr thc to desclibe tlte Drisogyl)isr Drr¡rdcr of violence in Latin Aurerìca suggcst thar fcminicide fincls fc¡rilc grorurd in w<¡trcn. ilhese femi¡risr thcorcrical aud political thirkcrs from l¿tit areas wllcre thc mLlLdcr ratcs of mcl) are also high ( I-agarde y de los llíos Lrncrica usedføru,øicidio to rept cscnt murdcrs in non-war set 2006, 23), so fcnìinicide could [¡c scen as patt of an ovcrall incrcase in tir-ìes, whcrcas ir a similar tirte 1ì.ame Asja fuilanda of thc l(arita woDl drc ratc of houricide in I-atiu ,{rrerica, a region rvith high lcvcls of cr:rs group in Croatia clepioycd the concepr of fcnicidc ro depic largc- violencc (Koonings and Kruijt r 999). ln zoo4, thc World Flcalth Orga- scalc ancl systc¡ratic scxuâl violcnce conlnittcd agâinst Croatiâl.t wolrelì nizâtion considcrcd Latiu A|ucrica "thc ll.rost crimc ridden rcgiou in ct rrlng thc civil war in ìlosnia-Her.zrgovina. 12 the wor1d, with z7.5 homicides for cvcry roo,ooo pcople. - . comparcd ls a result of tenacious activisrÌì olt the paft ofwomenk rights âc{vo- to twenty-t,vo in -A.frica and fiftecn ir Ëastcrn Europe." The hou.ricidc catcs, the conccpt si¡cc drcD has bccq adoptcd by [ongoverllr.ncntal and ratc is cvcn lnorc alarming in Guatcmala, which rcgistcrccl45 houriciclcs i¡ltcrgovcrnnìcntal organizarions and by grassroors gr.oups, as wcll as pcr roo,ooo peoplc in zoo5 (Unga zoo6, r7t). Ycr as thc casc srudy ir tn ntajor regional enø,enlyl! (11eetrllgs) and acaclcrnic confcrcnccs, tc) Costa Rica by Sagot and Carccdo rcveals, ìncrcased levcls of ovc¡allmake visitrlc i¡rhumanc folms of violencc agai[st worìrcn and girls, par.- violence is not neccssalily an irdication ofhighcr rates offerninicide.ticularly in rltc contexr <¡f so-called peacctine.r3 Iu zoo7, the Intei.- ¡*urther rescarcl-r is necded to dctcrr¡iuc whethei n-ro¡c women arcAn.tclican C-oun of Hun.tan Iùghts agreed to hcar argumcnts for bcirg murdered as part of al) ovcrall ìncrcase in the iromicide r¡tcs orcascs of fcmiuicide (dtc "c<ttton ficld" cascs) tl.rat will seive as legal whcdrcr the feiralc-to-male ratkt has rcmainecl constant ovct- tine. Alpreccdent for cases of gendcr vblcncc in a noll-w contcxt and for tlìough malyzjng crime ratcs through a gcndcr alalysis lnay paftly accluneratinB ferrilticide in intemarional law.Ia In Deccurbcr.zoog the coulìtfor thc irìc¡case in thc fenale share ofthe nllrrclcrs, this alone doesIAcHR isriucd a lìistoric ruliug in dre "cotton field,,nìurders, ID an 167- not accor¡nt for tl-re gcndcr dynal-rics at rvork. A.s fcmiuist rescarchcrspagc opiukxr, thc court found Mexico iD violation ofhuman rights cou- and activists argue, what nrakcs fcrliricidc so distinctive is tltat ir makcsvcntions for its failure to prcvcnt ancl investigate the Inurders ofClaudia visible fo¡ms ofviolcncc drat are rootcd in a gcnder power structure.Ivette González, Esr¡e¡alda Herre¡a, and Laula Bcrcrice llamos. llhis ftc scale aud rauge of the violence in gencral arxl the speciflc brutaliryrulirrg represents thc firsr tinìc thar thc tcrtifemini{idt Ls Llsed ancl cnu- and scverity ofl?pe, scxual torture, and mutilatiot.t suggcsr ltgh lcvcls ofmerâted il) intenìâtional courts. rììisogylìy and dehuuranization of worrelt. Icatìng fcminicide as thc Siuce r993, r.nore than five hundrcd won.rcn and girls have been rnur- gendered form of honicide is thus rl-tislcacling, give¡ì tlìat it obscurcs thedcrcd ancl rìore thân one tlìousaud l.nve disappeared in thc state <¡f powcr differentials that fcDritìist dìcotists luvc loug contcnded ircrcaseChihuahna, Mexico, Of the fivc hundrcd tnurders, approx- womens vullerability to violcncc, -{s Lagaldc (zoos, z5) ex¡rlains, "Vi-irnately one-third wclc killed under siurilar circumstances: Thcy wcre olcncc in general is a nrajor cou.r¡ronent ilì the trraiotity of crimcs agâinstheld in captivity, raped, scxually torturcd, and nutilated, and thci¡ bod- nen; lrorvcvcr in thc casc of womcn, tz bwission tc:¡ nasculine vktlcnce isjcs wctc discat,,lccl in rcrì1otc. s¡rarscll po¡rulafcd areas of rhc ccntrâl to tlìeir cxpcrìcnccs." In other words, rurlike rnost cases of wom-Wr rDrcns ¡ itllts glouPs ¡eullrcntc.l silìilar violcrrcc jrr orhcr r.t, lrav<. ,.1, errs nrurdcrs, lììetÌ arc not killed becutsc tltey are rren or as a rcsult ofgions of Mexìco, where bctwccn r999 and zoo5 uror.c thur six thousand theil vulncrability as membcrs of a subordinatc gcnder; nor arc neuworncn aud girls were victir-ns ofgcnder-bascd murdcl rT ln Guatcnrala subjectecl to gender-specific folms ofcìegladation and violatic;n, such assir.rce thc ycaI zooo, trrore tlÌân rhilty-fivc u,omcn and girls havc rapc and scxual torture, priol to thcir rnurdcr.. Such gclrdet dilTercncescxpet icncccl siurilarþ brutalfornìs ofviolence in the post-conflict pcriocl. ír thc cxpcriencc ofviolence suggest the need for au altc¡nativc aualyticAs rhcsc lìgulcs makc cvidcr-rt, thc lcvel and cxtre¡ne natuÌc ofviolcl.ìcc conccpt, such as fcmìniciclc, for: mapping thc hicra¡:chics cmLrcclclccl iuaÉlaurst woltlclt lcquircs a Dcw coDccpt sttc]fr as .fctnin.icitlc, wl.ìich calì gerclcrbasccl rriolcncc,
  7. 7. 1l L cøoso øid lltiti.lolto Ifi.troduation 9 ir thiukilg about fclninicklc irì thcorctical and political tcr.rììs! it is il?lr)ortant to urìdcrscolc rhc spilitcd ând clylamic dcbatc iu thc trcld of Public and Private gendcr bascd violcrrce alrout thc usc offminicidìt ovcr femicid,io.flner.c is (u¡rclìtly Íìo tìnâninÌit7 anìotìfl l-âtilì AnÌcricatr fclniDist rcscâtchets In dcß.rling fcrninicidc as tlìe mÌrrder âncl clisappear ance of u,c)men alld ãn(l activists lr¡r r¡rlc tc¡n ovcr thc othcr. Those rl4t <> prcfcr fem,inicirlio gills bccausc thcy arc fcmalc, the authors of this collccti<¡n, along witl.t follow l-agardcs formulatiorr, rvhich emphasizcs rhc clclrenr of ilì.t- othcr Lâtin .AmcLican scholarc aud womcns lights âdvocatcs, lìavc pu:riq, and implicatcs rhc statc âs a rc$p oqsiI-ic ¡>arry (fcwinicùlit stãte dran,n fror¡ l{nssells (zoora) deîútiott of feruicidc,2r Prior to lhrssclls ). Othcr rcscardrcrs in Ccr.rt¡al Amcrica, such as Carccdo, ^s Sagor, lbrmulation, ferlinist legal schohrs had defined thc of"rapc" as a al-ld Moralcs, fillcl l,agarlcs folmulation liruiting and insist iusteacì on forn of tt¡¡ture prcdicatcd on tlìc impulsc to "degradc and destroy afcmicìdio becÃ:ose r morc accurately dcscribes "thc nisogynist lìrLlrdcr of wonran l¡ascd orr lrer idcntity