Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Fregosobejarano terrorizin women
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Fregosobejarano terrorizin women

1,000
views

Published on

femicide

femicide

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,000
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Mrr ROSA I,.INDA FREGOSO AND CYNTHIA ßEJARANO, ED IIORS TERRORIZING WOMEN þeminicid.e in the Arnéricøs w l Á PR"r^ .t B llARCEl.À AGAPDI D. loS ROs ,,, 4 t,,Àl iNt,yr( r, r , q DUor^r Àñt roDoN .0t0
  • 2. rN r¡ Ëtf oRY oF IH E WOIYEN AND GIRI.S WHO HAVE BEÉN If URDÊRED AND D SAPPEARFDO 2oro Duke lJujvcrsitÌ ÌressAII rights rcscrvcdPrintcd il) tlìc Unrted Sntcs ofAtnclica tu acid-frcc paper-ælypcscf iD Cârtcr âr)d Col}c Galliar.dwirh Gjll Sâns displâyby KcystoDelypcscdrìJì, lDc.l.,ibraly of Congr css Carâlogng-in-Publícâtjon Diti ¡pl)c¡r orì dÌc I¡srPriirtcd l)agc ofthrs lxJok.
  • 3. T x,iii A c I¿n ox lcd.I1Ì en tt I I rcccivcd financial su¡r¡tort fol this pxtjcct 1ì.or¡ thc Social Scicucc divisiou ancl tbc (ìhicalo/l,arino lìcsc¡rch Cclltcl ar rlÌc Ullivcrsity of ROSA-LIN I)A ÈRË GOSO Calili¡rnia, Santa ()uz (ucsc), ar.rd rhe Ollìcc of rhc Provost at thc AND CYN ì lllA ßl:lAf.(ANO Univer.sity of Southeur Califolnia (uso). My thaoks to rhc $rall jrl rhc Social Scic¡cc¡s cìivisioll at ucso ¡ncl School of (lincnìâric Artx âr uso for: cxpediting thcsc fr¡nds, In thc coursc of working on thìs book I havc bcncfìted f¡orl lìr,cly and s¡riritccl discussions rvitlt graclrratc stuclcnrs iD llìy scrìiuars ol) hunÌarl r:ights and fcnillism at ucsc ancl ou huutall v!, lighrs ir thc Amcr:icâs ar usc. I am inclcbrcd to thc filnlnakc¡ Lourdcs Porrillo for i[tlodLrcirg mc to thc issuc offernìnicide. Special thanks to lntroduct¡on: my collcaguc Jonathan Irox (I-atin,Amcr.ican and Lrti.ro studies, ucsc) for his genelous corìlmcnrs. I an cspccially gratcful to ury sister Angcla A CartograPhY of Feminicide Frcgoso for pcrmission to publisl.r her photographs and for traveling in the Américas rvith rlc to montlrly ¡rrotcsts iu Ciudad luárcz. Tcr my partner, Hcrrnan Gra¡ and my fâmì,, thank you for your support a¡rd cncouragcnÌcrlr. My decpest apprcciation and respcct go es tofmniliøs tnd activis ts on thc front lLue of thc struggle to cnd injnsticcs. lt is fron.r their cour.âflcous Iinsiston beinSshocked l am never toing to become immune lth nk ancl dc¡eunined acts, tlÌeir persistcrìcc, pcrsevcraÍìcc) and unyiçldi¡g thats a kind offaìlure to see so much fhuman atrocity] thatyou dle insistcncc thatwc lcarn how to for:gc a bctte¡ futute for ourchildrcn and lnslde lwantto be surPrised and shocked everytirne a morc hurnanc ancl just wuld. Ion¡ Morr¡son Uncensor-od -Tòni lYorison ROSA I..INDA FREGOSO ât the ongo- Wc ate clriven to write this book by our shock and outr:age ing atrocities wlìosc fissutcs ar.td rcplicatiou itrpcril our humarl comDlLr-Wc are both inclcl¡ted to research assistants at our rcspccti¡e iltstitu- rcfuse totious. Cynthia thanks thc graduatc aù^sistauts wlìo helpcd compilc clara niiies, As Toni Morrison asscLts, e insist on bciug shocked r99os arldfor this project: Il¡lilia lìc¡ual, Mario Cano, Lydia Gucrrcro, Pravccn become itnmune to thc latgc-scalc violcncc tlrat began irr tbeKanumala, and A¡uith Patcl, all from ¡l¡,rsu. Rosa-l.,inda thanks her that, as Arjun Appadutai (zoo6, ro) remincls us, "aPpcarIs] to be^typ-ucsc graduatc assistant Sarìdra ,Alvârez for coorclinating tlìe iltitial so- i.nlly by a surph.rs of rage aud cxcess of l.tancd" Our focus "..onlpnni.ctthc low-intcÍlsity warfate rvaged on womcns bodicsliciting of manusclipts and Evclyn Palada ald Irene Sánchcz at ucsc i¡r dìis book is onancl Noelia Sacnz at uso for invalì.1âble assistaltce. tlìat llow loutine in many LatiD luncrican countrics is Wc also thank John Chcncy at usc and l). 1ì.avcrs Scon, also at usc, ?rior to the brutality comnittcd against woment bodics during tl.rcfor his assistancc in thc prcpâration of rhis manuscript for lìnal subrlis- ethDic colìflicts iu Bosnia-Hcrzegoviua at.td l{wanda, drc i¡rtcurationalsion to Dr¡ke Univcrsity lÌcss. At Dukc, we are especially indcbted to comu.tturity had bceu slow in recogniz,ing thc historical Icality of-war- tirnc violcnce against wolncrl the fact that gcuder-bascd violeucc"is auKer Wissokcl fo¡ his advice, wisdom, and support for this project. We ldrankdre ttucc anonynous rcadcrs whosc l.rard qucstions, ¡rrobing com- integral ancl pcnasive compolcnt ofwarfarc" (Moshan r998, I )mcnts, and suggcstions havc rladc tl-tis a much l¡ctter wotk. Wi nr" ttaua, goit-tg tcl llccorr-rc inlmul-lc, $o rvc name gendct-basecl Iwo alonc, thc inci- Wc also ackLrowlcclge the fcminist activíst Esrlìer Chá,cz Câru¡ f<¡r hcr violencc as -a"¡r,rrl arltar,,,r., Sincc W<¡ld War " duúrrg almccl conflicts arc slxxkirg, liotl thc (ìcrnta¡rworr.rens rights aclvocacy aud tirclcss work to cncl gcnder. violeiìcc i) clents of rapcCiuclad )uárcz. Shc clicd on l)ccct¡bcr 25, zoo9, afìcr a long battle wirh Nazi soldicrs rapin[ Iewish ancl S<¡vict woucn to thc raPing of Vict- llaDìesc wol)lcn by-U S. sotclic¡s ancl thc scxual âtlocitics colr]l-l-littedcancer lìinall1,, wc cxpress oul heartfelt appleciation ancl gradnrde ro 2thc acti/ists, âftorncys, jour-nahsts, acadcnrics, fihlulakers, and co¡lmu- agailst rvolucu durirg civil rvars ir.r l-iberia aud Sicrra l¡:ouclity nenrbcls u4ro havc coluittcd tJrc¡lsch,cs to ¡lÌrs joìrntcy iìncl to llhcrc havc l¡col cvetl ll-lol-c cascs rlf hott-cud<lus tcrlillillg âssâultstlrc c<¡nl r-ilrut<lls Lc¡ 7i.nlnzitt¡ l4/ow r:tt: ):em.i.n.i.cir:/.c i.n tfu Ànyricøt, rvlxt com¡Dittccì iìgaillst lvomcll tlt:titrg cort ntct it t stt rgc¡lcy wlls ill Latilì¡isk tlrcir livcs to tcll Íl¡esc stt¡rics. Ni un.ø tmá¡
  • 4. z l:1r!1so øndllEøtano lutloti üiat 3 Arì-ìc:dcar thc usc of raPc as a tool of tcrr(x by 5cç¡¡¡i1¡, f<¡rccs ilt El lìostilitics" (CJrarlcsworth rggg, 3lJ9). -ürc clTccts ol violcr)cc do not Salvador; Perlr, aDcì Ì.laiti; iu dcath caD.r¡rs and tortulc chambcrs dnri0g ncccssâfil), cnd whcn lxrstilities alc ovcr Alongsiclc "clircct violcncc" -ArgeutìDas and Chilcs Dir.ty War.s. In lJonclur.as, thc Doror.ious lìatral- thcrc is "indircct violcncclor "thc lor.rg tcrrrr ellccts of armcd conßict, ion 3-ró scxually tomru.cd rl.ìd lapccl r,i,clmeit which oftcn disploportionately affcct worìrcn" (lltei.t.ts zoo3, rr9). l)risoncrs; <1rl.ing thc dlirrys jÌ-ycar $,a1, Guatcmalau scc,,iiry for..,,o¡r".1 i,r,lig.rro.r, *o,,.,",, Largc-scalc violence lnay involve a courbination of cvcryda¡ arbÌtraq and ¿1irJs. intcr¡rcrsonal (private) ønl wicles¡rlcacl and systcmatic (public) gcnclcr- Eveu as mass rapitrg of $,or)ìcn ill reccrìt arrììed conflicts continues,3 t-¡ascd atrocitics clccurring troth in "pcacctinrc" ø/d in tiuìcs of u,al (scc tlle intcll]ationâl corln,)1rÍrìty Do longel disavows sc)íuâl viole|cc ofthis Lagarde y dc los fuos, this volurìrc)," nragr-ritudc. Duc in largc measurc ro rhe p¡escncc of fernalc jouutalists covcriug tlrc rva| iÍr thc forurer Y[goslavia, imnìcrNc lredia and politicâl During thc last decadc ofdre twcnticth ccntury, we witne$$cd unspcak- âttentioll focrNcd on geDdcr-bascd violcncc as aD intcgral and pcrvasivc ablc forms ofclegladation and violation of womcns boclies aud their- t.¡c- rvea¡ron of war. llut it has taken ycars of femitìist advocacy ir) law altd ing: disapl:earanccs, murdcrs, rlangled, bumed ând torturcd boclics, ilìtcrnariorìal forums tc¡ shift public discour.sc and uDdcrstanding of râped girls and wornen, Lroth in the context of wartime and so-callcd gcncleL-bascd peisccì.rtiolt il waÍilne. .The devclopurcnt of intctna_ "peacctinc."7 Wonens rights advocates, rcscarchcrs, and fcn-ìinist lcgâl tional laws addrcssing gendcr-bascd violcnce during the twcnticth ccrÌ_ sclrola¡:s are usirg thc terr:ns fclnicid.c and fcmiricid.e to rcfcr to this ttrr-y," accorclitg to Nicolc llva ErL¡ (ry98, ao7) ,..deutorÌstratcs I clcar ¡rhenomcnon. progrcssion fioru an atmosphcrc of unspoken tolerance, in which rapc Ihis voluurc exan.rircs thc growing incidcnts of fer.ninicide as it has aucl scxual assault wcr.c considcr.ed incvitablc byproducrs of war, to n bccu elabo¡ated in tbe writings of felniDist rescarchcrs, witrless sun¡i- clirÌtatc apploachìog ;rero-toler.ance, in wl.rich gcnrler_bascd violence is vors, r,r,omens rights and humau rights advocates, and lcgal theorists gradually rnderstood as a discrctc qjmiltal catcgory rcquiring special working on and frorn rcgions in LatirAmcrica. We aim to stâgc a trâns- rccognition rutdcr intcrnational hullanitar.ian law.,, disciplinary dialogue betwcen acadcr¡ics, Iegal theorists, and p|actition- Largely at thc bchest ofthc Women,s Caucus for. Gcnder eLs ofhuman rights, from thcglobal South and North, whose culnulativc Ju$ticc, rape and othcr folms of scxual yiolcnce a¡c dcfiuccl within the nc*lu .,r,r- expcrtise and knowledge offcr a new discursivc fra[ring ancl critical stitutcd lutclnati<tnal Cr.ininal Courr (rcc) at the Ha¡¡r.re aJ..war grounding for rurderstanding the phenoncnon of what is uow widcly crirlrcs" and "climes against lrr,ulaniq/, ifthey occur ..syircmatic as and rccognìzed as feminicide ,swidcspr:ead attacks against civilians., Onc of the ma¡orfcats of thc Worn_ Ihc conccpts of fcl.rinicide and fcr¡icide arc uscd iuteichangcably incns Caucus is thc cxtensio¡r of thcse critcria to emrneratc pcrsecutiol-ì tl-ìc literaturc on gendcr-based violclcc and anrollg tlìe contrilrutorsbascd on gender as constirLrring a ..c¡irrre agaìlìst hunìanity., fu dìe to tlis volunc. Thesc arc evolvilg concepts tllat, as noted iu ÌJuerxr-Wtrnrctfs Caucus srrcccssfully argrrcd irr r 992, ..Ccrrdcr ct.¡tncs arc jrìci Hausens chapter; are "still urder constructior: Ilo$cvei, we will makcclcnts ofviolcncc rargcriug o[ alïecting womcn exclusivelyor clispropor_ a case for feminici.de arìd, in dre process, corìtributc solllc a[alytic toolstionâtcly, nor bccausc thc vicims of. suclì cril¡cs al.c of a particu.lar for thinkiDg about thc cûlcept in historical, theoretical, arrd politicalreligion or racc, but becutse they ate worlen,, (Moshan r99g, r5ji em_ tcrnrs. In arguing for the use of the tctm feminicid,e ovcr funicùle, we¡rbasis aJdcd 1. draw from a fcminist analyticrl pelspectivc that intc{rupts esseiìtiali$t Yet geuder-bascd violcncc ofa widcsprcad and systclììâtic natur.e d<¡es r:rotions of femalc identiry that cquatc gcndei aucl biological scx andnot occurjust durirrg war or aflucd conflicts; lalgc_scale violeiìce âgaitsr, looks iustead to thc gendered oaû,rrc of practiccs and lrchaviors, alongrvomen oftcn continucs il "post-conflict ,situatit¡ns^.Nor are all..gcndcr with thc pcrfclmancc of gender xrrms. As fcninist thinkcrs have lougcri¡lcs" u,idcsplcad ancl systcmatic; rl.ìarìy occur.ir everyday lìfc and conrcr.rded, gcndcr is a sociaLly constructcd catcgory in which thc per-involve privatc individuals, actiDg alolc or il groups, targeiirg civil formancc ofgcnder norms (radrcl tl.ran a natulal biological cssencc) isians.aAs mernbcrs <tf thcWol.llcn,s Caucus assertccl, gcnclcr vìolations clct what givcs urcaning tcl catcgotics of the "fcmininc" ancl 1¡asculinc."lìot lìa/c to be systcnatically or prcvalently cDacteá to trc ,,brutal,, ancl Insteaci of a sccnario in which gcncler and sex neccssarily corìcuq thc"extrcmc,"s aDd thcy oftcu Occul.outsicle tl)c ..cxìstcncc ofsotle ty¡rc <lf concc¡:lt of fcrrinicìdc allows u.s to nlap tlìc powcf clynanrics and rcla-