as worÌlal)J - or ltenuse slte is fellalc women, iDcìcpcrldct]r oftlìc elcnÌcrìr ofìDrpuDiq, or d1s participation of (Copelon r995).1is inclusion of r:apc as "elelncnts oftorturc, slavcry thc statc." Fot Sagot, "Whcthcr or not thcre is impuniry or state coll- genocide," is considcrcd to bc a "¡eliance on a progr-essivc rcading into pliancc (or lack thcleof) witlÌ its rcspotìsibility to gltâral]ree secu.ity cxistilg hulìan rights provisions" (quotecl in Saiz zoo4, óz), or wl.nt and justicc for rvomcn, tlÌc âssassination of womcn becøuse they are thc lcgal scholar Patricia Sellers (zooz, 3ot ) rcfers to as "a foun of legal fcmalc colstitutcs a uDivelsal problenr trauscenclírg bordcls ar-ìd forms piggybacking," as rapc is not considelcd a violaticxt of human rights onof govelnancc."re its own tcrms. This progressivc rcadirg of lape as a fcrm of torture has Ouc ofthc priurary ofthis collcction ofcssays is to conrriburc to been an inportant advancc givcn that "tolturc is the rrost wicicly out-tlìcpolitical and lcgal proccss ofdefining and advancing a human riglrts lawed lrunran rigl.rts violatior" (Lutz and Sikkirk zooo, 634).22fr:arning of ferniuicide, Lagardcs (zoo6, zo) ètcfrnirron of fewinicìd.e rs a fte disti.rction of rape as a form of trtrtulc lcsultccl in part from thestartìng poiltt for thi[kiDg abqrt thc concept ilÌ lisroricâl) âualytic, and strcnuous acfivism lly womcns rìghts advocates dclouncing "rapc as alegal terms: "Èl conjunto de delitos dc lcsa humanidad que coutiencn tool ofwar and tormre by statc offìcials in El Salvador, Pcr tí, and Haiti"los clirncncs, los sccucstros ylas desapariciones de niñas ymujcrcs cn ulì (Mcdina r9S5; Meycr 1999, o5).23 As wc rrotcd earlier, this legal re-cuadro de colapso iDstitLtcioDal. Se trata dc uDa fractnra dcl Estado dc definition ofrapc as a form oftortulc also informed dre enurìleration bydcrecho quc favorece la impunidad. Fll fcminicidio cs ru.ì üit).ìe¡ c{e thc Womens (laucus of"gcndcr oirncs" as "incidcnts ofviolcltce talger-Estado ("fhe cÍìtircry of crimes agâirìst lÌunanity, including thc llur- irg or affectirg woncn , , . becøuse tltey are wctntcn," Thus, thc narnirgcìers, the kidnappings, aud the clisappcarances of girls aud uomcn of murder and disappcarancc of won-ren as "fcmilricidc" can bc scen aswithin thc frane of ítstitt¡tional bl cakdown. lt involvcs a b¡cach in thc part ofa wide-rangiug cffot in fcminist jur:isprudeuce aud humau righrsruJc of larv, wlriclr favors inputiry. Fewini.cide is a statc ctine).]) As a law to makc visiblc gender pcrseclrrion targcting woDren pet se fol whomcmbc¡of thc Mcxicau Congrcss, Lagar.dc drcwf¡orn atr cvolving body dìey are,ofi¡rteirrational lau, and dcfrncdføninicùl.c within a l.tunran r ights frarlc- Iu coming to this political understardilìg of gencìer-basccl violcncc,work that considcrcd both the ¡rublic ar.rcl privatc dimcnsions ofgcndcr- fcminist dreorists lirst had to place womcDs subjcctivity and cxpericllcebased violence.fhis human rights framing irnplicates thc sratc fol its of violcnce at the ccnte¡ of a feminist analytic. Femitìisr analysis is a lcnsfailu|e to act with duc dìligcncc-rhar is, to takc rcasonablc stcps to f<rr rcprcscnting violencc f¡om thc petspcctive of gcncle¡ arxl in thisplcvcrlr, illvcstigatc, aud pcnalize gender-bascd violence,20 Thc conccpt rcgard "getrder" is an clcr¡cnt nc¡t of cxplanation but, rathcr, of intel-of fcminicjde bridges thc "prìvatc" ancl "pubJic" distinctiou by ìnçor- plctatìon that providcs an anglc (rathcr than a moclcl) for under.stand-polatiDg i]to its dcûnitiotì ¿ot systematic ancl systcmic or stftrctural ing thc powcr clynarlics ald rclati<xrs of gcnclcr, sex, racc, and classviolencc sanctioned (or commissìoncd) by st:rrc actors (public) and urdcrlying Violcncc (Young zoo5). ODc ofrhe plilcipal obstaclcs committcd by iudividuals ot grorìps (privarc), sincc most of nist lcscarchcrs ofviolencc have confì<xÌred is the llierarchical divisionthc violcllcc suflclcd tr¡ woncn happcns ar rlÌc hands ofprivate actors. bcnvccn "¡xblic" and "privatc" fomrs ofviolencc.2a Thc distincti<¡n bctwccu tllc public and thc privatc lealtls cncumbcls ()lllcrl in csscnrial u,ays, UrÌtil vcD rcccntlv, ,ioliìtions ¡¡f ll,ollcns riglrts ucrc cutsicJc|cd a "¡xivatc" <tr"cultur¡1" rn¡ttcl t¡cst lcft tc¡ t.bc
  8. 8. w* tt lirqJoto tþld llcjarã110 ï Iltkod Ltii r d:sc|cliou ofthc farril¡r f-his corlsidcation of rv<¡mcrts rìghts as "pri- ; ?88) cxplair)s, "TlÌe collscqucDccs ofdefiniûg ccrrain r-apcs as public in .tte" or "culturâ1" lathel tlÌar pul)lic ot ¡x>litical tcirri:orcc.s gcndcr hicr- I iDtclnafio[al lÍìw is to u]akc plivare rapcs sccr]] sotrehow lcss scrious." õrcìties becarìsc it1eildcrs wolìrcD subjcct to thc cot-thol ef patriarchal llrc curphasis hacl also shifted frour gcndet based violeuce (rapc, as- fan¡ilial audrc¡ritics - fat|c! brotllcls, aud hustrands witlì tlìe u¡dcr- - sanlt) in irtimate rclations to thât cllactcd by statcs in wa(farc) as wc stÀndtug dtat fâDrìlial mattcrs arcplivateand ther cforc bcyoDd thc scope notcd carlicr. Yer thc private aud public distinction "bctwec¡ the acts of of govcrnmcnral ¡uthoriry ar)d iìrclvcnriorì" (lliuiort 1995, 516-17). statc alld llol)state actorî" rclrairÌcd i.r place (Charlesuorth 1999, 387). Cdling fot dìc cxtcnsiorÌ of "goYcrnDrcnral âutllo¡iry âI]d jt]tcrvcnriou, Morc ¡cceut elaborations build on an uncìcrstanding of thc private sphclc ìnlo thc ¡rrivatc spherc Dta¡ bc just as pr.oblcmaric fron a gcDdcl._jLrsticc âs"âl cvcn widclalcâ, cxteitditg to all rclations anÌoug private pclrìoDs, in pqspectivc; howcvcr, so, roo, is colìsigli¡rg yiolence ro thc,Þtivare, contrast to thcir rclâtioDs widì public authoritics" thcreby movilg thc sphcrc, for this mechanism l.ras rcnclcrcd vìolclcc agaiostwomen iìtvisil¡lc focus bcyond thc domcstic sphcrc of familial and ilttìrratc partlÌer rcla- from pul.rlic scrutily and conccr n. tions. "Crrutempolaly doatline ard casc lawj according to Eva lì¡cms Fcmilist apploaches to violcr.rcc str¡dics tl.ìe violcnce-against_wonen - (zoo3, r r z), "increasingly acccpt thc rcsponsibility ofstates to prcvcnt and paradigm - souglrtto disasscuble the private and pulrlicdividc by relrrcdy lìuman rjghts violatiol)s among private ilÌdividìJalsl ing yiolcnce agair)st worlren as erut¡cclded rvithin a patr.iarchal systeil of ïris urrdcrstanding is wlrat makes the re definiti<tn offeminicidr îr<tn a rcgulation aud cont¡:ol ovcr womcn,s l¡odics. Èarly elaborations of..feur_ hunÌân riglìts pcrspective so tralxfouÌative irì tlÌat it extends bcl,ond the icidc" ch¿racteiiired thc practicc as a .,phdlic crime, that, by teuorizing ¡.rrivatc-public divide. ïrc conccpt offcminicide addrcsses and rcsponrls wolììcn wlÌeltevel. thcy challcngcd patriarch¡ was designed to n1âiutain â in part to this sboftcoming, acknowledgiDg dÌe linits of thc dichotomy reginìc of"n.ìale suprcmacy and entitleDrcnt:2s In rhc pioneering urthol betweeD pr.rblic (systematic and statc) and plivatc (intcrpersonal, indi- ogv ltøtaicide: Se*íst Teruorìsru ø¿øinrt W()mNn, thc aurhors considc¡ed vidual ând rx;rr-statc) violcncc for undcrstanclírg violeucc in thc par- fcnicidc to bc thc [ìost exrlemc exprcssio[ of..sexist terrorisrn" lRad ticularitics ofcâcl.ì individual country or rcgional sinration,2s fot d | 992 r, pcrpcr rarcd by nisogl r isr lrt.r r wlrcrrcvcr. r lrr.y lccl rh rc¿r- r r Followir.rg feminist hunan rights thinkcrs who contcnd drat the dis- cucd bywomcn acring collectively to claill theirrights orchallcngc malc tiDctior) bctwcen systcnatic ând wiclespread or state-sanctioncd (pub- au tho¡iry ( Capuri and Ì{usscll r 992, r 6-t 7) .26 lic) and arbitrary or indívidual (plivatc) fornrs ofgcudcl-bascd violcncc Iu afflilluting rhe loors offèrì]icide ro thc hisrorically r.urequal powcr is a problematic onc) orlr usc of fcniricide rnoves beyoncl a nrcdel ofrclar io¡rs bcnvccr lrcn arJ wo¡ncr. Jà¡ìc Caput¡ ancl Diarra ih¡siell rc_ inclusion, That is, ilìstcad ofadding privatc to public violatielts, we aimdefined thc killing of womcn as "politically motivatccl violence,,, sirdlâr to qncstion the cither or formulation to account for tlÌe ways in wl.ìichto racial violence thâr is histol.ically rootcd in ulìcqual power rclations all sucb bLcachcs arc intcrconnedcd, both prìvatc øzd public. In Mcx- bctwccn racial groups and aitlcd at ntaintairing a rcgime ofracial hier_ ico, recent formulations shift drc defruition fiorr a notion ofviolencc asarchy.27 This sÌ.riftin the framing of the lìturder ofwotncn as ,,political,, an attack oll womclls houo¡ or the saltctity ofmodrerhood to an ulder- (public) followcd a similar. impulsc in fcninisr reclefinitioirs of thc standing of gender-based violence as linkcd to systemaric discrimina, meaning ofviolence âgâiDst wolneD to elìcompass notjrlst private for.rììs tion and an assault orì wonlclÌrs pcrsonhood and rights to life, libcrty, (i.e., "mens violcucc agaiust their par.trìc¡s irÌ tl.ìe foru of Ëpe, assault sccuriry alld diBnity. This colnection to systetnatic and systernic dis- and rlurder"), but also systcmatic and largc-scaÌe acts of violtrcc corn_ crininâtion is clucial for "applyírg dre concept ofhumau lights widrirmittcd by starc actors agailìst civiliatìs. Howcvcr., the emphasis on irtcrnational law to geltder$ascd violcncc" (European (lon.rmissiougcndcr-based violence as "polirical, or ,þublic,does not ncccssarilv do 2oo8, 20).aw.r¡ witJr tlrr. pu[¡lit-privarc [rorrrrtl.rlics; ir ofl(.¡¡ l¡¿5 thc r¡trillte¡rdcdco[scqucrÌcc of subordil)ating thc lcss ..spcctacular, fonns of gcnder_based violcncc. lhc cfforts to fr.anr scxual violencc as ..political; (pub- As Systemic Violencelic) within a changing bod1, of intcurational law, as ,,war crimesii ancl"crirlcs against hunaniq{ is linriting in its l.eprcselttatiou of gcncler_ Thcrc arc rìo slrlvivols of fcminicidc. Äll wc havc â[e tlìe voiccs ofbascd vi(telcc in cithcr-or rcrrls, sir.rcc, as l,ljlJarJ¡ Ch a¡lcswo,r,ll ,999, uirncss sur.¡ivoLs (familics) u,ho spcak f<rr them. As thc uro¡^t cxtlc¡rt: 1
  9. 9. t 2 lcllosa ãnd llcjßtãtÌo Il.ttl1.luctiott r2, cx|rcssiorÌ ofc¡irncs âgâir.ìst wolrcn lifè ancl liber.t1,, fcminiciclc namcs nlclìt d{]sigllecl fo¡ rvoulcD uDder l]lilitâÌl legilÌte( (Mouárlcz Flagos<r thc absolutc dcgladation and dchumaniz-¿tion offct¡alc bodics. Ycr wc zoosb,6z). wculcl also likc to shifr thc focus f¡om womcn as ,,r,ictiurs,,to au rurdcr- Tlìc lrrilitarization of dai, lifc stcmn.ring from "thc lcgacy <.rf rcprcs- st¡ìdilg of how gcndct norots, irìcquitic{i, an<l ¡rorver r:clationshi¡rs sive clictatorships aud civil wars . . , form the backdrop tc¡ ncw ald jf-tcrcase wo¡ìlel)svulDcrability to violcl]cc, as Carcctl<l and Sagot cx- disturbing folms ofvioicnce fsuch as fcmiricide ] that seenr to bc on thc p1aìn in thcil cha¡:rtcr. Fcn.riricidc is roorcd irì polilical, cconolric, cul- rise in post aùthoritaliatì l-atin lLDrcrica" (Koolings and l(ruijt 1999, tr:r¿I, social inequalities, ìrrchrcling thc cqually sigr.riflcallt 3). I)ecadcs of civil rvar and trilitaq/ rcigu rcsulted ir two hundred ¡rou,cr. rcl¿tkrns bascd orì clâss, racc) sexual, ancl ¡acial hicrarchics. As an cx- thousand dcad and fbrq, ¡[6¡15¿1¡¡-{ clisappearcd in (ìuârclÌìala; more trcnc form ofgendcrbased violcnce, fcmilticidc docs not jusr ftrrctioll tlìan thirty thousand clcacl and disappcalcd in Argcntira; ancl nearly as a "tool of patriatchal control but alscl scrvcs as a tool of racism, scvcnty drousand) most of their ildigenous peoples, slaughtcr.ed iu econoûric opp!:cssiolì, ancl colonialism" (Smith zooo, 4r7). In this Pcrú.3Ì The brutality of fcminicidal violence harks back to this e¡a of sr=tlsc, egrcgious violariol]s of a womans boclily intcgrity cannot bc stâtc terrorisn, whcn sccurityforces and death squads resorted ro l.rr.utal siruply "physical" or ¡estricted to a nodel of "pcrsonal injury." I{athcr, repLcssion as a cotrrlllon p¡acrice ro tcuorizc thc populace by subjecting such violatious involve systemic and structural forces, a rlultiplicity of tlìcl)ì to torturc, arbitrary detcntion iD deârh camps, extrajudicial cxccu- factolr ar)d intcrsecting logics. lcln, and disappearaDcc, Most of the victirrs <¡f state tc¡¡orism wcrc Fer¡iricidal violcncc furds feitilc ground in social asyrll.retricn and is "vulne¡al¡lc civilialì participalìts ilt movei-ììents or scctors which chal Drost acutc uDclei conditions of "cxtrctlc lìtargiualization aDrl social, lcngcd thc rnjlitary/s poliricâl goal or docrrincs" (Brysk 1999, 243), jrrdicial and political cxclusion , . . ancl fo¡urs of gclrdcr opprcssiou, especially populists, latx>r unions, stuclents, teachers, and indigenous includillg lncchaÍìisrl]s of dcvalorizatic¡u, gender exclusion, discrimira groups. W.rilc stâte security forccs admiristeled violcncc across thctio[, aud cxploitatior.r" (Lagardc y de los IUos zooó, zz).2e In Ciudad social spectrun, wl-rcn it cãme to wollcrl) the terrot inflicted by statc-Juárcz, whencver a corpsc is found, accodiug to Julia Mouárrez Ft.a- sponsorcd tortulcrs took gender-specific forms (I-Iollander 996, +6) .goso (zoo5b), theÌe is arì 8o per.ccnt probalriliry dìar she con.res from Simìlar to the practiccs of dehurnanizatiol.