  • 5. 4 ]ì1¿lltso d1li B¿711øn0 Itt!)odú!¡o1¡, ri(]¡ns ofgendcr, ¡,clxuality! lacc, ând clâss ulldcrÌyiug violcncc ancl, il.t so As ed itor.s of tlris rolu n c, on r tr ansla tio n of JÞtlitticirlio itttct føtrinicitlc d(>rng, $hifr thc anal¡.tic focus to horv gcl]dcr.Dorms, iucguitics, ancl rattcr tllai fcmicìtle is dcsigllcd to rcvclsc tlìc lìicrarclÌics of klou4edgc pow(:rrclationshìps i¡lcrcasc worneDs vLrlncl.¡l¡iliû, to violclrcc, and challengc clair.ns about unidircctional (North-to-South) Éìows ol Ourclabcxati<¡r of feminiciclc is basccl on thc kn.,u,lcdgc rrrrì cx¡rer.tise tlavcling thcory lJascd on a dccadc ofworhng oo the issuc, botlr of us of,fcmìnist and lcgal scholar.s, Lcsearchers, and activisrsiorking in thc have rviuresscd the L¡ack and forth of thcor), lnakirg and political prac- ficf ds of hunan rights and gct.ìdcr tusticc thl ougllout l"âril.t ArlrJ.ica. In ticcs thãt ilìfouì or¡r cu¡¡cnt rurdcrstallding of fcminiciclc ancl thc rva;,s ¡ref,cnìng the conccpt fcnìil.ticidc or/cr fcmiciclc, v,c aim to regisrer thc in rvhich thc conccpt lìas changccì and evolved as its tl.rilking tlavclcd shift in meanings as rhc conccpt travclecì fiou.r its rrsagc in thJEnglish- South, whcrc othcr circun.rstanccs sl.rape thc cxperiencc ofgcndcr-bascd lanåarãge (Norrh) to a Spar]ish-spcakiDg (South) iontcxt. In ãthcr violcDce âgainrìt worucn. Oul cartoglaphy of fcrliricidc pr)poscs a rc- ¡,grds, rvc arc lsttg feminicidc to r:l¡¡k our discut.sive ancl ¡uatc¡ial configurarion of knou4edge hicrarchics that colìtests thc rlotion of contriburkms ar)d pc$pccrivcs as tralìsborclcr feminìst thillkcrs fiom thc global South (the lrrréricas) il.ì irs rcclefiniri<lr.l one rhat excccds thc seamlcss translation - that is, tlìc idca that Latin An.rericar.r fe¡ninists rnerely dcrivârivc. Altlxlugh wc havc tra sIate¿t - luve melcly appro¡rliated thcolics from fcminists of tJrc global North Iiterally froDr fe?ntuicid¿ widroì.rt rnodifying or advancing llc, ncanings in rcsponse to local the Spanislr wordf minicidio, u,hicl.t, in rurn, c.lcr.ivcs fi-orìr the Ë,nglislt contcxts. lìathcr, irr thc process ofborrowirg the conccpt and adaptirg fen+ìcidt- a concept dcvclopccì b¡ among othcrs, the U.S._based õr¡i, it to local cilcr¡mstanccs, we havc geitcratcd uew undcrstandings about nisr sociologist Diana l{usscll the t¡alslatiorì wc ârc speaking ofis alsct - discursivc. Þ-rorr â I ingudstic attglcfcru.inicirlio (rcther d-rattfcilcidio) femiuicidc. The concept of fcminicidc tl.rus highlights the "local histo- is a rics" of thcolctical l cflcction on the part ofI-atin Ancrican, Latina, ând rnorc accur?te translation for fenicù{.e, givcn the pâlticularities of dìe U.S.-bascd researcltcts; htulal rights and gendcr-justicc advocates, Spanish languagc, wlìich r.equircs thc use of ..i,, to crcate comporutd witncss-sun ivÒ[s, ând lcgal scholars as wc camc irto confact u,ith bocl- words fror¡ two tclms with eg,m(togìcal roots ìn Ladn l{eruinø ior,,fe_ ics of knowlcdgc claboratcd clscwhcrc. male"; cøedn, øentm fot .,to kill,,).e Bvcn so, tlìcsc interyr;htious ignorc llnilding on the gcneric clefinition of .fewicirle as "thc r¡urdcr of thc cultrual clemcnts ofuanslati<¡r. lu other words, a pr.otc ìnto,,cuñural,, womcrr ar:d gitls lrzurure Tícy arcfclnalc" (Russcll zoora, r 5 ), wc dcfìnc (and not just "ln4uistic") rranslation yields diffcicnt undcrstandJlgs feminici,dr as thc r)rurclels of won.rcn and ¡çirls forurded ou a gcnder alrrlrt how concepts, dìeorics, and lu-rowlcclges are tmnsfor-urccl in thjr powcr strxcrurc. SecoDd, femiDicidc is gcndcr-Lrased violeDcc that is tlavels to odrer gc<lgraphic contexts, andinthis particular casc, to thc wavs both public and private, implicâtirìg botl.r the state (dircctly or indi- in wlriclr a cotrccpt s:uch asfcmhtì.cùlc is rca¡propr.iarcd in rcsponse loá to rrccdy) and individual perpctrâtors (privatc or state âctols); it tlìrìs cil-¡:ul-rìstarìces (Gunew zooz). eDcolnpasscs s)¡stcmatic) rvidcsprcad, and cvcryday il.ìterpcrsolÌâl vio- Years ago, the Cuban anthr-opologist Þturando Ortiz (rqzs . l.r9+ol) lcuce. lhitd, femiricicle is systemic violencc rooted in social, lrclitical,developed a dleory oi: transculturatiou as a nodel fo¡ ,lr"pping tt.r" cconomic, and cultural incqualitics. In this seiue, the focus ofour anal-changing dyuamics of culturc resultìng fr-orrr rhc mltual ând *.rt,lãir.._ ysis is notjust on gclìder but âlso <r1Ì tlìr: intersection of gcr.rdcr dynamicstional exchangcs across onc culturalsystcn to thc othcr. We dr.aw frorr-l with thc clucltics of racisrl and ecorìornic injustíccs in local as wcll ashis ir.rsigÌ.rt to elaborâtc â car.tography of feminicicìc that takcs into con- global contcxts.r0 Finall¡ our flaning <>f thc conccpt follows Lrgardessideration its transcultural elcr¡ents; tltc clynauric, fìuid, aucl mumal critical l.ruman rìghts fouur,rlatiol of femìnicide as a "crime agairxt hu-inflr.rences resultiug froru culntrâl ir.ìtcractions bcrween scholars ancl n.ranity" (scc Lagarde y cle los l{íos, this volume ) ,gendcr-justice advocates iD the globaÌ South âDd North. Our prefcrei.rçcfor fiminicide ovcr.fenùcidc io tlis at ttboloB), is borh polirical,ju tÌrat wc In thc Latir Amcr-icalì scttilg, the first docurrcntcd usc of the conccptaim to aclvarrce a clitical translrclrtler pcrs¡:rcctivc, aud theorctical. in tlìât fetnintcidio is itt tbe l)oninican lcpu blic, whcre during thc r 98os femi-wc àspirc l() ccrìtc, tlìc r.clcvalcc of tllc, rrjcs origin.tti¡)g ilr tlrc glohal nisr acti¡ists ancl rvonens grouPs used the tenn irì tlìeir campaiglìs roSouth for thc fomation olan altcrnativc paracligm lknowlcctgc, iogics, cnd violencc âBaiost womcn ilì tlìe region (sec (}ln-ritô Latillo-ameri-subicctivities, rraditiûts). In takirg this ont. dcsir-eis toîis cauo clo Car iLrc para a l)cfcsa dos Dircitos da Mulhcl zooT). As noted in "¡rprn".ll,ulantlc thc colonialisr l.orr¡rrlarion of l,âriD Alncrica as ..a ficlcl ofstuclv thc prclàcc îo d)is ¡olì.urìc. Mar:cc)a Lagarclc first intloclucecl lhc tct ¡rltâtlcJ tùau ¡ placc wherc t.hc<)rl, is proclucc<1" (Mi¡¡Dob zooo. r 93 ) . inro acaclcllrc ill r987 (scc À4orárcz Fra¡¡oso zooz). Arouncl thc sar¡e
  • 6. 6 licJloso ñn.l llcjrLltl o Iqtrodtacti!1t j tirre, tl]c sociologist ]ulia MQDárr.cz Fngoso uscd thc tcrmf minitirlia to work as a cenccptuãl t<xrl mrt ooll, f<¡r autiviolcncc acìvocacy but to dcscrjbe the scxual rnurdcrs of:womcn ald girls first obseruccl ald docu- fulthcr a fcminist analytics on gcndei bascd violence. It is thus crucial lìrcttcd ilì t993 irì rhe Mcxico-U.S. bordcr rcgion of Cirrda<ì Juárcz_ by tlrat wc l¡nild orr the dcfr,lnitioo of .føùnicid¿ tyitlt sufficicnt concc¡.rtual llsrcrChávcz Cauo, drc wonlcls riglìts activist alìd foundcr ofrhe city,s prccision ancl clar:i1y what can and shoulcl lre cousiclcrcd fenrinicide.rg firsl rape crisis cl:nter I I Othcrs, such as the scl.rolars Ana Ca¡cedo Caba- ,As a dcscrrtivc tcrrn for thc lise in genclcr-bascd r¡urders,fcniniddl iras aÌcì Montsclrat Sagot of Costa Ilica and I-Iilda Mor.alcs of Guatc- bcgs the c¡r.restìolr a[¡c¡ut thc clilìtc colltcxt iD thc rcgiou. Stucliqs <¡D r]1alè, prcfcr thc coltccptfemicid.io to desclibe tlte Drisogyl)isr Drr¡rdcr of violence in Latin Aurerìca suggcst thar fcminicide fincls fc¡rilc grorurd in w<¡trcn. ilhese femi¡risr thcorcrical aud political thirkcrs from l¿tit areas wllcre thc mLlLdcr ratcs of mcl) are also high ( I-agarde y de los llíos Lrncrica usedføru,inicid.io/fctøicidio to rept cscnt murdcrs in non-war set 2006, 23), so fcnìinicide could [¡c scen as patt of an ovcrall incrcase in tir-ìes, whcrcas ir a similar tirte 1ì.ame Asja fuilanda of thc l(arita woDl drc ratc of houricide in I-atiu ,{rrerica, a region rvith high lcvcls of cr:rs group in Croatia clepioycd the concepr of fcnicidc ro depic largc- violencc (Koonings and Kruijt r 999). ln zoo4, thc World Flcalth Orga- scalc ancl systc¡ratic scxuâl violcnce conlnittcd agâinst Croatiâl.t wolrelì nizâtion considcrcd Latiu A|ucrica "thc ll.rost crimc ridden rcgiou in ct rrlng thc civil war in ìlosnia-Her.zrgovina. 12 the wor1d, with z7.5 homicides for cvcry roo,ooo pcople. - . comparcd ls a result of tenacious activisrÌì olt the paft ofwomenk rights âc{vo- to twenty-t,vo in -A.frica and fiftecn ir Ëastcrn Europe." The hou.ricidc catcs, the conccpt si¡cc drcD has bccq adoptcd by [ongoverllr.ncntal and ratc is cvcn lnorc alarming in Guatcmala, which rcgistcrccl45 houriciclcs i¡ltcrgovcrnnìcntal organizarions and by grassroors gr.oups, as wcll as pcr roo,ooo peoplc in zoo5 (Unga zoo6, r7t). Ycr as thc casc srudy ir tn ntajor regional enø,enlyl! (11eetrllgs) and acaclcrnic confcrcnccs, tc) Costa Rica by Sagot and Carccdo rcveals, ìncrcased levcls of ovc¡allmake visitrlc i¡rhumanc folms of violencc agai[st worìrcn and girls, par.- violence is not neccssalily an irdication ofhighcr rates offerninicide.ticularly in rltc contexr <¡f so-called peacctine.r3 Iu zoo7, the Intei.- ¡*urther rescarcl-r is necded to dctcrr¡iuc whethei n-ro¡c women arcAn.tclican C-oun of Hun.tan Iùghts agreed to hcar argumcnts for thr.cc bcirg murdered as part of al) ovcrall ìncrcase in the iromicide r¡tcs orcascs of fcmiuicide (dtc "c<ttton ficld" cascs) tl.rat will seive as legal whcdrcr the feiralc-to-male ratkt has rcmainecl constant ovct- tine. Alpreccdent for cases of gendcr vblcncc in a noll-w contcxt and for tlìough malyzjng crime ratcs through a gcndcr alalysis lnay paftly accluneratinB ferrilticide in intemarional law.Ia In Deccurbcr.zoog the coulìtfor thc irìc¡case in thc fenale share ofthe nllrrclcrs, this alone doesIAcHR isriucd a lìistoric ruliug in dre "cotton field,,nìurders, ID an 167- not accor¡nt for tl-re gcndcr dynal-rics at rvork. A.s fcmiuist rescarchcrspagc opiukxr, thc court found Mexico iD violation ofhuman rights cou- and activists argue, what nrakcs fcrliricidc so distinctive is tltat ir makcsvcntions for its failure to prcvcnt ancl investigate the Inurders ofClaudia visible fo¡ms ofviolcncc drat are rootcd in a gcnder power structure.Ivette González, Esr¡e¡alda Herre¡a, and Laula Bcrcrice llamos. llhis ftc scale aud rauge of the violence in gencral arxl the speciflc brutaliryrulirrg represents thc firsr tinìc thar thc tcrtifemini{idt Ls Llsed ancl cnu- and scverity ofl?pe, scxual torture, and mutilatiot.t suggcsr ltgh lcvcls ofmerâted il) intenìâtional courts. rììisogylìy and dehuuranization of worrelt. Icatìng fcminicide as thc Siuce r993, r.nore than five hundrcd won.rcn and girls have been rnur- gendered form of honicide is thus rl-tislcacling, give¡ì tlìat it obscurcs thedcrcd ancl rìore thân one tlìousaud l.nve disappeared in thc state <¡f powcr differentials that fcDritìist dìcotists luvc loug contcnded ircrcaseChihuahna, Mexico, alone.rs Of the fivc hundrcd tnurders, approx- womens vullerability to violcncc, -{s Lagaldc (zoos, z5) ex¡rlains, "Vi-irnately one-third wclc killed under siurilar circumstances: Thcy wcre olcncc in general is a nrajor cou.r¡ronent ilì the trraiotity of crimcs agâinstheld in captivity, raped, scxually torturcd, and nutilated, and thci¡ bod- nen; lrorvcvcr in thc casc of womcn, tz bwission tc:¡ nasculine vktlcnce isjcs wctc discat,,lccl in rcrì1otc. s¡rarscll po¡rulafcd areas of rhc ciry.ru ccntrâl to tlìeir cxpcrìcnccs." In other words, rurlike rnost cases of wom-Wr rDrcns ¡ itllts glouPs ¡eullrcntc.l silìilar violcrrcc jrr orhcr r.t, lrav<. ,.1, errs nrurdcrs, lììetÌ arc not killed becutsc tltey are rren or as a rcsult ofgions of Mexìco, where bctwccn r999 and zoo5 uror.c thur six thousand theil vulncrability as membcrs of a subordinatc gcnder; nor arc neuworncn aud girls were victir-ns ofgcnder-bascd murdcl rT ln Guatcnrala subjectecl to gender-specific folms ofcìegladation and violatic;n, such assir.rce thc ycaI zooo, trrore tlÌân rhilty-fivc hnndr.cd u,omcn and girls havc rapc and scxual torture, priol to thcir rnurdcr.. Such gclrdet dilTercncescxpet icncccl siurilarþ brutalfornìs ofviolence in the post-conflict pcriocl. ír thc cxpcriencc ofviolence suggest the need for au altc¡nativc aualyticAs rhcsc lìgulcs makc cvidcr-rt, thc lcvel and cxtre¡ne natuÌc ofviolcl.ìcc conccpt, such as fcmìniciclc, for: mapping thc hicra¡:chics cmLrcclclccl iuaÉlaurst woltlclt lcquircs a Dcw coDccpt sttc]fr as .fctnin.icitlc, wl.ìich calì gerclcrbasccl rriolcncc,
  • 7. 1l L cøoso øid lltiti.lolto Ifi.troduation 9 ir thiukilg about fclninicklc irì thcorctical and political tcr.rììs! it is il?lr)ortant to urìdcrscolc rhc spilitcd ând clylamic dcbatc iu thc trcld of Public and Private gendcr bascd violcrrce alrout thc usc offminicidìt ovcr femicid,io.flner.c is (u¡rclìtly Íìo tìnâninÌit7 anìotìfl l-âtilì AnÌcricatr fclniDist rcscâtchets In dcß.rling fcrninicidc as tlìe mÌrrder âncl clisappear ance of u,c)men alld ãn(l activists lr¡r r¡rlc tc¡n ovcr thc othcr. Those rl4t <> prcfcr fem,inicirlio gills bccausc thcy arc fcmalc, the authors of this collccti<¡n, along witl.t follow l-agardcs formulatiorr, rvhich emphasizcs rhc clclrenr of ilì.t- othcr Lâtin .AmcLican scholarc aud womcns lights âdvocatcs, lìavc pu:riq, and implicatcs rhc statc âs a rc$p oqsiI-ic ¡>arry (fcwinicùlit stãte dran,n fror¡ l{nssells (zoora) deîútiott of feruicidc,2r Prior to lhrssclls crn.re ). Othcr rcscardrcrs in Ccr.rt¡al Amcrica, such as Carccdo, ^s Sagor, lbrmulation, ferlinist legal schohrs had defined thc crit.lc of"rapc" as a al-ld Moralcs, fillcl l,agarlcs folmulation liruiting and insist iusteacì on forn of tt¡¡ture prcdicatcd on tlìc impulsc to "degradc and destroy afcmicìdio becÃ:ose r morc accurately dcscribes "thc nisogynist lìrLlrdcr of wonran l¡ascd orr lrer idcntity as worÌlal)J - or ltenuse slte is fellalc women, iDcìcpcrldct]r oftlìc elcnÌcrìr ofìDrpuDiq, or d1s participation of (Copelon r995).1is inclusion of r:apc as "elelncnts oftorturc, slavcry thc statc." Fot Sagot, "Whcthcr or not thcre is impuniry or state coll- genocide," is considcrcd to bc a "¡eliance on a progr-essivc rcading into pliancc (or lack thcleof) witlÌ its rcspotìsibility to gltâral]ree secu.ity cxistilg hulìan rights provisions" (quotecl in Saiz zoo4, óz), or wl.nt and justicc for rvomcn, tlÌc âssassination of womcn becøuse they are thc lcgal scholar Patricia Sellers (zooz, 3ot ) rcfers to as "a foun of legal fcmalc colstitutcs a uDivelsal problenr trauscenclírg bordcls ar-ìd forms piggybacking," as rapc is not considelcd a violaticxt of human rights onof govelnancc."re its own tcrms. This progressivc rcadirg of lape as a fcrm of torture has Ouc ofthc priurary ain.rs ofthis collcction ofcssays is to conrriburc to been an inportant advancc givcn that "tolturc is the rrost wicicly out-tlìcpolitical and lcgal proccss ofdefining and advancing a human riglrts lawed lrunran rigl.rts violatior" (Lutz and Sikkirk zooo, 634).22fr:arning of ferniuicide, Lagardcs (zoo6, zo) ètcfrnirron of fewinicìd.e rs a fte disti.rction of rape as a form of trtrtulc lcsultccl in part from thestartìng poiltt for thi[kiDg abqrt thc concept ilÌ lisroricâl) âualytic, and strcnuous acfivism lly womcns rìghts advocates dclouncing "rapc as alegal terms: "Èl conjunto de delitos dc lcsa humanidad que coutiencn tool ofwar and tormre by statc offìcials in El Salvador, Pcr tí, and Haiti"los clirncncs, los sccucstros ylas desapariciones de niñas ymujcrcs cn ulì (Mcdina r9S5; Meycr 1999, o5).23 As wc rrotcd earlier, this legal re-cuadro de colapso iDstitLtcioDal. Se trata dc uDa fractnra dcl Estado dc definition ofrapc as a form oftortulc also informed dre enurìleration bydcrecho quc favorece la impunidad. Fll fcminicidio cs ru.ì üit).ìe¡ c{e thc Womens (laucus of"gcndcr oirncs" as "incidcnts ofviolcltce talger-Estado ("fhe cÍìtircry of crimes agâirìst lÌunanity, including thc llur- irg or affectirg woncn , , . becøuse tltey are wctntcn," Thus, thc narnirgcìers, the kidnappings, aud the clisappcarances of girls aud uomcn of murder and disappcarancc of won-ren as "fcmilricidc" can bc scen aswithin thc frane of ítstitt¡tional bl cakdown. lt involvcs a b¡cach in thc part ofa wide-rangiug cffot in fcminist jur:isprudeuce aud humau righrsruJc of larv, wlriclr favors inputiry. Fewini.cide is a statc ctine).]) As a law to makc visiblc gender pcrseclrrion targcting woDren pet se fol whomcmbc¡of thc Mcxicau Congrcss, Lagar.dc drcwf¡orn atr cvolving body dìey are,ofi¡rteirrational lau, and dcfrncdføninicùl.c within a l.tunran r ights frarlc- Iu coming to this political understardilìg of gencìer-basccl violcncc,work that considcrcd both the ¡rublic ar.rcl privatc dimcnsions ofgcndcr- fcminist dreorists lirst had to place womcDs subjcctivity and cxpericllcebased violence.fhis human rights framing irnplicates thc sratc fol its of violcnce at the ccnte¡ of a feminist analytic. Femitìisr analysis is a lcnsfailu|e to act with duc dìligcncc-rhar is, to takc rcasonablc stcps to f<rr rcprcscnting violencc f¡om thc petspcctive of gcncle¡ arxl in thisplcvcrlr, illvcstigatc, aud pcnalize gender-bascd violence,20 Thc conccpt rcgard "getrder" is an clcr¡cnt nc¡t of cxplanation but, rathcr, of intel-of fcminicjde bridges thc "prìvatc" ancl "pubJic" distinctiou by ìnçor- plctatìon that providcs an anglc (rathcr than a moclcl) for under.stand-polatiDg i]to its dcûnitiotì ¿ot systematic ancl systcmic or stftrctural ing thc powcr clynarlics ald rclati<xrs of gcnclcr, sex, racc, and classviolencc sanctioned (or commissìoncd) by st:rrc actors (public) and urdcrlying Violcncc (Young zoo5). ODc ofrhe plilcipal obstaclcs fei.ni-violcncc committcd by iudividuals ot grorìps (privarc), sincc most of nist lcscarchcrs ofviolencc have confì<xÌred is the llierarchical divisionthc violcllcc suflclcd tr¡ woncn happcns ar rlÌc hands ofprivate actors. bcnvccn "¡xblic" and "privatc" fomrs ofviolencc.2a Thc distincti<¡n bctwccu tllc public and thc privatc lealtls cncumbcls ()lllcrl in csscnrial u,ays, UrÌtil vcD rcccntlv, ,ioliìtions ¡¡f ll,ollcns riglrts ucrc cutsicJc|cd a "¡xivatc" <tr"cultur¡1" rn¡ttcl t¡cst lcft tc¡ t.bc
  • 8. w* tt lirqJoto tþld llcjarã110 ï Iltkod Ltii r d:sc|cliou ofthc farril¡r f-his corlsidcation of rv<¡mcrts rìghts as "pri- ; ?88) cxplair)s, "TlÌe collscqucDccs ofdefiniûg ccrrain r-apcs as public in .tte" or "culturâ1" lathel tlÌar pul)lic ot ¡x>litical tcirri:orcc.s gcndcr hicr- I iDtclnafio[al lÍìw is to u]akc plivare rapcs sccr]] sotrehow lcss scrious." õrcìties becarìsc it1eildcrs wolìrcD subjcct to thc cot-thol ef patriarchal llrc curphasis hacl also shifted frour gcndet based violeuce (rapc, as- fan¡ilial audrc¡ritics - fat|c! brotllcls, aud hustrands witlì tlìe u¡dcr- - sanlt) in irtimate rclations to thât cllactcd by statcs in wa(farc) as wc stÀndtug dtat fâDrìlial mattcrs arcplivateand ther cforc bcyoDd thc scope notcd carlicr. Yer thc private aud public distinction "bctwec¡ the acts of of govcrnmcnral ¡uthoriry ar)d iìrclvcnriorì" (lliuiort 1995, 516-17). statc alld llol)state actorî" rclrairÌcd i.r place (Charlesuorth 1999, 387). Cdling fot dìc cxtcnsiorÌ of "goYcrnDrcnral âutllo¡iry âI]d jt]tcrvcnriou, Morc ¡cceut elaborations build on an uncìcrstanding of thc private sphclc ìnlo thc ¡rrivatc spherc Dta¡ bc just as pr.oblcmaric fron a gcDdcl._jLrsticc âs"âl cvcn widclalcâ, cxteitditg to all rclations anÌoug private pclrìoDs, in pqspectivc; howcvcr, so, roo, is colìsigli¡rg yiolence ro thc,Þtivare, contrast to thcir rclâtioDs widì public authoritics" thcreby movilg thc sphcrc, for this mechanism l.ras rcnclcrcd vìolclcc agaiostwomen iìtvisil¡lc focus bcyond thc domcstic sphcrc of familial and ilttìrratc partlÌer rcla- from pul.rlic scrutily and conccr n. tions. "Crrutempolaly doatline ard casc lawj according to Eva lì¡cms Fcmilist apploaches to violcr.rcc str¡dics tl.ìe violcnce-against_wonen - (zoo3, r r z), "increasingly acccpt thc rcsponsibility ofstates to prcvcnt and paradigm - souglrtto disasscuble the private and pulrlicdividc by fi.am- relrrcdy lìuman rjghts violatiol)s among private ilÌdividìJalsl ing yiolcnce agair)st worlren as erut¡cclded rvithin a patr.iarchal systeil of ïris urrdcrstanding is wlrat makes the re definiti<tn offeminicidr îr<tn a rcgulation aud cont¡:ol ovcr womcn,s l¡odics. Èarly elaborations of..feur_ hunÌân riglìts pcrspective so tralxfouÌative irì tlÌat it extends bcl,ond the icidc" ch¿racteiiired thc practicc as a .,phdlic crime, that, by teuorizing ¡.rrivatc-public divide. ïrc conccpt offcminicide addrcsses and rcsponrls wolììcn wlÌeltevel. thcy challcngcd patriarch¡ was designed to n1âiutain â in part to this sboftcoming, acknowledgiDg dÌe linits of thc dichotomy reginìc of"n.ìale suprcmacy and entitleDrcnt:2s In rhc pioneering urthol betweeD pr.rblic (systematic and statc) and plivatc (intcrpersonal, indi- ogv ltøtaicide: Se*íst Teruorìsru ø¿øinrt W()mNn, thc aurhors considc¡ed vidual ând rx;rr-statc) violcncc for undcrstanclírg violeucc in thc par- fcnicidc to bc thc [ìost exrlemc exprcssio[ of..sexist terrorisrn" lRad ticularitics ofcâcl.ì individual country or rcgional sinration,2s fot d | 992 r, pcrpcr rarcd by nisogl r isr lrt.r r wlrcrrcvcr. r lrr.y lccl rh rc¿r- r r Followir.rg feminist hunan rights thinkcrs who contcnd drat the dis- cucd bywomcn acring collectively to claill theirrights orchallcngc malc tiDctior) bctwcen systcnatic ând wiclespread or state-sanctioncd (pub- au tho¡iry ( Capuri and Ì{usscll r 992, r 6-t 7) .26 lic) and arbitrary or indívidual (plivatc) fornrs ofgcudcl-bascd violcncc Iu afflilluting rhe loors offèrì]icide ro thc hisrorically r.urequal powcr is a problematic onc) orlr usc of fcniricide rnoves beyoncl a nrcdel ofrclar io¡rs bcnvccr lrcn arJ wo¡ncr. Jà¡ìc Caput¡ ancl Diarra ih¡siell rc_ inclusion, That is, ilìstcad ofadding privatc to public violatielts, we aimdefined thc killing of womcn as "politically motivatccl violence,,, sirdlâr to qncstion the cither or formulation to account for tlÌe ways in wl.ìichto racial violence thâr is histol.ically rootcd in ulìcqual power rclations all sucb bLcachcs arc intcrconnedcd, both prìvatc øzd public. In Mcx- bctwccn racial groups and aitlcd at ntaintairing a rcgime ofracial hier_ ico, recent formulations shift drc defruition fiorr a notion ofviolencc asarchy.27 This sÌ.riftin the framing of the lìturder ofwotncn as ,,political,, an attack oll womclls houo¡ or the saltctity ofmodrerhood to an ulder- (public) followcd a similar. impulsc in fcninisr reclefinitioirs of thc standing of gender-based violence as linkcd to systemaric discrimina, meaning ofviolence âgâiDst wolneD to elìcompass notjrlst private for.rììs tion and an assault orì wonlclÌrs pcrsonhood and rights to life, libcrty, (i.e., "mens violcucc agaiust their par.trìc¡s irÌ tl.ìe foru of Ëpe, assault sccuriry alld diBnity. This colnection to systetnatic and systernic dis- and rlurder"), but also systcmatic and largc-scaÌe acts of violtrcc corn_ crininâtion is clucial for "applyírg dre concept ofhumau lights widrirmittcd by starc actors agailìst civiliatìs. Howcvcr., the emphasis on irtcrnational law to geltder$ascd violcncc" (European (lon.rmissiougcndcr-based violence as "polirical, or ,þublic,does not ncccssarilv do 2oo8, 20).aw.r¡ witJr tlrr. pu[¡lit-privarc [rorrrrtl.rlics; ir ofl(.¡¡ l¡¿5 thc r¡trillte¡rdcdco[scqucrÌcc of subordil)ating thc lcss ..spcctacular, fonns of gcnder_based violcncc. lhc cfforts to fr.anr scxual violencc as ..political; (pub- As Systemic Violencelic) within a changing bod1, of intcurational law, as ,,war crimesii ancl"crirlcs against hunaniq{ is linriting in its l.eprcselttatiou of gcncler_ Thcrc arc rìo slrlvivols of fcminicidc. Äll wc havc â[e tlìe voiccs ofbascd vi(telcc in cithcr-or rcrrls, sir.rcc, as l,ljlJarJ¡ Ch a¡lcswo,r,ll ,999, uirncss sur.¡ivoLs (familics) u,ho spcak f<rr them. As thc uro¡^t cxtlc¡rt: 1