Ì cvidcnt it feiÌtinicidal vio-the "westem irone," which has rhc highcst conccntration of irr]Iligrant Ience, thc torturc of womcn undcr sadisric military rc¡ìines it Latinpopulation and thc lcast infi.asrrucrurc. It is women ancl girls living Amelica involvcd degrading, inhumanc, and crucl n.rctJrods "systeir.rati-undcr "high lcvels of insccur.iry vullcrabiliry an abscncc of social and cally directed at [womens] fenale scxual identity ard female auatomy,,politicâl protectkn, and in zoncs ofsocial devastatiou, whete irseculity (Bunstcr-Burotto rg93, zS7). Gang rape, sexual slavery murilation,and crime prevail, along with coexistcnce ular.keiì by illegality . , . the torturc, aDd forced prcgnancy rverc pat.t of thc olÌgoing and insidior.rsdis¡rtegratiorì ofilstitutious, and the r.uprurc ofthc State of Law, who, fonns of tcr¡oriziug ilnprisol.ìcd wornen during thc n.rilitary dictator-accordírg to Lagalde (2006, U), arc rrrost dìrcateiled by fcrninicidal ships of Southcrn C<¡ne coullt¡ies such as Chile, Algeiìtina, Paraguay,violence. Crucial in this regard are clevastatìng, ncoliberalist-drivcn and Uruguay ancl in countries such as Ill Salvador, Nicaragua, Hon-stntctriral changes ccoltolìtic, politicÂI, aud social- that havc precipi- - duras, and Guatcmala, whc¡c dre starc wagecì counterinsurgency warstatcd cxtreme fon¡s ofviolcnce in tlÌe rcgioll.30 against mostly unarmcd civilians,3, Whilc in Guateilala, ntcn.rbers of A ccxrsidcratirxr of fcminicidc as systcn.ìic violclcc roots large-scale the uri.litary ancl civil patrols lapcd ând tcr ror ized indigenous womcn; iÌtgcndcr-basecl violencc as part of dtc sccnario of extrcmc irìcquality, Argcntina, "at thc height of the n.rilitary dictatorships Dirry War, bolcdpovcrry unenrploymerìt, and social nìar giltalizarioD, Yct cvcn as t{resc jrrniol oficcrs who rvele mclÌrbets of toltLlrc squads would cruisc thcegrcgious violatiolls can bc considered thc olost cxtreirrc cflccts ofstr.uc- streets in thc inlàrnrtus Ford Falcons looking for prctty girls to scquesternrral adj¡¡5¡1Ì1e¡)¡, ¡he ncoliberal agcnda alonc is uot a sufficicut explaua, aud takc back to the carnp to rape, torrurcr aud then kìll" (Hollander.tiou frx thc crncrgence of feninicidc. Thc ¡rcruasive spcctcr ofcivil ,ar.s r996,62) .ancll-atin Amcricas l)irty Wan ruust also bc factorcd i¡tto thc architcc- l}c unb¡idlcd misog)rììst practices of milirary regimes il[ùrirìâte tl]cturc of fcnrinicidc, for thc scxual degladatìon and dehur¡anization of inteiscctions of"political rcprcssiol" and "patliarchal culturc" as DrutÌt-fcmir¡icidal vjolencc ccho tllc Icl)rcssed historl, ¡)f lcgìmcs ol. âlly consfituting folccs. Ill "str:ctrgthen I ing ] rnirlc clomill¡rccl iusrirr- ¡.rLlrish-
  10. 10. |4 l:relJoso a i ll¿jãt|t1to hthdttîio,t tS ti(ns ar]d !ìtcnsilyl ir)g] urisogyltist idcologyj rcnolist starcs r-ciDforccd rantricalusc offorce, pc¡sist il) a bafcl)¡ disgnisccl aud subcct¡tracrecl for.rl-l a violcnt patriarchy" thar normaliz¡d violcncc âgairsr wotìcn ( Hollan- of lc¡rrcssion aucl cocrcion (lrcgoso zooó ). Statc tc¡ro¡ has [.¡ccn out- cl/l ry96, 46) , It is plccisely dris rclationship bctwccn machismo aDcl sourccd to othc¡"cc¡rporatisÉ sectors, as explailccl in rhe chaptct by llira violcnce and the lnuruâlly colNtínldrìg forccs of Dtilitariz.ßd, nÌisog),nisr Scgato, to pararnilitary bands iuvolvcd in thc rcccut clncr.gcncc of vig- ir1¡titutions; cmphatic rr.rasculiuisr-tr; ìd randon, arbitrary violencc that ilantism ("which may be statc toLeratcd but is not wholly statc spon- hal.c hcþcd to fucl colìtcluponry cxprcssious of fcmücidc (L)ornúrgnez,- sorecl" []llysk r 999, z4o] , to privatc arnics and plivatizrcl sccurity forccs lùrvalcaba zooT). (formcr and currcut rtclnbcLs of larv cnfr¡rcclncllt) working for thc Dccadc,s of military rulc and civil wals havc had both long-tcr.m struc- globalizcd netl,o¡ks of the drug-, wcapons-, and human-uaflickìng in- t¡-rnl and lrs)¡chic impacts (what lgDàcio Maltiu-Baró calls "the lnilitar- dustrics, to thc plivatc a¡mies ofdrc lu.ling clite all clairing rhe rightro iz-arion ofsocial lifc"; quotcd in HoLIandcl 996, sz) drat havc persistcd - cxercìsc sovcrcigrtry In thc cra ofneolibcral capital, the grcater mobility bcvond thc rcign of the rerrorist statc ilt tltc "dcsrructivc bchavior. of and availabiliry ofwcapons aud privatc amrics for hire means that ttil! rncmbcls o¡ ex-lnembcrs of military" (quoted in Ho).landcr: r99r, tary opcratiorìs arc no loogcr thc solc nonopoly of statcs (Irrcgoso 57). Just as sigDificânt is thc "historic structulc of irlpr.rnity" rcsultiug zooó).34 As drc chapter by Héctor I)omirgucz-Ruvalcaba and Patrjcia fron arnncsty laws that havc failed to hold statc officials and folner Itavclo Blancas shows, thc widcspread inprutity for ârfocitics com- rncmbcrs ofthc sccurity forces accounrable for cgregious crimcs. This is mittcd agâiust womeil and thc unfettercd courinlratiol) and spread of tllc casc ilr Glratcnala, for cxamplc, where "gcnocidair.cs lìave nevcr feurinicicle can be scen as part of tlÌis n.ìilirârisric thc con- bccl brought to jnstìcc and impunity reigus morc thal a decade after vergcnce ofvarious cocrcivc frrrces, thc con.rplicity of publìc ofÌìcials aud the sigrìing of pcace accords" (Sauford zoo8, lo5). Thc chapter by thc organizrd-crirnc industry in alliancc with thc ruling economic and Hilda Moralcs tl.rus connects thc risc of ncwer forms of violcncc such as politicalclite, all underwritten by thc towering spcctcr ofstare tcrrorisnì. fenìiDicidc to tllc historical strucírre of inìpunity in which, as Kccs I(oonings and Dirk Kruijt (rgqq, r r ) explain in a cliffererìr corìrcxr) ((at thc lcvel of daily law cnfo¡cc¡ncnt . . . randclm and arbitrary vio)cnce A Critical Human Rights Perspective pclrists dcspite tltc dcmise ofautholitarian rule." Iudeed, thc end of militaly n e and counreriDstugcncy wars did not Á.swe notcd carlier, thc i[tcrnationaì c<¡ n-rÍì]u lìity now recogniz,cs gencìcr- necessarily elilinate sratc terrol, for it has pcrsistcd