  • 9. t 2 lcllosa ãnd llcjßtãtÌo Il.ttl1.luctiott r2, cx|rcssiorÌ ofc¡irncs âgâir.ìst wolrcn lifè ancl liber.t1,, fcminiciclc namcs nlclìt d{]sigllecl fo¡ rvoulcD uDder l]lilitâÌl legilÌte( (Mouárlcz Flagos<r thc absolutc dcgladation and dchumaniz-¿tion offct¡alc bodics. Ycr wc zoosb,6z). wculcl also likc to shifr thc focus f¡om womcn as ,,r,ictiurs,,to au rurdcr- Tlìc lrrilitarization of dai, lifc stcmn.ring from "thc lcgacy <.rf rcprcs- st¡ìdilg of how gcndct norots, irìcquitic{i, an<l ¡rorver r:clationshi¡rs sive clictatorships aud civil wars . . , form the backdrop tc¡ ncw ald jf-tcrcase wo¡ìlel)svulDcrability to violcl]cc, as Carcctl<l and Sagot cx- disturbing folms ofvioicnce fsuch as fcmiricide ] that seenr to bc on thc p1aìn in thcil cha¡:rtcr. Fcn.riricidc is roorcd irì polilical, cconolric, cul- rise in post aùthoritaliatì l-atin lLDrcrica" (Koolings and l(ruijt 1999, tr:r¿I, ar.td social inequalities, ìrrchrcling thc cqually sigr.riflcallt 3). I)ecadcs of civil rvar and trilitaq/ rcigu rcsulted ir two hundred ¡rou,cr. rcl¿tkrns bascd orì clâss, racc) sexual, ancl ¡acial hicrarchics. As an cx- thousand dcad and fbrq, ¡[6¡15¿1¡¡-{ clisappearcd in (ìuârclÌìala; more trcnc form ofgendcrbased violcnce, fcmilticidc docs not jusr ftrrctioll tlìan thirty thousand clcacl and disappcalcd in Argcntira; ancl nearly as a "tool of patriatchal control but alscl scrvcs as a tool of racism, scvcnty drousand) most of their ildigenous peoples, slaughtcr.ed iu econoûric opp!:cssiolì, ancl colonialism" (Smith zooo, 4r7). In this Pcrú.3Ì The brutality of fcminicidal violence harks back to this e¡a of sr=tlsc, egrcgious violariol]s of a womans boclily intcgrity cannot bc stâtc terrorisn, whcn sccurityforces and death squads resorted ro l.rr.utal siruply "physical" or ¡estricted to a nodel of "pcrsonal injury." I{athcr, repLcssion as a cotrrlllon p¡acrice ro tcuorizc thc populace by subjecting such violatious involve systemic and structural forces, a rlultiplicity of tlìcl)ì to torturc, arbitrary detcntion iD deârh camps, extrajudicial cxccu- factolr ar)d intcrsecting logics. lcln, and disappearaDcc, Most of the victirrs <¡f state tc¡¡orism wcrc Fer¡iricidal violcncc furds feitilc ground in social asyrll.retricn and is "vulne¡al¡lc civilialì participalìts ilt movei-ììents or scctors which chal Drost acutc uDclei conditions of "cxtrctlc lìtargiualization aDrl social, lcngcd thc rnjlitary/s poliricâl goal or docrrincs" (Brysk 1999, 243), jrrdicial and political cxclusion , . . ancl fo¡urs of gclrdcr opprcssiou, especially populists, latx>r unions, stuclents, teachers, and indigenous includillg lncchaÍìisrl]s of dcvalorizatic¡u, gender exclusion, discrimira groups. W.rilc stâte security forccs admiristeled violcncc across thctio[, aud cxploitatior.r" (Lagardc y de los IUos zooó, zz).2e In Ciudad social spectrun, wl-rcn it cãme to wollcrl) the terrot inflicted by statc-Juárcz, whencver a corpsc is found, accodiug to Julia Mouárrez Ft.a- sponsorcd tortulcrs took gender-specific forms (I-Iollander 996, +6) .goso (zoo5b), theÌe is arì 8o per.ccnt probalriliry dìar she con.res from Simìlar to the practiccs of dehurnanizatiol.Ì cvidcnt it feiÌtinicidal vio-the "westem irone," which has rhc highcst conccntration of irr]Iligrant Ience, thc torturc of womcn undcr sadisric military rc¡ìines it Latinpopulation and thc lcast infi.asrrucrurc. It is women ancl girls living Amelica involvcd degrading, inhumanc, and crucl n.rctJrods "systeir.rati-undcr "high lcvels of insccur.iry vullcrabiliry an abscncc of social and cally directed at [womens] fenale scxual identity ard female auatomy,,politicâl protectkn, and in zoncs ofsocial devastatiou, whete irseculity (Bunstcr-Burotto rg93, zS7). Gang rape, sexual slavery murilation,and crime prevail, along with coexistcnce ular.keiì by illegality . , . the torturc, aDd forced prcgnancy rverc pat.t of thc olÌgoing and insidior.rsdis¡rtegratiorì ofilstitutious, and the r.uprurc ofthc State of Law, who, fonns of tcr¡oriziug ilnprisol.ìcd wornen during thc n.rilitary dictator-accordírg to Lagalde (2006, U), arc rrrost dìrcateiled by fcrninicidal ships of Southcrn C<¡ne coullt¡ies such as Chile, Algeiìtina, Paraguay,violence. Crucial in this regard are clevastatìng, ncoliberalist-drivcn and Uruguay ancl in countries such as Ill Salvador, Nicaragua, Hon-stntctriral changes ccoltolìtic, politicÂI, aud social- that havc precipi- - duras, and Guatcmala, whc¡c dre starc wagecì counterinsurgency warstatcd cxtreme fon¡s ofviolcnce in tlÌe rcgioll.30 against mostly unarmcd civilians,3, Whilc in Guateilala, ntcn.rbers of A ccxrsidcratirxr of fcminicidc as systcn.ìic violclcc roots large-scale the uri.litary ancl civil patrols lapcd ând tcr ror ized indigenous womcn; iÌtgcndcr-basecl violencc as part of dtc sccnario of extrcmc irìcquality, Argcntina, "at thc height of the n.rilitary dictatorships Dirry War, bolcdpovcrry unenrploymerìt, and social nìar giltalizarioD, Yct cvcn as t{resc jrrniol oficcrs who rvele mclÌrbets of toltLlrc squads would cruisc thcegrcgious violatiolls can bc considered thc olost cxtreirrc cflccts ofstr.uc- streets in thc inlàrnrtus Ford Falcons looking for prctty girls to scquesternrral adj¡¡5¡1Ì1e¡)¡, ¡he ncoliberal agcnda alonc is uot a sufficicut explaua, aud takc back to the carnp to rape, torrurcr aud then kìll" (Hollander.tiou frx thc crncrgence of feninicidc. Thc ¡rcruasive spcctcr ofcivil ,ar.s r996,62) .ancll-atin Amcricas l)irty Wan ruust also bc factorcd i¡tto thc architcc- l}c unb¡idlcd misog)rììst practices of milirary regimes il[ùrirìâte tl]cturc of fcnrinicidc, for thc scxual degladatìon and dehur¡anization of inteiscctions of"political rcprcssiol" and "patliarchal culturc" as DrutÌt-fcmir¡icidal vjolencc ccho tllc Icl)rcssed historl, ¡)f lcgìmcs ol. âlly consfituting folccs. Ill "str:ctrgthen I ing ] rnirlc clomill¡rccl iusrirr- ¡.rLlrish-
  • 10. |4 l:relJoso a i ll¿jãt|t1to hthdttîio,t tS ti(ns ar]d !ìtcnsilyl ir)g] urisogyltist idcologyj rcnolist starcs r-ciDforccd rantricalusc offorce, pc¡sist il) a bafcl)¡ disgnisccl aud subcct¡tracrecl for.rl-l a violcnt patriarchy" thar normaliz¡d violcncc âgairsr wotìcn ( Hollan- of lc¡rrcssion aucl cocrcion (lrcgoso zooó ). Statc tc¡ro¡ has [.¡ccn out- cl/l ry96, 46) , It is plccisely dris rclationship bctwccn machismo aDcl sourccd to othc¡"cc¡rporatisÉ sectors, as explailccl in rhe chaptct by llira violcnce and the lnuruâlly colNtínldrìg forccs of Dtilitariz.ßd, nÌisog),nisr Scgato, to pararnilitary bands iuvolvcd in thc rcccut clncr.gcncc of vig- ir1¡titutions; cmphatic rr.rasculiuisr-tr; ìd randon, arbitrary violencc that ilantism ("which may be statc toLeratcd but is not wholly statc spon- hal.c hcþcd to fucl colìtcluponry cxprcssious of fcmücidc (L)ornúrgnez,- sorecl" []llysk r 999, z4o] , to privatc arnics and plivatizrcl sccurity forccs lùrvalcaba zooT). (formcr and currcut rtclnbcLs of larv cnfr¡rcclncllt) working for thc Dccadc,s of military rulc and civil wals havc had both long-tcr.m struc- globalizcd netl,o¡ks of the drug-, wcapons-, and human-uaflickìng in- t¡-rnl and lrs)¡chic impacts (what lgDàcio Maltiu-Baró calls "the lnilitar- dustrics, to thc plivatc a¡mies ofdrc lu.ling clite all clairing rhe rightro iz-arion ofsocial lifc"; quotcd in HoLIandcl 996, sz) drat havc persistcd - cxercìsc sovcrcigrtry In thc cra ofneolibcral capital, the grcater mobility bcvond thc rcign of the rerrorist statc ilt tltc "dcsrructivc bchavior. of and availabiliry ofwcapons aud privatc amrics for hire means that ttil! rncmbcls o¡ ex-lnembcrs of tl.re military" (quoted in Ho).landcr: r99r, tary opcratiorìs arc no loogcr thc solc nonopoly of statcs (Irrcgoso 57). Just as sigDificânt is thc "historic structulc of irlpr.rnity" rcsultiug zooó).34 As drc chapter by Héctor I)omirgucz-Ruvalcaba and Patrjcia fron arnncsty laws that havc failed to hold statc officials and folner Itavclo Blancas shows, thc widcspread inprutity for ârfocitics com- rncmbcrs ofthc sccurity forces accounrable for cgregious crimcs. This is mittcd agâiust womeil and thc unfettercd courinlratiol) and spread of tllc casc ilr Glratcnala, for cxamplc, where "gcnocidair.cs lìave nevcr feurinicicle can be scen as part of tlÌis n.ìilirârisric scenar.io: thc con- bccl brought to jnstìcc and impunity reigus morc thal a decade after vergcnce ofvarious cocrcivc frrrces, thc con.rplicity of publìc ofÌìcials aud the sigrìing of pcace accords" (Sauford zoo8, lo5). Thc chapter by thc organizrd-crirnc industry in alliancc with thc ruling economic and Hilda Moralcs tl.rus connects thc risc of ncwer forms of violcncc such as politicalclite, all underwritten by thc towering spcctcr ofstare tcrrorisnì. fenìiDicidc to tllc historical strucírre of inìpunity in which, as Kccs I(oonings and Dirk Kruijt (rgqq, r r ) explain in a cliffererìr corìrcxr) ((at thc lcvel of daily law cnfo¡cc¡ncnt . . . randclm and arbitrary vio)cnce A Critical Human Rights Perspective pclrists dcspite tltc dcmise ofautholitarian rule." Iudeed, thc end of militaly n e and counreriDstugcncy wars did not Á.swe notcd carlier, thc i[tcrnationaì c<¡ n-rÍì]u lìity now recogniz,cs gencìcr- necessarily elilinate sratc terrol, for it has pcrsistcd ir what these au- based violencc as a humm rÌghts violation, Ihis n.rcans that as ân cxúeluc thors refe¡ to as "the proliferation of arbitrary rcprcssiou with systcmic practice of violencc er¡t¡eddcd ir gender power drramics, feuinicide is logìc" (quotcd in Koonings ar.rd Kruijt 1999, r r ). To this da)¡, arbiÍary li¡rkcd to a paftcrn of systcrlatic discri natìon; it breacltcs a womau,s aud random fo¡ms ofviolcnce perfcctcd during the Dirty Wars pewade right to lifc, liberty, security, and digriry. In I-atin Anerican socicrìes the cntire sccr.uity apparatus, ír policc and law eDforccrncnt, in para- where strict gendcr norr.ns offcr ninc and masculinc idcurirics prevail, û.rilitary bauds jnvolved in t igilantisru ârìd cltrrelìt "social cleansing, there is also a histolical pattcrn of deadly vktlence aincd at xxr-gender- canìpaigrN,33 itr tlìc milirarization of policiug ftrnctions-all rcprcssivc conformiug womcn, which furthcr violatcs dreir riglrt "to live out their practices that cor)tributc to thc untold forms of violcDce and degrada- sexuality in ways odrcr dran heterosexlality" (lì,adhìka füo¡.roraswam¡tiolì otr dìc rise in post-autholitarian Latin Àlerica. )uclith Galar.z-a, quoted in Saiz 2oo4, 5j).hcacl ofthe Fedcración Latinoamcricarìa dc Asociacioncs dc Far¡iliares As dre former Special lìapportcur on Vìolence agains r WomcD , Radhikadc Dctcnidos-I)csa¡rarecidcls (Latin American Federaridt of Assqcia- C,oomoraswamy was the first Unitcd Natiorrs cxpcrt to "cxpJicitÌy articu,tiorls ofFarrilies of thc Dctaircd-l)isappca ri:d ) ir Cancas, arì âssocia- late a concept ofscxual riglrts" aud conccprually corlrcct gcndcr violencetiotr ofrclatìvc,s ofpolitical prisoners and disappear.cd in l-atìn America, and cliscriminatiol) with scxual orjentation. Accolclirg to lgnacio Saiz,teascd <¡ut thc colu]eüiotì bctwecÍì feDriDicidc aDcì Mexicot Dìrty War (ìrorloraswamy considcrcd violencc against non-gcndcr-confornringofdrc r 97os, noting that "sevcral high ranking Chihuahua statc ofljcials womctt to be "part ofa broadel s¡rcctrurl ofvioleltcc il)flicted otÌ wonìenin.r¡licatcd in orgauiz-r:d crimc began their careers as policcrììeit activc il.t for exercisingthcir sexxal âutonon.ìy ilì ways disapprovcd by thc com¡ru-thc ì)it n W¡1 " (qùored in llâtcr-son zoo8, 7). liql (Coonor-asu,aut¡ r¡uorccì in Saiz z-oo4, 55).35 li.lda¡ statc-sancri<)ncd tctot ptâcticcs and thc ut.lllstl.â¡-rcd and q" Itr rlany Latin Arrcricâlt socictics, ,idcs¡rlcad clisclininatir¡n ctn tlrc
  • 11. I. t: I:1e!o¡o ø1id. Bêi rr&no hrh,l. ctioll. t7 gnur.rds ofscxuâl oriclttâtiorì rctrain¡ì largcly invisiblc despitc a lÌistor- dc¡ givcn tlÌat sonrc of thc rvo¡ncn rnay oÌ uì.r)¡ not bc c{cac1*- that is, ictl pattcru ofstatc and st¡uctulal violcncc llgâin$t quccr pcoplc, which thcy l.ìay htcr reappear.3e Iu son.rc Lcspccts, collccptualjzing disappcar- caralso rcsult in fcmiDicidc. Although srricrgcndcl norlns aud thcsocial ar)cc as a componcnt of fcr.riricidc forccloses tltc possibiliry (ancl thc stigma attachcd ro homoscxualiry ¡.rartially âccount for t1Ìc s<;cial indif- relatives hopc) that nany of thc women nray still bc alir,c, pcrhaps fe:cltce ancl silcnccs al olrnd violencc against transgcndclwo[ÌcD, it is thc nallickc<lor hcld in captivity ir scxual or latror slavcq. I{orvcver, thcrc state andjudicial forccs tlìat al c ultinÌately responsiblc for institutionaliz- is also a compc)lìng rcason for placing disappealatrce tvithin rhc cnsclÌ- irg homo¡rhobic vjolcrcc. I¡ì spcaking about violations of the sexual blc ofcrirncs agairst hnDlãnit),. lights :rctivists in l-atiu Arrcricâ, Natasha )irnéncz of Mulabi (Espacit> As wc noted abovc, tlic fcminist lcfixn¡¡latiorì of lapc iìs tottì.]fe I-¿tinoamc¡icano dc Scxualidades y Dcrechos, or Latin Arneiican Spacc n:plcsents what Sellers calls a forr¡ of "legal pi¿çgybacking," or progrcs-fo¡ Scxualitics ancl Iùghts) rcmarks, "TItc oficial history of human- sive rcading into cxisti[g intcrDatbl)alhuman t ights proYisions. Asitli-kirrd, as wc knorv it, is a histoly in which travcstis, trarx and iDrerscx lar: stratcgy is at wor:k with thc coupling ofmuldcr and clisappcarance.womr:n arc ilìisiblc. . . , Most of us a¡e forced to livc in thc margins of In intcrnational law, "disappearancc" as a crir.nc agair.rst hurlanity hassocicq, after being reiectcd by oul familics and the communiry as a l)o statlrte of linitations, ancl a proglcssivc reading into itìrcrl.târioltal whole. Whcn u,e organizc or.llselvcs to defend our rights, usuallywe facc hunan riglrts plovisions could climinate tlìe statute of lilnitaríolìs for policc abusc an<l cxtoltion. The price wc pay f<lr bccorning leadcrs and n.rurclcrs c¡f a fcurinicidal kind.ao For- cxample, in Mexico thc statutc of crlcourâging oul pcc$ to l csist is oftclì m rrder, torturc, arl-ritr âry arrest, limitations fo¡ murder is frftecn ycarc, whcrcas "disappearance" is "not or forcecl ctisplaccmcnt" (I-Iumalì Riglìts Watch zooS),3ó subject to staftrte <¡f liDìitatiolts uDder customary illtculati(xlal law) For:mcr: Special llappoftcul CunÌaraswamy olrcc called "sexual rights (I{olrt-Arriaza zoo5, Lzt). As the chaptcr by A.dliana Carmona, Alma . . , the final fionticrfor womcns l.rulnan riglrts" (quoted in Saiz zoo4, Gómez, and Lucha Castro suggests for the case of Silvia Arcc, rnissing55), Â.lthough thc essals gâthercd in dris collectio[ do not explicitly sincc 1998, a legal prcccdcnt could [¡c made for disappcaratrcc in thcaddrcss the couceptual link l¡ctween scxr.ral and gendcr rights, attempts contcxt of fcn.riricide as a crine against humanity by drawing on thcare currcntly uudei way to locatc scxuality within a morc comprehcn- casc cxamplc of Cliile. Ll tlìât instaûcc, lnurder and disappearances"sivc frarling offeininicidc.3T lhc invisibility of transgcncler women and conr¡itted during Chiles nrilitary rcgiuc, accorcling to Naolri lloht-thc silerìces around scxuality rights in Latin America demaucl that we Arrìaza (zoo5, rzr), arc considercd "irnprcscriptablc thel ç¡,r lt.u"makc a couccrted cffolt to highlight tl.re cxrclìr ro whicl.ì violcncc agâilìsr no statute of limitation duc to thc hci.rous natu¡e ofthe crines and thcrxn-gcndcr-confo1.ming people is an cgrcgious hunan rights violatior] curtinuing ilter-natiorÌal i[terest in its supplessioD."aÌ llcsides, thisthât needs to be addrcsscd in any fratrring of ar.rc{ politics surrounding charactcrization of fernit)icide as crimes against humanity could also fcninicidc. "give rise to an obligation on tlìc paft ofthe prinary statc, as well as of As prcsident of the Comisión Nacional de Feminicidio (National thc interrlâtional community," which as Juan Méndcz and Javier Maticz-C¡rlnission on Fcminiciclc ir Mexico), I-agarde playcd a kcy rolc in currcrla (1999, 88) indicate, "nay bc satisfictl by creating an iltrcflìa-aclrancirg a human l ights pcr-iìpecrivc on gender-based violcllcc in Mcx- tkxnl criDlirìal court, or by allowing courts ofothcl natious ro cxerciseico. ll.rc lr1, Gencral de Acccso cle las Mujeres a ua Vida Librc dc the priuciplc of íltcnìational jurisdiction:Violcncìa (Gcncral l-aw of Womcns Acccss to a L,ife Frcc fron.r Vio- lìor Carntona, Gómcz, and Castro, Lagardes proposition of fclnitri-lcucc) foruulated by r.hc cornmission is ltot jusr a "law against violcncc" cide as a "statc criDrc" in cffcct shifts thc understândìDg of violcrìce ro (negatiyc riglrt) bnt â law that gualalrtces ,omcD tlìc riglrt to live frcc consjdcr "instiruti<tnal forms" (statc ancì judicial structurcs) as wcll asflom violcncc (positivc r ight) .38 l-aga dc also playcd a key rolc il focus- both public ancì privatc forms ofgendcr-based violencc, as wcll as urur-iDg o[ thc clemcr.rt of "irnpunity," thc rolc oftlìe state, and rhc iDclusion dcr and disappcarance, as a social mechauism that "scnes to reinfcr¡cc aof"disappearancc" il.ì tlìc conccptual clâboration of feminicidc. systcDÌatic patteflr ofsut¡o|dination and cxclusion f¡on ct¡dificd rights" ïct Lagar:dcs incluskrn of"disappcalancc" utrdcr the ¡nbric of fclrrirìi- (quotccl in Èuropcan (Ìrmnission zoo8, z4).a) Although irteuìarioltalcide could bc sccn as ¡rrotrlcmatic, for it lrcgs thc question of u4ty law still favor "holcling stâtes accoufltable . . . for violations pcrpctratcd"clisappcerancr:" u,oulcl lte cba¡acte¡ iz¡d rvith tbc s¡ltc finalìn as n¡rrl b), public ârrtlìolil.ics) Ì¿dlcr than corÌr)rittccl by ¡:rr-ivetc ectols" (Ìllclrs
  • 12. wP 8 Þn:loso tr.nrl llcjLl øno r i IntroducLio 9 zôr31 13), this cotrcc¡rtual fiaming o1:fcmjllicide is ¡rarr of a vi¡¡or ous also unclerscores thc stateìs lcsponsitrility for (ol failurc iû) þrlhilliti?Ul lr1(¡clDent to cstablish rvomcns rights âs hunarì rights aud to nalnc r,iolations of u,omcns human rights. Hclc it is inìportârìt to r¡nclcrscc¡rc gcrrclet-basecl violcncc as a Iiolation of hur.nan rights. tlrat wc prcfcr tlrc la nguage of prohibition to Lbãr ol l rltectiozz bccausc t¡e ìhe Oclmisríxr Intcrarneiicana dc Mujcr.cs (Intcr-Amcrican (itmmis- do r]ot âd/ocrìtc atprotective approaclì to hrulan rights of wonrclt" or siol of Wonen; ct¡,r ) was thc fìrst iutcruational lrocly ro define gcnder thc usc of "¡lrcltective iust¡umcnts which sce women as cspecialll. rrul- bascd violencc âs a violâtioll of $,onen$ human rights aud to s¡rccil, nc¡al¡lc and in nccd of protcction) (see lìrel1s zoo3, ro8 ). A reliancc oD "tllc dutics c¡f statcs to acicÏcss this cndcrnic social problcn,, (Mcycr- tllc logic of protection, according to Iris Young (zoo3), cxtcucls pa- r999, 58). Established in thc rgzos, rhe crM hâs had a dccadcsJong triarchll ownelshi¡r and contr<¡l aud ftrrthcl discmpowers wonen. Iìor traditior ofprcssrrring govcmulelì$ in thc Amclicas ..to brùrg national Charlcsworth (1999, 38ó), "thc proprierary i[ragc of worncn . . . Iis] laws into conpliancc with intcuational norms ir-r thc arca of womcn,s nudcrlinecì by thc languagc of protcction ratller than prohibition of rights" (Meyer rygg,66). LÌ r988, ir drafrccl rhc lDtcr-ADrcrican Con- violencc." veltiolt on thc Prcvention, Punishment and E¡:adication of Violcnce Most violence agairstwomen is collìnrincd by individuals radrcr d.ran agaûrst Woncn (Convcntkrl Belén do Par.á) in which it cxpandcd thc dre state; howo,cr, scve¡al audro¡s in this lnok will argue that a states violations srúIered by womcn fiom "donÌestic violclìce, to incluclc ..in- failure to guarautec womens rights to livc a lifc frec from violcnce is stit[tionaljzrd violence pcrpct¡arcd or tolerated by the statc, and rcde- itsclf a hunan riglìts violation. In curphasizing a l.ruman rights ap- fined "rape and sexual abuses as forms of repression or tomu.c, (Mcycr proach, thc conccpt of fcminicide ilìtplicatcs lroth govermrents that r999, 67) , Althougli rapc is Dot listcd as a "hunlaD rights víolation in th{. violatc human rìghts and private âctors who perpeuate violations of fUniversal Dcclaration of Human Rights], cnl,rw fConvcntion on hurnau rights, In framing feminicide as a "state crimelsevcral contribu- thc Elimination of All Iìorms of l)iscrjl.linatior.r against Wonrcu], Ior] to|s in this volurrre point to thc statet rolc ¡n fomcntilìg a cliDratc of tlre IrÌtcrnatìonal CovcDanr for Ecorìomic and Social fughts I itt t994,ax impuuity for thc nost heinous violatiolìs of wonìens rights: murdcr, drc Couvcnti<xr c¡f lJclén do Parí, "becanìc the first ofits kind to frame torturc, scxual violcncc, and forced disappearauce. Womenì rights rapc as a huma¡ rigl.ìts violarion in both private and public spheres,, (sce groups irl l-atir America have long [ìaintâilìcd that the goveuìn]eitts cEDAw 2oo5, Arrìcle z; Scllcs zooz, z9ó-aor ). failurc to investigate lìuman rights violations thoroughly or to f<¡lklw Sìtuatcd ir thc ncxus betwccn gendcr-bascd violencc, systclnatic dis- througlì irì prosccution, oftcu "trecause of lack of will to do so by off- crinination, aud exclusion fiom cc¡dificd furdanental rights, fcmiri- cials in charge of institutions widl specifrc duties in drat regard", crearcs cide as we havc dcfincd the conccpr is part of fèninist efforts ro catc- a climare of impunity that irl turn propels morc víolati<¡ns (Méudez and gori-ze violcnce rooted in a gcndcr power süucrur.c as a hunan rights Mariezcun:eua r999, 85).47 violation. Thc cmphasis on hurnan rights provide<ì by the concept of Tl.ris lirk beween histo¡ics of sexual violencc cluring arnccl conflicts fer¡inicidc triggcrs the obligations of thc irternational comrDurìity to and tl.rc current surge of fcminicidc was rcccntly stressed by Spccial prcssurc and hold the statc accour.rtal¡le, as rhe clÌapter by Wjlliam Sir.n- Rapporrcrrr on Violencc against Women Yakin E¡türk. In addrcssing nrorrs arrd Raclrel Coplan observcs.aa Siu.ìilar to dte tettrgenocidt, frrst drc problen.r of impur.fry Erdirk called for drc prosccution ofpcrpetla- coíned by thc Polish jntcruarional lawycr llaphacl I-ernkin to descril.¡e tors of"scxual vic¡lcncc used as a weapon ofwar cluring amrcd conflictswhat tlrc Ρrks did to thc Aulcniaus in|urkey,fernini,cidt provides an in Ccnt¡al Anerica" as a clete¡¡ent for "ftlturc acts " (Ertiìrk and G>n-analyic and lcgrl flantcwork for. Iocaring sr¿¡c accor¡rr¡ahiliry arourr<l mission on I{uman lùghts zoo5, z). Angélica Chazarro, Jcmtifcr Casey,"criures against wome¡ls life ând libcrry:45 and l(atherinc RubL take up tl.ris question in thcir study of how a gov- Lagardes discrrssiou of fcminicidc as "sratc crill1e (crimcn fu Estødo), crnn.rent such as Guatemalas (as wcll as El Salvac{ors urd l-Ionduras.s)is crucíal iD this lcgard, fol it rcitcratcs thc states rolc aDd rcsponsibiljty practiccd ilrpuniry by changirry doDrcstic laws or passing aDìcsty laws (by commission, tolerâridl, ol.ttission) for cgrcgious breachcs of worr.r- for humau lights violations dnrìng pcriods of arnìcd conflict, which ir.rcns hrulart rights. Tlis hruran lights frarling implicatcs thc state for.irs effcct "prccludc invcstigations ol punishmcnt" of securily forces andfailurc to act witb due diligeDceaó..- thâr is, to rîke rcasonable steps to f<rrmcr military comrnandcrs (Méndez ald Mariczrurcna r999, 8j),48plcvclìt, irr¡estigatc, aud ltlosccrrtc ¡Jcucìcr.-bascd violc¡tce-,at)d it in-crirl¡niÌtes thc st:ìfc and jutììcial lrodics that jDstjtritjonaliz_¡: nrisoglny It
  • 13. Inhortt!¡:ttu1t zt zo lia4pro ønd Bei&ftu1o voiccs of thc fcnralcvictirÌs of ars aud lcgal tllcol ists, at-tcl thc halttlritlg is to Plobc the c<¡llcctivc ac- Rights for LiY¡ng fcrniticiclc aucl clisap¡rcatattcc-oul-âilll (nrr i"lcncc arrl¡trnitits ¡fl( rirÌg "l.j ì:;ì,;;;J;".;t,iih.l"¡.j-" nrtrhiPliciq ol irìlcrsccút)g PÙrsP.:(rr(l-he locus ofthis vohu¡c is on fcr¡iniciclc and clisap¡rcalancc. lJowcvcr; .,urìrn,r,ltrt.r. lt is ¡rt rl tirc IlìJlrlxb)¡ eùrplÌasizing structulal aDd systemic fonls Of violcncc, wc âiln to ,h"t tt,,,ur,t rigllts/o| liirtg l|c hcst ¡r¡iet¡latcd irì lllc lolliìwlìrB ,rf ¡rr,ric.. hrrrrr.rrt s.ctltin" l¡rl l"c¡ì rct¡rclicsadvauce a norc comprchcnsivc fiarning <¡f humarl riglrts harurs that "goes bcyond the lil¡eral huDraDist cnrphasis on violcncc as "¡rcrsoDal *"tìt.Jtlt f,,r thc irrjutics atttl sttilcritrg ausc(l by fcrninicidc,¡rrcl dis¿r,Lrc¿t rrct s ¡l c c(rllì|lcx Ììrd ¿ri( d lltclrtrrgclltrttrlcg¿llllllclcâlìnjury" linrited to physical violcncc. Rathcr, s,c advocatc bloadcning ;J;il;"ì;,;.; ltunrrrr scetrriq attd cotnntttttiry Lnsccldre agenda of gendcled hurnan rights violations through a feminist "ltï"r " u c rc(( thc itrtporratrcc ol tlìc lcBàlundcrstanding of rights as "substantivc and indivisiblcj a norion <¡f ¡Dr)roaclìcs to itl:,l i. c. li( t) Js Ëttizr i.rdic¡al rcahn for. r.crn...ìyirrg iniusticc, wc harbol dccp su)ptcloDJ.rr rrrrarr rights as not jus t o/ thc living br tt for living. "1,,1 "rrtlc aPlroachcr (cllt(r(d {nì tllc In discussing the philosophical, practical, and political qucstions un- l.*.,tllrria Ictt¡cdics llrd "f-l¡$ "frrlntally lcstorcs ."