ir what these au- based violencc as a humm rÌghts violation, Ihis n.rcans that as ân cxúeluc thors refe¡ to as "the proliferation of arbitrary rcprcssiou with systcmic practice of violencc er¡t¡eddcd ir gender power drramics, feuinicide is logìc" (quotcd in Koonings ar.rd Kruijt 1999, r r ). To this da)¡, arbiÍary li¡rkcd to a paftcrn of systcrlatic discri natìon; it breacltcs a womau,s aud random fo¡ms ofviolcnce perfcctcd during the Dirty Wars pewade right to lifc, liberty, security, and digriry. In I-atin Anerican socicrìes the cntire sccr.uity apparatus, ír policc and law eDforccrncnt, in para- where strict gendcr norr.ns offcr ninc and masculinc idcurirics prevail, û.rilitary bauds jnvolved in t igilantisru ârìd cltrrelìt "social cleansing, there is also a histolical pattcrn of deadly vktlence aincd at xxr-gender- canìpaigrN,33 itr tlìc milirarization of policiug ftrnctions-all rcprcssivc conformiug womcn, which furthcr violatcs dreir riglrt "to live out their practices that cor)tributc to thc untold forms of violcDce and degrada- sexuality in ways odrcr dran heterosexlality" (lì,adhìka füo¡.roraswam¡tiolì otr dìc rise in post-autholitarian Latin Àlerica. )uclith Galar.z-a, quoted in Saiz 2oo4, 5j).hcacl ofthe Fedcración Latinoamcricarìa dc Asociacioncs dc Far¡iliares As dre former Special lìapportcur on Vìolence agains r WomcD , Radhikadc Dctcnidos-I)csa¡rarecidcls (Latin American Federaridt of Assqcia- C,oomoraswamy was the first Unitcd Natiorrs cxpcrt to "cxpJicitÌy articu,tiorls ofFarrilies of thc Dctaircd-l)isappca ri:d ) ir Cancas, arì âssocia- late a concept ofscxual riglrts" aud conccprually corlrcct gcndcr violencetiotr ofrclatìvc,s ofpolitical prisoners and in l-atìn America, and cliscriminatiol) with scxual orjentation. Accolclirg to lgnacio Saiz,teascd <¡ut thc colu]eüiotì bctwecÍì feDriDicidc aDcì Mexicot Dìrty War (ìrorloraswamy considcrcd violencc against non-gcndcr-confornringofdrc r 97os, noting that "sevcral high ranking Chihuahua statc ofljcials womctt to be "part ofa broadel s¡rcctrurl ofvioleltcc il)flicted otÌ wonìenin.r¡licatcd in orgauiz-r:d crimc began their careers as policcrììeit activc il.t for exercisingthcir sexxal âutonon.ìy ilì ways disapprovcd by thc com¡ru-thc ì)it n W¡1 " (qùored in llâtcr-son zoo8, 7). liql (Coonor-asu,aut¡ r¡uorccì in Saiz z-oo4, 55).35 li.lda¡ statc-sancri<)ncd tctot ptâcticcs and thc ut.lllstl.â¡-rcd and q" Itr rlany Latin Arrcricâlt socictics, ,idcs¡rlcad clisclininatir¡n ctn tlrc
  11. 11. I. t: I:1e!o¡o ø1id. Bêi rr&no hrh,l. ctioll. t7 gnur.rds ofscxuâl oriclttâtiorì rctrain¡ì largcly invisiblc despitc a lÌistor- dc¡ givcn tlÌat sonrc of thc rvo¡ncn rnay oÌ uì.r)¡ not bc c{cac1*- that is, ictl pattcru ofstatc and st¡uctulal violcncc llgâin$t quccr pcoplc, which thcy l.ìay htcr reappear.3e Iu son.rc Lcspccts, collccptualjzing disappcar- caralso rcsult in fcmiDicidc. Although srricrgcndcl norlns aud thcsocial ar)cc as a componcnt of fcr.riricidc forccloses tltc possibiliry (ancl thc stigma attachcd ro homoscxualiry ¡.rartially âccount for t1Ìc s<;cial indif- relatives hopc) that nany of thc women nray still bc alir,c, pcrhaps fe:cltce ancl silcnccs al olrnd violencc against transgcndclwo[ÌcD, it is thc nallickc<lor hcld in captivity ir scxual or latror slavcq. I{orvcver, thcrc state andjudicial forccs tlìat al c ultinÌately responsiblc for institutionaliz- is also a compc)lìng rcason for placing disappealatrce tvithin rhc cnsclÌ- irg homo¡rhobic vjolcrcc. I¡ì spcaking about violations of the sexual blc ofcrirncs agairst hnDlãnit),. lights :rctivists in l-atiu Arrcricâ, Natasha )irnéncz of Mulabi (Espacit> As wc noted abovc, tlic fcminist lcfixn¡¡latiorì of lapc iìs tottì.]fe I-¿tinoamc¡icano dc Scxualidades y Dcrechos, or Latin Arneiican Spacc n:plcsents what Sellers calls a forr¡ of "legal pi¿çgybacking," or progrcs-fo¡ Scxualitics ancl Iùghts) rcmarks, "TItc oficial history of human- sive rcading into cxisti[g intcrDatbl)alhuman t ights proYisions. Asitli-kirrd, as wc knorv it, is a histoly in which travcstis, trarx and iDrerscx lar: stratcgy is at wor:k with thc coupling ofmuldcr and clisappcarance.womr:n arc ilìisiblc. . . , Most of us a¡e forced to livc in thc margins of In intcrnational law, "disappearancc" as a agair.rst hurlanity hassocicq, after being reiectcd by oul familics and the communiry as a l)o statlrte of linitations, ancl a proglcssivc reading into itìrcrl.târioltal whole. Whcn u,e organizc or.llselvcs to defend our rights, usuallywe facc hunan riglrts plovisions could climinate tlìe statute of lilnitaríolìs for policc abusc an<l cxtoltion. The price wc pay f<lr bccorning leadcrs and n.rurclcrs c¡f a fcurinicidal For- cxample, in Mexico thc statutc of crlcourâging oul pcc$ to l csist is oftclì m rrder, torturc, arl-ritr âry arrest, limitations fo¡ murder is frftecn ycarc, whcrcas "disappearance" is "not or forcecl ctisplaccmcnt" (I-Iumalì Riglìts Watch zooS),3ó subject to staftrte <¡f liDìitatiolts uDder customary illtculati(xlal law) For:mcr: Special llappoftcul CunÌaraswamy olrcc called "sexual rights (I{olrt-Arriaza zoo5, Lzt). As the chaptcr by A.dliana Carmona, Alma . . , the final fionticrfor womcns l.rulnan riglrts" (quoted in Saiz zoo4, Gómez, and Lucha Castro suggests for the case of Silvia Arcc, rnissing55), Â.lthough thc essals gâthercd in dris collectio[ do not explicitly sincc 1998, a legal prcccdcnt could [¡c made for disappcaratrcc in thcaddrcss the couceptual link l¡ctween scxr.ral and gendcr rights, attempts contcxt of fcn.riricide as a crine against humanity by drawing on thcare currcntly uudei way to locatc scxuality within a morc comprehcn- casc cxamplc of Cliile. Ll tlìât instaûcc, lnurder and disappearances"sivc frarling offeininicidc.3T lhc invisibility of transgcncler women and conr¡itted during Chiles nrilitary rcgiuc, accorcling to Naolri lloht-thc silerìces around scxuality rights in Latin America demaucl that we Arrìaza (zoo5, rzr), arc considercd "irnprcscriptablc thel ç¡,r lt.u"makc a couccrted cffolt to highlight cxrclìr ro whicl.ì violcncc agâilìsr no statute of limitation duc to thc hci.rous natu¡e ofthe crines and thcrxn-gcndcr-confo1.ming people is an cgrcgious hunan rights violatior] curtinuing ilter-natiorÌal i[terest in its supplessioD."aÌ llcsides, thisthât needs to be addrcsscd in any fratrring of ar.rc{ politics surrounding charactcrization of fernit)icide as crimes against humanity could also fcninicidc. "give rise to an obligation on tlìc paft ofthe prinary statc, as well as of As prcsident of the Comisión Nacional de Feminicidio (National thc interrlâtional community," which as Juan Méndcz and Javier Maticz-C¡rlnission on Fcminiciclc ir Mexico), I-agarde playcd a kcy rolc in currcrla (1999, 88) indicate, "nay bc satisfictl by creating an iltrcflìa-aclrancirg a human l ights pcr-iìpecrivc on gender-based violcllcc in Mcx- tkxnl criDlirìal court, or by allowing courts ofothcl natious ro cxerciseico. ll.rc lr1, Gencral de Acccso cle las Mujeres a ua Vida Librc dc the priuciplc of íltcnìational jurisdiction:Violcncìa (Gcncral l-aw of Womcns Acccss to a L,ife Frcc fron.r Vio- lìor Carntona, Gómcz, and Castro, Lagardes proposition of fclnitri-lcucc) foruulated by r.hc cornmission is ltot jusr a "law against violcncc" cide as a "statc criDrc" in cffcct shifts thc understândìDg of violcrìce ro (negatiyc riglrt) bnt â law that gualalrtces ,omcD tlìc riglrt to live frcc consjdcr "instiruti<tnal forms" (statc ancì judicial structurcs) as wcll asflom violcncc (positivc r ight) .38 l-aga dc also playcd a key rolc il focus- both public ancì privatc forms ofgendcr-based violencc, as wcll as urur-iDg o[ thc clemcr.rt of "irnpunity," thc rolc oftlìe state, and rhc iDclusion dcr and disappcarance, as a social mechauism that "scnes to reinfcr¡cc aof"disappearancc" il.ì tlìc conccptual clâboration of feminicidc. systcDÌatic patteflr ofsut¡o|dination and cxclusion f¡on ct¡dificd rights" ïct Lagar:dcs incluskrn of"disappcalancc" utrdcr the ¡nbric of fclrrirìi- (quotccl in Èuropcan (Ìrmnission zoo8, z4).a) Although irteuìarioltalcide could bc sccn as ¡rrotrlcmatic, for it lrcgs thc question of u4ty law still favor "holcling stâtes accoufltable . . . for violations pcrpctratcd"clisappcerancr:" u,oulcl lte cba¡acte¡ iz¡d rvith tbc s¡ltc finalìn as n¡rrl b), public ârrtlìolil.ics) Ì¿dlcr than corÌr)rittccl by ¡:rr-ivetc ectols" (Ìllclrs
  12. 12. wP 8 Þn:loso tr.nrl llcjLl øno r i IntroducLio 9 zôr31 13), this cotrcc¡rtual fiaming o1:fcmjllicide is ¡rarr of a vi¡¡or ous also unclerscores thc stateìs lcsponsitrility for (ol failurc iû) þrlhilliti?Ul lr1(¡clDent to cstablish rvomcns rights âs hunarì rights aud to nalnc r,iolations of u,omcns human rights. Hclc it is inìportârìt to r¡nclcrscc¡rc gcrrclet-basecl violcncc as a Iiolation of hur.nan rights. tlrat wc prcfcr tlrc la nguage of prohibition to Lbãr ol l rltectiozz bccausc t¡e ìhe Oclmisríxr Intcrarneiicana dc Mujcr.cs (Intcr-Amcrican (itmmis- do r]ot âd/ocrìtc atprotective approaclì to hrulan rights of wonrclt" or siol of Wonen; ct¡,r ) was thc fìrst iutcruational lrocly ro define gcnder thc usc of "¡lrcltective iust¡umcnts which sce women as cspecialll. rrul- bascd violencc âs a violâtioll of $,onen$ human rights aud to s¡rccil, nc¡al¡lc and in nccd of protcction) (see lìrel1s zoo3, ro8 ). A reliancc oD "tllc dutics c¡f statcs to acicÏcss this cndcrnic social problcn,, (Mcycr- tllc logic of protection, according to Iris Young (zoo3), cxtcucls pa- r999, 58). Established in thc rgzos, rhe crM hâs had a dccadcsJong triarchll ownelshi¡r and contr<¡l aud ftrrthcl discmpowers wonen. Iìor traditior ofprcssrrring govcmulelì$ in thc Amclicas brùrg national Charlcsworth (1999, 38ó), "thc proprierary i[ragc of worncn . . . Iis] laws into conpliancc with intcuational norms ir-r thc arca of womcn,s nudcrlinecì by thc languagc of protcction ratller than prohibition of rights" (Meyer rygg,66). LÌ r988, ir drafrccl rhc lDtcr-ADrcrican Con- violencc." veltiolt on thc Prcvention, Punishment and E¡:adication of Violcnce Most violence agairstwomen is collìnrincd by individuals radrcr d.ran agaûrst Woncn (Convcntkrl Belén do Par.á) in which it cxpandcd thc dre state; howo,cr, scve¡al audro¡s in this lnok will argue that a states violations srúIered by womcn fiom "donÌestic violclìce, to incluclc failure to guarautec womens rights to livc a lifc frec from violcnce is stit[tionaljzrd violence pcrpct¡arcd or tolerated by the statc, and rcde- itsclf a hunan riglìts violation. In curphasizing a l.ruman rights ap- fined "rape and sexual abuses as forms of repression or tomu.c, (Mcycr proach, thc conccpt of fcminicide ilìtplicatcs lroth govermrents that r999, 67) , Althougli rapc is Dot listcd as a "hunlaD rights víolation in th{. violatc human rìghts and private âctors who perpeuate violations of fUniversal Dcclaration of Human Rights], cnl,rw fConvcntion on hurnau rights, In framing feminicide as a "state crimelsevcral contribu- thc Elimination of All Iìorms of l)iscrjl.linatior.r against Wonrcu], Ior] to|s in this volurrre point to thc statet rolc ¡n fomcntilìg a cliDratc of tlre IrÌtcrnatìonal CovcDanr for Ecorìomic and Social fughts I itt t994,ax impuuity for thc nost heinous violatiolìs of wonìens rights: murdcr, drc Couvcnti<xr c¡f lJclén do Parí, "becanìc the first ofits kind to frame torturc, scxual violcncc, and forced disappearauce. Womenì rights rapc as a huma¡ rigl.ìts violarion in both private and public spheres,, (sce groups irl l-atir America have long [ìaintâilìcd that the goveuìn]eitts cEDAw 2oo5, Arrìcle z; Scllcs zooz, z9ó-aor ). failurc to investigate lìuman rights violations thoroughly or to f<¡lklw Sìtuatcd ir thc ncxus betwccn gendcr-bascd violencc, systclnatic dis- througlì irì prosccution, oftcu "trecause of lack of will to do so by off- crinination, aud exclusion fiom cc¡dificd furdanental rights, fcmiri- cials in charge of institutions widl specifrc duties in drat regard", crearcs cide as we havc dcfincd the conccpr is part of fèninist efforts ro catc- a climare of impunity that irl turn propels morc víolati<¡ns (Méudez and gori-ze violcnce rooted in a gcndcr power süucrur.c as a hunan rights Mariezcun:eua r999, 85).47 violation. Thc cmphasis on hurnan rights provide<ì by the concept of Tl.ris lirk beween histo¡ics of sexual violencc cluring arnccl conflicts fer¡inicidc triggcrs the obligations of thc irternational comrDurìity to and tl.rc current surge of fcminicidc was rcccntly stressed by Spccial prcssurc and hold the statc accour.rtal¡le, as rhe clÌapter by Wjlliam Sir.n- Rapporrcrrr on Violencc against Women Yakin E¡türk. In addrcssing nrorrs arrd Raclrel Coplan observcs.aa Siu.ìilar to dte tettrgenocidt, frrst drc problen.r of impur.fry Erdirk called for drc prosccution ofpcrpetla- coíned by thc Polish jntcruarional lawycr llaphacl I-ernkin to descril.