..1t;:;::;;* ¡as arr crp¡cssilc ft¡tìctiôrr it) thrt it humt] t]gl": llT ^ir.r,,,derpìrrr.ring l.ruman rigl.rts discourse, Wencly lìown (zoo+, +ó:) finds thc productiotr rrfhun.ran rights approachcs to justicc liriting, cspcciaì if thc "lloral social valucs and norlns." Howevc!discoulse olpaiu and slrffcring" is Lurcouplcd frorn a"political discoursc thal i, ,to,a aan,"red clu lc¿J f{) fl)c "¡ ccnìPowcrlìlcl)Î ol,tlìc stiÌtc o{ cvcryclay ¡coptc.of conrprchcnsivc justicc." lìown (zoa4,46r) cntcrtains thc liurits ofa , ii^*i ,ooo. ¿ I r i arr,l rlrc fu¡.tlrcr. cliscnrl.owcr.urclrr c, rnsiclt.r. ir crucial ro go beyond rlrc.srrrc. as lnoriìl defrnitiolì ofhurnan rights violations ilr which the "global prob- ì. ,rì"rì L,ì , *","l ¡rat r|c ä;;;";; Ñrutcnts ancl accords such as thc uniYctsal l)cclara- lcm facing human-kind" is conccived of or francd as "tcrriblc hunan suffering conscque¡rt to limited ìndividual rights against abusivc state tion of Ilunan Rigltts ï;;;d* ;".dvisn.ì ainÌcd at rcducing hruran suffcrirtg in Latin powcr," It is less about wlÌat is wrolg, given that thesc practices aim to anJ"cuforcc "right" l.ruman wrorìgs, than about dìe lilits ofthis kind offranring of ¡,n*ã "r,åt aclvocates for thc applieabìliry institution tctlìl¡ìrsru mcnt of intcmatiolìal law wíthin thc u¡tion-statc lilowcver as hunan rights for a ptogrcssivc agcnda insofar as it ignorcs "the condi- abottt statc-ccDtered (criminal) approaches tions by which peoplc cau or camot cxercise their- rights," and ir so doing -"ì1"".srr."*,"r.rvatiolrs iut"atl al¡cruarie forms for resPorÌding to hu- clides social ancì cconomic rights (Wilson zooz, zóo). ;:ì;;i";to.c ;l;ìì;ì,;;ìili".. u"rr" tlì( -trtrc bclicvcr" in th( Prurìrisc of Thc l.rul.nrr rights /ar living approach rve arc advocating bascs its "skcPti( .,r âgtlo cornprchcnsive justicc projcct on drc "principle of indivisibilityl ol the t,rt.t,t."J,.l law," wc jt ir r thosc Va"uki Ncsiah c¿lls a strategy towatds.certaitr iclea that civil and political rights arc indivisiblc and insc¡rarablc from li.r;; *tlo ul"* l"g"l intcrvcutions "as metely *" pagcs wc cxanì[Ìe scLcconomic lights to food, health care, and sheltei-. It is a pcrspectivc rhat ,,.,ii,i.ot oo"tr" l iooo 8o5 ¡ Iu thc following j;ti* tl^ú""t Ituut violati()ns lc5 as c¡ffc¡scscalls for dcep chauges in social structulìes. This notion of hurran lights äi;;;:;;; iglìrs ;;;il; ,rä .n^n as â violâtion of hut¡a rclatioLtships wc aÌsofor Iivtng, as "sulxtantive alld ilìdivisible" the right to work, food,hcalth cale, and hor.rsirrg, along wirh dre riglrt to a life frcc fron violcnce cotrsidcraltcrnativeconrtrrurrtry-baseclappr.oaclresfotres¡rondirrgto r. àltO.tfl:^:Ì:*and torturc opcn$ up Dew possilrilities fol trcatirg fcrlilricidc as par:t tto-",, ,,igt.tt, hartns, cspccially oner th¿t cmPoweof a L:¡roader set of hunlan rigllts violations that alTect women and for .t"a rtl, feminicidc and disapperrances *:.t"."otqt: l] l^lill]tlg" "n t., i ahottt thc vrtrrgdting" itìl¡()tcd ìll Law LÌìlnnllssloll or *lr"tfiaming remcdics within a comprchcnsivc justicc urodel that cr:¡nsidcls Canada r999, z8) 50pcoplcs in local comn.runitics as agcnrs ofsocial changc. In this volumc, wc ha¡c gathcred thc wlitilìgs, irsights, rcflecrions, Ac<rtrrulclreirsivejusricca¡rptrlacJrtolrunranriglrts/orliving,as..sull- work alogand interycutions of multiplc actors ir thc stLuggle to cnd felïììDicidc i.r ,,iãt"oirrtc- tìtt igln t. foocl sl.reltcr acl "r""ì*.ltJ to a lifc frce from violencc arld tortr rc - oPclls lìew with the rightthe Fro[ì the bcginnilìg, our conccnr has becn to highlight an atrd sccutiry tlì41 8o bc-auay of cr.npowcling voiccs aucl ways to creatc longJasting social ^mericâs. rroçqibilirits fo¡ thirlkirlg ¡bortt ¡rcoplcs srfcryclralgc. Irr bridging divcrsc gcnrcs of knowledgc- thc voiccs of thc i;;ìi;;i;,:;. i,çii¡vi"tp"ì"1iôn" anr *ì:"" l: :l: ::r ft onl..l *itllir a îatiorra!securiry" tìlo(ìcl lnd ior trc¡trngrnotller/ rclâti¡cl sur vivor / activjst. thc vojccs of tlìe la$Tcrs litjgatiDg i¡oliti.r" ^t; ¿trocities Às lrorc thâll scxuirl violcltcc iìllaillsl QlneDor¡ their bchalf, thc voiccs of tìre grassroots activists, thc voiccs ofschol- icnclcr-trasecl
  • 14. z2 lti¿lJoso and. IJ¿jøfltlto T i I tndrnt:ian zt I Fo¡ as FraDkc (2006, ¡i19) irìdicarcs "ro scc rlìcgcndcl issucsu|facc olllv i.ì thc casc ofscxual violclcc is to clicìe tbc gcnclercd clìrncr.rsi<tns of TransitionalJustice wat; violc[ce, and thc invcstmcot in killìDg ovcr caring." I:t ttcating sccLrrity f<)r worlìen as nxlre than physical protcction, the Thc trânsitionaljustice approach ccntcrs thc1iglrts arìd ncecls ofvictinrs rrotioD of ligllrsjr0r livinB aflìrlns wonens necd for pe rsonal ancl social au<l their faLlilics" and rclies on "intcmatk)rìal and lìunaÍìitarian law in safcq, ¡11"rr¿.t,.r *,th or inseparablc liolìì their rìccd ro livc healrhy ancl dcmanding that states halt, invcstigatc, purish, rcpai; ànd plcvcnt pr-qluctivc li,cs. Scculity also tncans eillrracing wotrcns scxûal divet, abuscs" (Intcnational Cerìtcr for llansitio[al ]usticc).53 Ti-ansitional sity, akrng rvith an "clì1anc+)ato(y vision c;f scxualityj as a "social g>txl justice âims to reveal the multilayercd calrscs o[ riolcnce, hcal thc ro be respectcd, protccted, and fulfillcd" (Saiz zoo4, 14). This idca of wounds causcd bythis violcncc, and crcate systems to stQp futurehultan "sccurity" dì$ers sr,rbstantially fiom state-ccntcred undcr.standings of lights abuscs.Ic recognition first ancl folenost ofdrc hulan suffering sccuriq, dlarvirg instead from a nótiolì ¡eccntly advanccd rurdcr thc and irjuries colnmitted agairNt rclativcs alìd ¡ictir.ns of fcmiDicidc and auspiccs of tlìc Unitcd Nations l)evelopmetìt ltr-ograrrr (uNDp ), whicl.t disappearancc, trausitiuìal justice is a uscful model for revcaling trutlu deftrcs "hun.rau sccltriry . - . as frcedorn from fcar. and frccdorn from about feminicide cascs througlì trutlì-tellin¡¡ mcchauisms and offc¡s ac- wart" in tlìc reah¡s of "the econon.r¡ food procluctiorì, hcalth, thc corurtabiliq and prosccì.rtion of offcnders, inchrding thc inìplicatcd or c.nvjronn.ìcnt) the pcrsoual a[cl courmunit], lcvcl and prfitics,, (Tiuong Dcgligcrt $tatc actors. Tìansitional justicc also i]volvcs "Putrlic access to ct al. 2006, ix),5r police, military and otlÌer goven)rìental lccords; public apobgy; public Iiris ¡rcople-ccrtered approach to human sccurity focusr:s oD gcn- mentorials; rcburial of victil-[s; conpcnsation or rcparatioDs to vicrins de¡cd forr¡s of human righrs violations and sufferings tltat are ofteil and/ol their farnilics (in thc folm of moncy, land, or other resotìtccs)) ovcrlookcd povcrry hungcr, illness, homelessncss, ancl displaccmcnt (Frankc zoó, 81 3 ). This iusticc apptoach also ofÌcrs a space for healing -and that, as uoted carliei, arc rooted in structural and iustitutional and rcconciliatory proccsscs and fol crcatiìg thc structurâl changes nec- incquitics. Marginalizcd wonlelt whose gende!cd fouìls of cxclusion essary for sustainable peacc and colllprehensive justicc.sa Ald.rough ir iutclscct witlì orher social câtcgorics such as class arrd etlìnicity âre rhe requircs a dosc ofstatc power,ss thc vcrsion oftransition justicc dcvcl- ollcs ll-rost lulncrablc to financial, personal, and com¡uDity insccrui oped thlough thc lnten)ational Ceittcr for Ti ansitional Justicc ( r crf ) is tìes, aggrcssivc policing practiccs, and othe¡ forurs of gerxlered viola- also unique ilì its exploratiol) of thc effecrs thât gcnder and sexualized tions. Lì drawirlgfrom drc pr.inciple of hdivisibiliry, rhis sccurity Drodcl violcncc have on countrics afTected byviolcnce. is crucial to a cornprehensivc justicc framework tlìât focuscs on the No huuran rights approach to justicc can bc applìcd universally, and, cmPowcrnìent, hurìlaD rights, aûd digniry of woDìen.s2 It positions as Katherine Franke (zooó, 8f 3) notcs "transitional justicc rvill always wollìeil as activc agents of cultuml, economic, and social châlìge as they bc incomplctc and uressy." Tiansitkxral justicc ¡rrojccts have a specific work to cl.ìd the silencc around gcnder-bascd violencc and ¡aise awarc- l story in addrcssing humal rights abuses in post-conflict societies, and ness about its dcvastating cffects on tlleir comnunities. yet tlìcy have becn limited in their abílity to create â pÌocess of change -4. murbel of thc commrurity-gcncrated approaches we descr.ibc bc- that is systemic rather tlìan tirì.ìc-sl;iruitivc, that iÍìvolvcs thc conmrìniry lorv go bcyond a nationâl sccurity nodel ofjustice and irstead rcimag- in thc pcace-building plocessi and that cleatcs a strong foundation for inc safcry and sccuriq, "based on a collective conmitment to guarâlltcc- "putrlic confidence" and "authcntic public cngagcnent" (John Par.rl ing thc survival and cate of all peoples" (Commnnitics against Rape altd I-ederback, quotcd iu ßorei zooø, 7). Thcrc arc also linÌirs to a transi-A|ltsc zooó, z5o). Wc also consider an apploacl.r to jusrice tl]at¡ al- tionâl justice focr.ls on "reconciliation," As Ptcsident Michcìlc lìachcletthough ccnter cd on interuational hu.rnan lights law and thc state, can bc of Chile has ¡emarkcd: "ln ury vicw, fleconciliati<tn ] docs a disservicea rrselul tool fol cl)ìpowcrirg courmunities in dcnrocr.atic plocesscs of to thc mcnories of thoì.rsands ofviüinìs ofthc PiDochct regirne, to thcjnstÌc-:e making: rhc transitional justicc model dcvclopcd at thc cnd of many dìousands n-ìore u4ro wcrc tolturccl and to theil frnilies malyrriÌitrry dictatolships aud antlxrritarian govcrnncnts in Lârit) Anìcricâ - of whom stìll dc¡ rurt kuow what actually ha¡rpcncd to thcir relativcs,durilìg tlìc r98os. spouscs, fricnds" (quoted ir lUcff2ooT, r ). Iìven though tlansitional jrìsticc js a moclcl clcvclc.r¡rccl fol transitional
  • 15. {çã,rr T I z+ t-rcgaso ønd. lleivfirk) ì Intt odltctian 2< llrlmcl]ls oI- post-cot)fljct situatiolìti "aftcr a rcprc.ssivc r.cgirnc ltas Yct, cngcndcring transiticlnal jr,tsticc has ltot bccn a snooth proccss, beurl to¡rplcd or â cjvil ,ar fhasl enclcd and bcforc ncl,, ¡.norc dcuro- lially tnrth commissior.ìs in Algclrinã ând Chilc ovcrl<xtkccl "testirlony cra:.ic ilìstitutions arc consolidatcd," (Ménclcz and Mariczcurrcnâ t999, fron-l w<llncr" and "assunctl a gel<icr-ncutrâl âpproacÌl" that acc<tr.cling 88; its punciplcs havc crlphasizæd and cnablccl a notion ofjusticc as â to l-hcidon (2oo7, 4-t Z ) , "privilcgcs rlcn and thcir cxpcricnccs." Subsc- Iivrcl cx¡rclicrrcc. luan Méndez- (2ooó, r20) writcs, "1-hc rnost signifi- quent con.rrnissions in Guatcmda, South Âfrica, and PcrLi havc incorpo, cart aspcct of Latit ADrerican cxperienccs, lÌo$,cvcr., is tlìat thc proccss ratcd a gendercd pcßpcctivc witlÌ ,al,iDg dcgrcc ol success, actively of trnth ancl justìcc has oudivcd thc trânsitional pcl.iods (howcvcr urea- encounging, facilitatirg ancl seeking to includc ,omcns voìces i.r surccl) and that thcsc dcmancls ârc now widcly accepted as applyil)g to truth-sccking proccsses.sTfhcse lnore receltt tlaDsitioual justicc proj- lÌolìtlansitional situations as wcll. Molcover, each society has fouud ccts place ar.r en.rphasis on won.rcns agenc) ìn pcâcc, jtNtice, accountabil- waJs of kccping alivc drc dctrrarlds for rrutlì and iusrice beyond thc ncar iry truth, and rcconciliârion as esscntial for comiDli ro rern.