¡e tors of"scxual vic¡lcncc used as a weapon ofwar cluring amrcd conflictswhat tlrc Ρrks did to thc Aulcniaus in|urkey,fernini,cidt provides an in Ccnt¡al Anerica" as a clete¡¡ent for "ftlturc acts " (Ertiìrk and G>n-analyic and lcgrl flantcwork for. Iocaring sr¿¡c accor¡rr¡ahiliry arourr<l mission on I{uman lùghts zoo5, z). Angélica Chazarro, Jcmtifcr Casey,"criures against wome¡ls life ând libcrry:45 and l(atherinc RubL take up tl.ris question in thcir study of how a gov- Lagardes discrrssiou of fcminicidc as "sratc crill1e (crimcn fu Estødo), such as Guatemalas (as wcll as El Salvac{ors urd l-Ionduras.s)is crucíal iD this lcgard, fol it rcitcratcs thc states rolc aDd rcsponsibiljty practiccd ilrpuniry by changirry doDrcstic laws or passing aDìcsty laws (by commission, tolerâridl, ol.ttission) for cgrcgious breachcs of worr.r- for humau lights violations dnrìng pcriods of arnìcd conflict, which ir.rcns hrulart rights. Tlis hruran lights frarling implicatcs thc state for.irs effcct "prccludc invcstigations ol punishmcnt" of securily forces andfailurc to act witb due diligeDceaó..- thâr is, to rîke rcasonable steps to f<rrmcr military comrnandcrs (Méndez ald Mariczrurcna r999, 8j),48plcvclìt, irr¡estigatc, aud ltlosccrrtc ¡Jcucìcr.-bascd violc¡tce-,at)d it in-crirl¡niÌtes thc st:ìfc and jutììcial lrodics that jDstjtritjonaliz_¡: nrisoglny It
  13. 13. Inhortt!¡:ttu1t zt zo lia4pro ønd Bei&ftu1o voiccs of thc fcnralcvictirÌs of ars aud lcgal tllcol ists, at-tcl thc halttlritlg is to Plobc the c<¡llcctivc ac- Rights for LiY¡ng fcrniticiclc aucl clisap¡rcatattcc-oul-âilll (nrr i"lcncc arrl¡trnitits ¡fl( rirÌg "l.j ì:;ì,;;;J;".;t,iih.l"¡.j-" nrtrhiPliciq ol irìlcrsccút)g PÙrsP.:(rr(l-he locus ofthis vohu¡c is on fcr¡iniciclc and clisap¡rcalancc. lJowcvcr; .,urìrn,r,ltrt.r. lt is ¡rt rl tirc IlìJlrlxb)¡ eùrplÌasizing structulal aDd systemic fonls Of violcncc, wc âiln to ,h"t tt,,,ur,t rigllts/o| liirtg l|c hcst ¡r¡iet¡latcd irì lllc lolliìwlìrB ,rf ¡rr,ric.. hrrrrr.rrt s.ctltin" l¡rl l"c¡ì rct¡rclicsadvauce a norc comprchcnsivc fiarning <¡f humarl riglrts harurs that "goes bcyond the lil¡eral huDraDist cnrphasis on violcncc as "¡rcrsoDal *"tìt.Jtlt f,,r thc irrjutics atttl sttilcritrg ausc(l by fcrninicidc,¡rrcl dis¿r,Lrc¿t rrct s ¡l c c(rllì|lcx Ììrd ¿ri( d lltclrtrrgclltrttrlcg¿llllllclcâlìnjury" linrited to physical violcncc. Rathcr, s,c advocatc bloadcning ;J;il;"ì;,;.; ltunrrrr scetrriq attd cotnntttttiry Lnsccldre agenda of gendcled hurnan rights violations through a feminist "ltï"r " u c rc(( thc itrtporratrcc ol tlìc lcBàlundcrstanding of rights as "substantivc and indivisiblcj a norion <¡f ¡Dr)roaclìcs to itl:,l i. c. li( t) Js Ëttizr i.rdic¡al rcahn for. r.crn...ìyirrg iniusticc, wc harbol dccp su)ptcloDJ.rr rrrrarr rights as not jus t o/ thc living br tt for living. "1,,1 "rrtlc aPlroachcr (cllt(r(d {nì tllc In discussing the philosophical, practical, and political qucstions un- l.*.,tllrria Ictt¡cdics llrd "f-l¡$ "frrlntally lcstorcs ."..1t;:;::;;* ¡as arr crp¡cssilc ft¡tìctiôrr it) thrt it humt] t]gl": llT ^ir.r,,,derpìrrr.ring l.ruman rigl.rts discourse, Wencly lìown (zoo+, +ó:) finds thc productiotr rrfhun.ran rights approachcs to justicc liriting, cspcciaì if thc "lloral social valucs and norlns." Howevc!discoulse olpaiu and slrffcring" is Lurcouplcd frorn a"political discoursc thal i, ,to,a aan,"red clu lc¿J f{) fl)c "¡ ccnìPowcrlìlcl)Î ol,tlìc stiÌtc o{ cvcryclay ¡coptc.of conrprchcnsivc justicc." lìown (zoa4,46r) cntcrtains thc liurits ofa , ii^*i ,ooo. ¿ I r i arr,l rlrc fu¡.tlrcr. cliscnrl.owcr.urclrr c, rnsiclt.r. ir crucial ro go beyond rlrc.srrrc. as lnoriìl defrnitiolì ofhurnan rights violations ilr which the "global prob- ì. ,rì"rì L,ì , *","l ¡rat r|c ä;;;";; Ñrutcnts ancl accords such as thc uniYctsal l)cclara- lcm facing human-kind" is conccived of or francd as "tcrriblc hunan suffering conscque¡rt to limited ìndividual rights against abusivc state tion of Ilunan Rigltts ï;;;d* ;".dvisn.ì ainÌcd at rcducing hruran suffcrirtg in Latin powcr," It is less about wlÌat is wrolg, given that thesc practices aim to anJ"cuforcc "right" l.ruman wrorìgs, than about dìe lilits ofthis kind offranring of ¡,n*ã "r,åt aclvocates for thc applieabìliry institution tctlìl¡ìrsru mcnt of intcmatiolìal law wíthin thc u¡tion-statc lilowcver as hunan rights for a ptogrcssivc agcnda insofar as it ignorcs "the condi- abottt statc-ccDtered (criminal) approaches tions by which peoplc cau or camot cxercise their- rights," and ir so doing -"ì1"".srr."*,"r.rvatiolrs iut"atl al¡cruarie forms for resPorÌding to hu- clides social ancì cconomic rights (Wilson zooz, zóo). ;:ì;;i";to.c ;l;ìì;ì,;;ìili".. u"rr" tlì( -trtrc bclicvcr" in th( Prurìrisc of Thc l.rul.nrr rights /ar living approach rve arc advocating bascs its "skcPti( .,r âgtlo cornprchcnsive justicc projcct on drc "principle of indivisibilityl ol the t,rt.t,t."J,.l law," wc jt ir r thosc Va"uki Ncsiah c¿lls a strategy towatds.certaitr iclea that civil and political rights arc indivisiblc and insc¡rarablc from li.r;; *tlo ul"* l"g"l intcrvcutions "as metely *" pagcs wc cxanì[Ìe scLcconomic lights to food, health care, and sheltei-. It is a pcrspectivc rhat ,,.,ii,i.ot oo"tr" l iooo 8o5 ¡ Iu thc following j;ti* tl^ú""t Ituut violati()ns lc5 as c¡ffc¡scscalls for dcep chauges in social structulìes. This notion of hurran lights äi;;;:;;; iglìrs ;;;il; ,rä .n^n as â violâtion of hut¡a rclatioLtships wc aÌsofor Iivtng, as "sulxtantive alld ilìdivisible" the right to work, food,hcalth cale, and hor.rsirrg, along wirh dre riglrt to a life frcc fron violcnce cotrsidcraltcrnativeconrtrrurrtry-baseclappr.oaclresfotres¡rondirrgto r. àltO.tfl:^:Ì:*and torturc opcn$ up Dew possilrilities fol trcatirg fcrlilricidc as par:t tto-",, ,,, hartns, cspccially oner th¿t cmPoweof a L:¡roader set of hunlan rigllts violations that alTect women and for .t"a rtl, feminicidc and disapperrances *:.t"."otqt: l] l^lill]tlg" "n t., i ahottt thc vrtrrgdting" itìl¡()tcd ìll Law LÌìlnnllssloll or *lr"tfiaming remcdics within a comprchcnsivc justicc urodel that cr:¡nsidcls Canada r999, z8) 50pcoplcs in local comn.runitics as agcnrs ofsocial changc. In this volumc, wc ha¡c gathcred thc wlitilìgs, irsights, rcflecrions, Ac<rtrrulclreirsivejusricca¡rptrlacJrtolrunranriglrts/orliving,as..sull- work alogand interycutions of multiplc actors ir thc stLuggle to cnd felïììDicidc i.r ,,iãt"oirrtc- tìtt igln t. foocl sl.reltcr acl "r""ì*.ltJ to a lifc frce from violencc arld tortr rc - oPclls lìew with the rightthe Fro[ì the bcginnilìg, our conccnr has becn to highlight an atrd sccutiry tlì41 8o bc-auay of cr.npowcling voiccs aucl ways to creatc longJasting social ^mericâs. rroçqibilirits fo¡ thirlkirlg ¡bortt ¡rcoplcs srfcryclralgc. Irr bridging divcrsc gcnrcs of knowledgc- thc voiccs of thc i;;ìi;;i;,:;. i,çii¡vi"tp"ì"1iôn" anr *ì:"" l: :l: ::r ft onl..l *itllir a îatiorra!securiry" tìlo(ìcl lnd ior trc¡trngrnotller/ rclâti¡cl sur vivor / activjst. thc vojccs of tlìe la$Tcrs litjgatiDg i¡oliti.r" ^t; ¿trocities Às lrorc thâll scxuirl violcltcc iìllaillsl QlneDor¡ their bchalf, thc voiccs of tìre grassroots activists, thc voiccs ofschol- icnclcr-trasecl