ìs wirlì past sragcs in rvhich thosc policl dccisions wclr supPoscd to bc mâdc." humau rights atrocities înd incorporate a gcndcr analysis inro thc ûurlì À{ar-ta Vedio of La Platas l{urnau lligl.rts ,{ssociatiou has also stated tclli|g necl.ranisms. In prioritizing "sex-specìfrc aud gendcr-ì:ascd vio, (RolrtArriaza zoo5, ro4-ro5), "Tlìe rrurh is a righr bclonging to rlìe lcnce ir thcir murdates lather tlìan trcatirg such violence as sccondaryj, u,l.tole societ),." In this collecrion, as Ea Ar.ce, lulia Huauraíralìui, lìosâ thesc trâr$itional justice pr ojccrs "support privâtc lÌeârirìfls rvithÍr t¡uth Frauco, and Norna Lcdczura Ortcga declac in t|cir testimanios, tle comrìrissiolìs to discuss scx- and gertdc¡-l¡ascd vic¡leucc instcacl of dur- rclatives ofthc disappcarcd âlìd offcnìilìicidc vicritrrs havc bccn denjed ing public hcâ¡irgs, and they providc woDrclt rhc spacc for anollynlous thc right to tturh and a right to krrcw wl.rat happeued to their lovcd tcstimor)ies when discussirg scxualiz-ed vìolence" (Hayner zoar) Z7-oncs. The right ro trurh ìs an obligâtiolì that thc srâtc owes to tltr: 79, as citcd iu l)el-act 2ooó, ró8-ó9nr)relatjvcs ancl to thc eittire socicry: "To disclosc . . . all that can be knowu Yct dcspite tlìe efforts to actively seck out wolllcns r,oiccs aucl cxpcri-allout thc circurìlstauccs of thc climc, inclucling the idcntity of rhc per- ct-tces of violence, lnoLe work ncccls to l¡e doltc to aclvallcc gcndcredpetlators and ir.rsrigãrols" (qü)tcd in Méndez and Mariez¡uri.cna r999, justice ir fralNitiorìâl jusúcc projects. Iìcr¡iDisr il)rcrr,¡cntious into the88). lìcsidcs thc light to trurh, the rclativcs of tl.rc disappeared u¡omcrì ficld have poirrtcd to a nuubcr ofissucs that under.mìle tlte intcrests ofinvokc thc right to lnou¡r] thcir dcad, fo¡ bercavcment is "onc of thc womcn, including transitionâl justices nalrorv dcfinition of scxual vio-rnost dccp-scãtcd fundar¡reDtal needs iD all humau culnrres"; it "r.e- lencc as "rapcl its treatnent of gcndcr-bascd atlocitics âs cxclusivclyquirel$l tlrat the location ofthe loved oncs rcmains bc known and that "sexual," and the elision ofthc genclcrcd dintensi<xrs ofwar (sec Ncsiâlìthe rnolrlnels have â body to r.r.rourn" (Rol.rt-,A,rriaza zoo5, ror ) . For the 2ooó; Frankc zooo; Iheidon zooT; Ní Aoláin and llocxrcy zooT).58relativcs of thc muldered and disappear.cd woruen, the rìglìt to truth Prioritìzing rapc and sexual violcnce over othcr "hunan rights harmsand right to nourn alc fouudations ftrr longJasting justice. drat affcct womcn," according to Franke (2006,82) "has had thc ellect One of thc uniquc fcaturcs of uansitional jrnticc is thc stress ot) alt of sexualizirg wolnen il1 ways thar fail to capturc both thc array ofcrnpathic folm oflisreuilÌg that privilegcs thc sigrÌilica[cc of"thc narra- nauucts in wl.ricl.r women suffel gross injustices, as ucll as tlÌc ways intìvc, subjcctjvity, alìc1 thc cxpcr icntial dimeusions c¡f trurh tclling" (Borcr which men suffcl gendercd violcnce as wcll." Whilc transitiolìâl justicc 2006,2?,) as cxpresscd by farnily llenbcrs as victims or survivo¡s of taps thc lcgal system in its approaclÌ te lìutnalt sccurit)¡, there a¡c ofhcrhuoran rigltfs at¡uses, Tansitional jrntice projects arc consiclcrcd to bc ureaningful comrnuniry-gcncratcd prqects aiured at addressing aldvictirr ccnterccl bccausc thcy validate rlìc trLrths derived fronì witlless- makiDg visiblc fcminicidal vi<¡lence.suñ/iro¡s owln teÍtimzn7o[, and pxlvidc a forum for cottesti¡rg oftcialstatc narrati¡cs that oftcn nisrcprc,scDt aDd obfr,rscatc drc trutl.r L¡chil-rd oBSERVATORIOS CO t-1U N tTARtOS (CtT{ZENS OBSERVATORIES)lìùDr¿r righrs arrocitics. Morcovcr, ill transitional justicc projects, thenarrâtivc truth producccì by fanily mcDrbcrs iD t]te fatD- of tettit niot of Obscnatorios Con.runitarios havc a long history ir Larin America, scn;ir.rghuutan rights violatiors thcy havc cxpcrienccd at thc hands of state as a mcchanisllr for collectivc âctior-Ì that iDvolvcs connìultitics ill wit-oflìcials, u,ho halass and ilti[]idârc aud n.rislcad l.clativcs about ìnvcs- ocssing, obscrving, atrd rllonitoring state agcncics ancl etlsnting that thcytì!$tions, is gjvciì jr¡st as ¡luch ur:ighr as f<l ctrsic or legll cvirlcncc.s6 c>iclcisc clLre ¡[occ.ss. Obsclvrrlrtljos C<iDlunjÍârios ¡rt si¡trjla¡: to citizrlts
  • 16. I ?t þlelJoso ølul Bcjûrøno 1 Itltx.oductian 27 ,:rÀtch groups io tcrrìls ofthei ilìdcpcndcncc and âutonontyfrorl govctn- nomcr.r<tlr of lèlriricidc; ancl (5) ¡.rositioning intclnational rccolrr.ì.ìcrì- r-ììellt autlìoriry ot porvcr alld in thc ¡tro,isron oflocal, colnDrunity-bascd dations molc squarcly in thc claboration and implcmcntatìon ofpublic solutiolìs fo¡ citizÆl-ls participâtion jn dclìtocràtic ptoccsses. policics.se Iìoth obscr-vatorios work to strctìlitlìcn coùrìtunity bascd ac- Establishcd ill 20116 tlÌc Obsenatorio Ciudadano dcl L-cminicidio coruìtâbility stratcgies b¡, involving a coalition of grassrc)ots acrivisrs, ( Citizcrrs Obscrwatory on lìemir.riciclc) sthcl gcst lbsenløtzrø clealing NGos, acacicmic rcscarchers, and hulnan rights activists in ilìlplcmcnt- wth fcminicidc througholrt Mcxico. It rcprescnts ror.rghly forty-two ing u,ourcnl humaD riglrts and lrcldi[g go¡culDìcl]ts accor.urtable. Likc civil socicq organjzatiotts ft olll scvcntcen Mcxicau statcs, icìuding other colìlnunitl!basecì justicc modcls, the obseruat<¡¡ios have madc a 4on]cn)s groulls, lruman riglrts gror4ts, indi¿Jcnous rvomens organiz-a- conccrtccl cll<l-t to empowcl coD-imunitics in wit¡1cssirg, obsen,ìtrg, tions, legâl-defei)sc groups, and acâdclric âl1d rcligious orgaltizations. and nloDitoriDg goveflìlììeut entities aDd cnsuling that they follorv While the meirbcrship includes both ncu and rvomcn, thc lcader.ship in through À,ith duc process and proccdures forjnstice. tbe obscn ato¡io, likc tllat of lllost wor.nens rights projccts, is primat ily feurale. G RASS ROOTS NGOS Represcnrativcs provide monthly updates on fcminicidâl violcnce in tlìeir lìorrre states, inclLrdirg itfo¡mation on feminicides rcportcd Nucstras Hijas dc Regrcso a Casa 1d Justicia pala Nuestras ÉIijas arc n-Ìortlìly irl local newspapcß. Widely rccog[ìzæd by uational alìd il)ter- local, f ily-activist organizations working across natio[al bordcrs. rìâtional govculì]enrs, thc ObseNatorio Ciudadano del Fenìinicidio Basecl in thc Statc of Chihuahua, Mexico, thcsc grassroots NGos are currclìtly nctwolks with <¡thei Lâtilt Anctican countries tlìat facc in- pan of an cxpanclirg trar)srìâtionaÌ nebvork ofallianccs aimed ar br¡ild-crcâscs irì fcnücidc, such as Guatemala and Nicar.agua, collaborating iug dre capacity of n.rostly poor comlrunities "to be dircct architccts ofacross state ar-rd nâtional bordersto l-[oDitor govcüìlnents and to end tlreir loc¡l political worlds" (Appadurai 2006, 3s). lartncring widrfetuinicide and othcr fonììs of gendcr.-lrascd violcncc (Red dc Salud de local ancl cross-border activists, both r¡cos havc focuscd on buildinglas Mujercs zoos). 1ìhc obscr¡¿atorio is part of an cffon to rypi$¡ (or thc capabilitics of families to invcstigate tl.rc murdcrs and disappcar-enurrrerate) feninicidc widtin narional la% advocating for the full im- anccs of their lovcd oncs, and, more generall¡ to work collectively inplcnìeiìtatiolì ofdìe fcdcral ky Gcncral de Acceso de las Mujeres a una d:e area of womcns l-ruman rights.Vida Libre dc Violeucia (zoo7) and for. thc esrablishncnr of a ucw Nucs arì lJijas dc Rcgrcso a Casa, based in Ciudacl Juárez, iuvolvcssystcm ofprcventiorì, sal.ìction, and elirlination of violcncc (klown as famil), urctnl¡cr. directly in advocatilg on their own bellalf in the arcâ ofSistcma Nacional sobrc la Volcncia contra las Mujctes y el Programa jr.rdicial and socìal justicc. In addìtìorÌ to dcmanding accountability frourNacional Integral dc Procnción, Atención, Saución y Erradicación de fedcral, state, and local audrorjtics in solving thc crimes of fcmiricidela Violencia; Olivares and Vllalpar.rdo zooT). ard disappcaranccs, Nucstras Hijas helps to build capacity by cducating Allodrer observator.io based irì Mexico Cìry thc C)bservatorio Ciuda- families on judicial and legal proccsscs and in thc arca of psychological da¡o de los l)ercchos de las Mujercs (Citizæns Obscwatory on Wom- ancl physical rvell-being. For examplc, thc group has dcveloped cduca- ens Iìigl.rts), dralvs its membcrship from twclvc organizations, includ- tional woLkshops aud support gloups to help thc familics of receitt irg Nuestras Hijas dc Rcgrcso a Casa (May C)ur Daughters Come yictinrs dcal widr and transfo¡rn dteir anger, suffering, aud pair intoHome ), Justicia pâra Nucstras Hijas (Justice for Our ì)aughters), and political actiolr. It has also filed complaints against thc govclnneÍìt fortlÌc (Ìnto de l)crcchos Humanos dc la Mujer. (Center for Womcn,s cormption and Dcgligencc and workcd with national and intcrnatiolìalHuman Rights) of Chihuahr¡a. lts primary goal is ro cllsurc rlìc irlplc- tcos to apply prcssure ol) thc Mexican government to resohe thc cascsnìcrìtation of hullan rights standar:ds, norms, and principlcs as aLticu- of fcminicidc.lated ilt ilttcrnarional law aud treatics such as cp¡aw, Thc main objec- Nucstlas Hijas de l{cgrcso a Casahas extended its âdvocâcyto a widerti/cs of thc Ot¡scrvatorio Ciudadano dc los l)crcchos de las Mujeies alena tbrough lìaclio-r-cm, a |aclio link and raclio statbn broadcastir.lginclude (r) strcngthcning tlÌc irìclusion of woncll in the uatit¡nal olrt of thci¡ olììces, Along with rc¡rolts about thc or)going fcniuicideagenda; (z) fonifiing ¡he usc of iDter.natioDal recommcnclations in and disappcaranccs, ladioFen covers topics rangillg frorìr gcldcr cm-Mcxico; (:) conÌbhing thc terms of hu¡rln r.ights and rvoncn ald powclr)lcnt) u,c¡mclrs lililrts, :¡ncl safctJ, to chilclrcns Lrnclcr:standilg ofgirlsrights; (4) seDsirizing and iDfo ]riDg rhc Prrblìc abor.rt rhc phc gcrdcr violcncc. Although tìre group has cx1:rclicncccl clillcultjcs jn ac
  • 17. z8 þTegosa o d BcjLrnno bttt oduction z<) lliiâs colìtit]tlcs ro posr liDks ro l{adio- ccssirlg râdio wâvcs, N!ìcstras DEFENSORAS CO NJTARIAS (COIIMUNITY D EFEN DERS) FcIl) oD its wcbsirc (hnp://wwwmujcresdcjuârcz.or:g), dcfiri¡g ¡11ç 14 U gol,cInmcDds cfforts to reDrovc its "oD air" progralÌÌs. Althougl.r the Pcmvian Ïuth and Lecor)ciliatidl Cornlìissiolì (rRC) ,As Carurona, (ìómcz, and Castro ex¡rlaJn it greâter dcrãil, rusticia para wâs ir-ìstitutcd to cnablc the countrys trallsitiolì to dcnìocracy by r-evcal Nutstras l-li.las was csrablished in zooz by familics ofmurdcrcd and dis- irìg trutlÌs âlld ilnplclDcntil]8, accorlütabiliry f-crr human |igl.ìts atrocitics appcalcd womcn in Ciudad luárcz and Chihual.rua City and incluclcs a dlrri[ìg thc almcd con{lict, a qucstion :ulong wol]ìeu ald human rigl.rts snÌaLl Broup oflawycrs and lcgal advocatcs iìvdved irr rhc irÌ¡cstigatiot.ì groups in Pcrlt litrgcr:s: "iPorc¡nc no sc hâcc justici:r (Why isrt jrrsticc of ftninicicle aud the disappcaranccs. l,ikc thosc <lf Nuesrras Hijas c1e achicved) f" lb lcspond to whar somc gloups corxidcl rhc faiLr¡res of lìegrcso a Casa, thc membcrs of ftuticia para Nucsttâs Hijas are r.ìrosdy tlÌe rRC process, a con.lìunity-gclcrated strategy has takcn shapc poor fanilics with linited formal education al)d rcsorrrccs. The gloup among local indigcrx)us community lnenbcrs from villagcs aud citics. also l:ruilds capaciq among the modìcrs of nnrdcrcd girls and rvomen, Thc Dcfenso¡ as Corìlunìtarias (Communiq, Dcfendcls) ar-c prima¡ily trai:ingdrem to be parclcgals and advocares withi[ thejudicial ¡:rroccsscs, indigcnous wotrreir traincd as thc lìrst linc of legal dcfcr.rse to l.rear a especiallysincc family mcmbcrs have provcd to be thc besr rccotd kccpcrs valiety ofcascs ofhunau lights violatiolìs agai¡rst wolììcn and childrcn and rnvcstigators inro the uìurdcrs ând disappearancc of loved ones. in tlìcir regions. The work of Justicia pârâ Nucshas Hijas has catalyzecl anorhcr NGo Dcvclopcd in partnelsl.ìip witlì for-urdâtions such as thc l-cgal l)efensein Chihuahua City, rìe Centro de ì)crechos Humauos de las Mujercs Institr,rtc and thc Unitcd Nations Childrens Frrnd (uNICEIì), thc I)c- (Ccltcr for Womcn Hr.unan Rights), which was cstablishcd in zoo5 to fcnsoras ConunitaLias have devekrpcd a community basedjusticc modclsuPPort suñivors of domestic violencc and hurnan rights arrociries at for bu ildir.rg the capabilities of poor, mostly indigcnous peoplc to senc asevery stage of the jud icial pr occss. Ullike marry wonels centcrs, the Cæu- human riglrts n.ronitols, obscrvcls, arxl local intcrPrcters ofhuman rigl.rtst¡o de Derechos Humanos de la.s Mrr.jcres is organizrd on the l.rriuciple of il the con-ruruniry The l)efensoras Comunitarias also servc as couurlu-nrditisibility tllat we spoke of ealier, taking a comprehcnsive vicw of nity watch groups and as legal-aid ancl s<lcial-welfarc ofices. Based or.r agendcr-based violencc tlÌar linls inrerpcrsonal (pliysical) violencc in inri- collcctivc commitrncnt to guarantceilg thc sur-vivâl and carc of all peo-nratc aud familial lclations widr social, cultural, ancl econor¡ric fon.us of plcs, the l)cfeirsoras Cc¡munita¡ias nonitor and wo¡k to scttlc conflíctsviolqrcc that affects poor as well as ilìdigenous (Tarahurnara-l{arárnuri ) within thcil owr commrurities, thclcbl¡ ci¡-culnvcllting thc crirninal jus-wol]]clì. tice system of tlìe state, whichhas becn particularly lìostilc to indigcnous Althougl.r Justicia para Nuesrras Hijas, Nuesrrâs IJijas de Rcgrcso a connur-ìitics.In working with women in drcir communities, the l)efen-Casa, and the Centrc de l)erechos Humanos dc las Mujcrcs are holnc- solas Comunitarias intervcnc ir troubling siruations and provide guid-spun organizatioDs opcratiu with limited funding, all tlrrcc havc takcn ance tb roughou t tllc irì sticc sys tcr.