  14. 14. z2 lti¿lJoso and. IJ¿jøfltlto T i I tndrnt:ian zt I Fo¡ as FraDkc (2006, ¡i19) irìdicarcs "ro scc rlìcgcndcl issucsu|facc olllv i.ì thc casc ofscxual violclcc is to clicìe tbc gcnclercd clìrncr.rsi<tns of TransitionalJustice wat; violc[ce, and thc invcstmcot in killìDg ovcr caring." I:t ttcating sccLrrity f<)r worlìen as nxlre than physical protcction, the Thc trânsitionaljustice approach ccntcrs thc1iglrts arìd ncecls ofvictinrs rrotioD of ligllrsjr0r livinB aflìrlns wonens necd for pe rsonal ancl social au<l their faLlilics" and rclies on "intcmatk)rìal and lìunaÍìitarian law in safcq, ¡11"rr¿.t,.r *,th or inseparablc liolìì their rìccd ro livc healrhy ancl dcmanding that states halt, invcstigatc, purish, rcpai; ànd plcvcnt pr-qluctivc li,cs. Scculity also tncans eillrracing wotrcns scxûal divet, abuscs" (Intcnational Cerìtcr for llansitio[al ]usticc).53 Ti-ansitional sity, akrng rvith an "clì1anc+)ato(y vision c;f scxualityj as a "social g>txl justice âims to reveal the multilayercd calrscs o[ riolcnce, hcal thc ro be respectcd, protccted, and fulfillcd" (Saiz zoo4, 14). This idca of wounds causcd bythis violcncc, and crcate systems to stQp futurehultan "sccurity" dì$ers sr,rbstantially fiom state-ccntcred undcr.standings of lights abuscs.Ic recognition first ancl folenost ofdrc hulan suffering sccuriq, dlarvirg instead from a nótiolì ¡eccntly advanccd rurdcr thc and irjuries colnmitted agairNt rclativcs alìd ¡ictir.ns of fcmiDicidc and auspiccs of tlìc Unitcd Nations l)evelopmetìt ltr-ograrrr (uNDp ), whicl.t disappearancc, trausitiuìal justice is a uscful model for revcaling trutlu deftrcs "hun.rau sccltriry . - . as frcedorn from fcar. and frccdorn from about feminicide cascs througlì trutlì-tellin¡¡ mcchauisms and offc¡s ac- wart" in tlìc reah¡s of "the econon.r¡ food procluctiorì, hcalth, thc corurtabiliq and prosccì.rtion of offcnders, inchrding thc inìplicatcd or c.nvjronn.ìcnt) the pcrsoual a[cl courmunit], lcvcl and prfitics,, (Tiuong Dcgligcrt $tatc actors. Tìansitional justicc also i]volvcs "Putrlic access to ct al. 2006, ix),5r police, military and otlÌer goven)rìental lccords; public apobgy; public Iiris ¡rcople-ccrtered approach to human sccurity focusr:s oD gcn- mentorials; rcburial of victil-[s; conpcnsation or rcparatioDs to vicrins de¡cd forr¡s of human righrs violations and sufferings tltat are ofteil and/ol their farnilics (in thc folm of moncy, land, or other resotìtccs)) ovcrlookcd povcrry hungcr, illness, homelessncss, ancl displaccmcnt (Frankc zoó, 81 3 ). This iusticc apptoach also ofÌcrs a space for healing -and that, as uoted carliei, arc rooted in structural and iustitutional and rcconciliatory proccsscs and fol crcatiìg thc structurâl changes nec- incquitics. Marginalizcd wonlelt whose gende!cd fouìls of cxclusion essary for sustainable peacc and colllprehensive Ald.rough ir iutclscct witlì orher social câtcgorics such as class arrd etlìnicity âre rhe requircs a dosc ofstatc power,ss thc vcrsion oftransition justicc dcvcl- ollcs ll-rost lulncrablc to financial, personal, and com¡uDity insccrui oped thlough thc lnten)ational Ceittcr for Ti ansitional Justicc ( r crf ) is tìes, aggrcssivc policing practiccs, and othe¡ forurs of gerxlered viola- also unique ilì its exploratiol) of thc effecrs thât gcnder and sexualized tions. Lì drawirlgfrom drc pr.inciple of hdivisibiliry, rhis sccurity Drodcl violcncc have on countrics afTected byviolcnce. is crucial to a cornprehensivc justicc framework tlìât focuscs on the No huuran rights approach to justicc can bc applìcd universally, and, cmPowcrnìent, hurìlaD rights, aûd digniry of woDìen.s2 It positions as Katherine Franke (zooó, 8f 3) notcs "transitional justicc rvill always wollìeil as activc agents of cultuml, economic, and social châlìge as they bc incomplctc and uressy." Tiansitkxral justicc ¡rrojccts have a specific work to cl.ìd the silencc around gcnder-bascd violencc and ¡aise awarc- l story in addrcssing humal rights abuses in post-conflict societies, and ness about its dcvastating cffects on tlleir comnunities. yet tlìcy have becn limited in their abílity to create â pÌocess of change -4. murbel of thc commrurity-gcncrated approaches we descr.ibc bc- that is systemic rather tlìan tirì.ìc-sl;iruitivc, that iÍìvolvcs thc conmrìniry lorv go bcyond a nationâl sccurity nodel ofjustice and irstead rcimag- in thc pcace-building plocessi and that cleatcs a strong foundation for inc safcry and sccuriq, "based on a collective conmitment to guarâlltcc- "putrlic confidence" and "authcntic public cngagcnent" (John Par.rl ing thc survival and cate of all peoples" (Commnnitics against Rape altd I-ederback, quotcd iu ßorei zooø, 7). Thcrc arc also linÌirs to a transi-A|ltsc zooó, z5o). Wc also consider an apploacl.r to jusrice tl]at¡ al- tionâl justice on "reconciliation," As Ptcsident Michcìlc lìachcletthough ccnter cd on interuational hu.rnan lights law and thc state, can bc of Chile has ¡emarkcd: "ln ury vicw, fleconciliati<tn ] docs a disservicea rrselul tool fol cl)ìpowcrirg courmunities in dcnrocr.atic plocesscs of to thc mcnories of thoì.rsands ofviüinìs ofthc PiDochct regirne, to thcjnstÌc-:e making: rhc transitional justicc model dcvclopcd at thc cnd of many dìousands n-ìore u4ro wcrc tolturccl and to theil frnilies malyrriÌitrry dictatolships aud antlxrritarian govcrnncnts in Lârit) Anìcricâ - of whom stìll dc¡ rurt kuow what actually ha¡rpcncd to thcir relativcs,durilìg tlìc r98os. spouscs, fricnds" (quoted ir lUcff2ooT, r ). Iìven though tlansitional jrìsticc js a moclcl clcvclc.r¡rccl fol transitional