ìl, accorrpanying su rvivors of violcnce inleading rolcs in the internatioual campaign to ei.rcl femiricidc. Thcy drcir visits to drc policc, district attomcy, aud judicial oflicas. Tire l)cfcn-have creatcd alliances wirlì other grassroots, narional, and inreutational soras (krm.uritalias also irtcwenc in cases of police bmtaliry urd domesticourcnrs rights groups in a calnpâiglì ro cnd gcndet-basccl violcrce and violcnce ancl make ficqucnt visits to honcs, sending a strong rìlessagc tofeniDicidc; thcy are also leader.s ir forgillg intcrnatioDal solidatity carn- the vi<¡lcut offendcr that thcy arc watcl.üng and monitoringhirr.paigns thloughout Europc, thc United Stârcs, ând L,atir.ì Alìter.ica, aud The Coordinadora ì)cpartarncntal dc I)efeus<¡¡ias Courunitarias delin câuying our publìc political acrs) protcst mârches, cleDronstrations, (lusco (co D Ecc ) startecl in zooo; two ycars later; thc l)cfcnso¡ias Cr¡m-public fiolr.rms, alld caravar)s for justice . Wlrile rl.re groups grew out pf unitarias del Cr¡sco l.ratì glown to forty pcoplc. Iìy 2oos, fìrc hundredstruggles to cncl feminicidc in the rcgiolì, orlìel. corl.ìrìlluìity-cerìrcrcd corÌÌnìullity merlbcrs, nìosdy ,ol-ìrclr from urban and rural comlru-apploachcs to justice foclts on cD.tpowcr¡lìg wonen and cradicating nitics, had joired thc organiz-ati<tn as voluntecrs in their communities.donrcstic violcrrrc. Thc Dcfcnsr¡¡ias Conunitarias are oflcially recognizcd lly thc Minis tcrio de la Mujer y cl DcsarroLlo Social (Ministty of Worllen and Social I)cvclopurcnt; urllDBS) arìd across Pcruvian civil socicty as advocatcs rur dccisìor-rrakìrg proccsscs invoiving thc illrplcrìrcl)tatior-r oflarvs, thc
  • 18. T aa lrx.qoso n .l ll¿Jù1ãno Inhnd.uchrnt 7t Ìcr]icling of justicc, aucì tlte iuìproycmcl]t of rhe livcs of sutvivols of I the "survival capital" tbat offcls a ¡lrlrìlayclcd framcwork for stratcgics gcn<ict.bâsed violcncc (C¡ordjrìadom l)cl)artalììcllral zoo5). i t<) cor¡lrat "wars against worrcn." ilhcy modcl for ¡ll of us tl]c âspil a- tions aDd utopian dreams Dcccssaly to crcatc ltcw pathways, tO lluild Thc witlrcss-snniv<lra (farrìlies of murdcrcd and clisa¡rpcarctl worlcn) "dccp dcnocracyjand to cnal¡lc lìc¡/ protâgorìists ir canpiìigns for arrd grassroors :rctivists workilg ()lr behalfofhurnan rights, dcn.ranc{irg justice and hun.ran cquality across boldcm. jtrstícc ancl acc<>untability frrrur thcf govctlments ancl calling for.an cnd to vjolcncc âgâitìst woûìen, are the di¡cct architccts of changc iD tbeit Part r, "localizing FcrìiDicidd luâps the locati<¡rrs of feninicidc. lhc localpoJitìcaì wor lds, Sun ival is a featule cmbedded il thc cveiydryness contributols offe¡: fcminisr analytics of fcminicidc aud a ¡<¡bnst sct of of ¡loor conmunities. -As witnesses to aud survivo¡s ofuntold for.¡rrs of ârgulneDts on tlìc srructural pattcrns of violcncc withiD cach socieqr Itr degradation, rclativcs and their advocatcs stand at thc cpicenter of sur- "I.ocalizing Femiricide," wc poilìt to the sharcd cross-bordcr links for vivâbility, facing intimidrtion and harassncllt fionl sratc autl.rorirics and co[fionting and undcrstanding the phcnomenon to cnd this form of violence fron.r an cconol.ì1y) a critninal jttstice sysren, and political ir.r- violencc, Part z, "Tiansnationalizing Justicel tracks lcgal ronrcs for rein- stitì-rtioDs that typically leave dreil out ofauy dccision makiltg, Even as cdyiìg itustices aud altelnative remcdies that ale morc accc,ssiblc to thcy continue to wrestlc wirh reniblc lìarclships, witncss-survivors have con.ulunit.ics. Part 3, "New Citiz-enship Practiccs] pr obcs stlatcgics for managcd to transfornì thcir pailì and su.ffcring into a rcsoutcc for em- conflonting fcrninicidc, thc shapirg ofncw s[bjecrivitcs, aûcì rnodels of powcüìlcnt and agency (Bejarano zooz). jLrstice for creating longlasting cl.range. As principal catalysts of thc Àtromcn rvho havc survivcd humal riglrts atrocitics througbout Latir social novemcnt to end fcmiricide, the fott tcstirno ,iot included in the Anerica are ke1, playels ìn creating rn ahe¡narive approach to human book offcr pcrsonal rcflections of uitlìess-suryivors and activists who securiry ftesc arc rvomcn who st|ivc to live without fear and without confront tcrror daily. want and rvho arc vital in the prevention of future violencc bccanse "Incalzing Fcminicidc" bcgins with an essay bl Ms¡qçdes Olivcra, nlore tlÌan alìyonc else they r.tnderstând thc intinacies of violcnt so- who provides a framework for positiolring thc impact of structtuâl arìd cieties ârìd the cvcrydayness of violence in womens lives. Mc¡re oftelr social violence olì welllcrì. Olivcras contrilntion lcflccts on tlìc relâ- tharì lìot, socicties tend to further narginalizc sulivors ofvioleltce by tiolìslìip between lìcolibeial capitalisrl and the rise of fcminicidal vio- cncouraging thc cr-asure of violent histories as a mcchanism of rccon- lencc, which togcther producc a social ccokrgy in which tlargiraliz-a- ciliation ancl noving on. For rnan¡ reconciliarion "implics turning a tion and political cxclusions, irlequâlities, poverg,, âùtlìoritarianisrn, pagcjas Chiles Presidcnt Bachclet lcccntly rcmarked (as quotcd in aud rigid geilder norn.n flr¡urish. Wrereas Olivcra locates fellinicidc fucff zoo7, r ). Yet, as Edith Wyschogrod rcmirds us, "Snlvivors of strucnrrall¡ Julia Iistela Monárrcz Fragosos cssay alcr ts us to the corpo- atrocity bccomc decply uncomfortable significrs for drc post-atrocity ra-l cffccts of neolibcral capitalism, in this case unpacking the ways insocicties witlììD wlìich they livc, exccssive to stn rcturcs of normality that which patriarchy and capitalisrn intersect to ¡rroducc womcns bodies asprivilcgc f<rrgettirrg, gcttirlg ovcr and gctting on with tl.rings through "scxually fetishizcd cormnodities." Fo¡ Monárrcz, thc location of femi-the dcnial ofthc te¡ror ofdeath, cspccially rhc possibiliry ofrnass dcadr" nicide on womcns l¡odics illust¡ates how masculinc donìinâtior-Ì cx- (quoted jD Cubilié 2oo5, xii). plesscs its entitlcrìcnt through thc posscssion, consunption, â[d djs- l-lxrsc who survive gendcr violcncc may bc vicwcd as ullconfortable posal of womens bodies.¡clrìndeis of a societys violeut history Howevcr, witness-suFrivors Similarl¡ llita Laura Scgatos contribution probcs womcns bodics asand thcir fanilics also have the nxtral autlloriry and ethical powcr to thc tcl.raill through which sovcrcign and discrctionary power cxpressesiustill puLrlic confidcncc and crcare thc public cngagcmeltt rcquired for its reign and tetritolial control. Segato bcgins l.rcr analysis by corsicler-deep, l<lugJasting pcace a¡rd dcnocracy. Fcmalc sulivors ar.c working ing how ferrinÌcide is a signaturc and communicatiorl systclr through(often invisibly) to takc greatcr cont¡ol <¡f dccision naking irì rheil wlrich thc powerÂrl sector relays its dorniniorr and sr4rerkrlity across drccon-ìrn!ìDitics, to âcbievc a morc cqual status with lnen, and to infìucllcc social ordcr. Scgato alerts us to thc insidious fturction offer¡inicide as apcacc, justicc, ancl democtatic l.rovcmcnts (Valcnzucla r999). As thcy system of commnnication fo¡ annoullcing thc orlnipotcncc alrd iuvis-stlugglc on thc glould il urban ancl lurâl coltlÍì-ìr]litics thr.onglrout ibiliq, olrvhal "hc t.cn)ts dlc "sh:ìclo, stiìl.c:LatiJ) ADlerica, lvitltess-suta¡ivol s ¡nd $,o[rcns ri¡lhts activists posscss Scvcr?l chapters movc fiolD thc lcDralc bocly to thc rcnclctc ¡ì-ìall-
  • 19. 12 |ïtgorq øDd lìejy tlt,to IltLyodtctìo 33 ìfcstùtior.r of fcrrilìiciclc in legkrnal krcalcs. Angélica Chazano, Jcnnifel clcvise rcrrccìies bc¡<tud thc lìarion-srarc. IJéctol I)omirgLrcz--1{uval- C¿siy, ¿utd I(athc|inc lh¡hl tLrlD rhci¡ lcns to Guatemala. Focusillg <tD c:rb¡ and Patricia llavclo Iìucn<¡ lllancas cxplicirly discuss rhc inllucl.lcc the rsylurn casc of lìodi Alvarado, thcy address tlìc inrersccriot.ì of do- and power ofthc Dc$, cotponrisr scctol ar cvctl Jcvcl ofsocietl,. ¡1ç1u.1- lncsiic and tnrrss-scale lbûììs of Violellcc, as wcll as the Guatemalar-l ing the stare. Ihcy call fc¡ a rcformulatiou of humau r:iglrts lau, be),ond govcrnn.rcnts faìhrrc to lcs¡roncl to the cxtrcmc brutdity Rocli Alvarado its nation-statc fi anÌclvor k to accorlmcldatc llotjust hunÌatì r.ights viola- exptriencecl at thc ha¡ds ofhcl husbaltd. Thc authors contcxtualizc thc tion$ by statc actors but also thc jrut as ¡tr-cvalcnt violatìons c<¡D¡mittcd undcrl¡,ir.tg cuditions rhat givc rise to fctrrilìicidr: irÌ GuatcnÌala, iuclud- by privatc (corporatc) actors ilt rvltât they tcrn "extra-govcrrllt)cllr¿11,, ing thc lcgacv ofrlilìtary violence, the failurc o1tl.rc lcgal systcDl, àrìd a sPacc. lìistorical structrìrc of impuDity ancl s1stemic discrininârioD. Williar¡r PaLrl Simmons and Ilcbccca Co¡rlan pursuc a comprchcnsive Tìvo chaptcrs in particular cìiscuss thc compliciry of stare acrors witll set of lemcdics tlìât addrcss b<¡dr fcminiciclc atrd dìc $rrucrural factors orga.rìzcd criminal nenvorks. In her cssay on the mur-dcr and disa¡r that havc cxaccrbated the crilcs. llhcy highlight lcgal renedics that pcannce of plostitLrtcs in Mar del Plata .A.rgcntina, Mata Fontenla ua¡rsccnd the nation-statc, such as litigation bcfole the Lttcr..A,r¡cricanpoints to the di¡cct involvcmcnt of police âurlÌoritics in networks of Court of I-lumau lìights and civil suits ir.r U.S. courts undcr thc AlìenpfostitutiolÌ alld thl: l.ìulììaD-tramckiug indusrry and thc corruptioD of fbrt Stâtutc, as wcll as econolnìc-development approaches primar.ilythe criminâl iusticc sysrerìr l¡.r jlìvcstigaring and prosecuting thc crircs, through irteulational lìrrancìal illstitutìons. I)cl¡orah Weisstlan focuscsSin-tila¡ to l.-outcnla, Hilcla Moralcs Trujillo r.oots violelrce againsr her discussiorr on transnatiolal rcrncclies by atteDdûrg to "ecoltoDlicwor.ncn in thc historical str-ucrurc ofiurpunity, legacy of armed conflict, libcraliz-a tionl thc rolcs oftransnational actors, aud U.S. cconomic pol-ând nilitarization of social iìfe. Ì)rawil]g fiom her cxpertisc as an ar- icy through thc Norrh Anclican l.-¡cc fradc Agrecment (NÀFÌA), Fortorncy and human t:iglÌrs activist, Morâles bcgirs hcr discussion on dre Weissmau, thc incrcasc in thc murde¡s of woncn can bc tLaccci to cc<)linits of lcgal catcgo¡ics for rlurdcr ir Guatelnala and offels a perspec- norlic globalization and the exclusiol-l of womcn f¡om thc social colrtive on how thc concept of fcrnicidc is cmployed in lcgal and political tract in placcs where h1at kct-vâlue ptedominatcs."discourses. Ch¡istil:ra Itur¡alde offers a crcativc framcwork ofjusticc thar spcaks Montscllat Sagors ancl Aua Carccdo Cabairass empirical study of the to the failure of convc¡rtional modcls of accot¡ntability. l)rawing fr<xn ircidents offclnicidc durirlg â rìilte-ycar time fiamc provides a compara- Iìama Manis approach tojusticc in post-cotflic sintati<llìs, Itrrrraldctivc geiìdcr ânalysis of rnurdcr rârcs in Costa llica, Pointirg to the limits discusscs the limits of a rights paradign and plcsents an imagiltativeand discrcpaucics in thc catcgorizâtion of womens nrurdcrs, Sagot and fiaurework for addressiug nassive ¡iolations of hur¡au rights in placcsCarccdo flcsh out thc pr<tpcrtics offernicidcs th¡ough a detailcd dctrro- u4rcre uuequal distribution of rcson¡ccs are major factors ir.npedingglaphic and coutextual analysis ofcxplicir violcncc wirhûr gcndcr.social social justice, Likc Sir¡mons aud Coplan, Iturralde calls for intcrven-ization. Sir¡ilar tc¡ Sagot and Carcedo, Adriana Carmona Iipez, Aln.ra tions that addlcss thc root causc of violence and build the capacity ofGórrez- Caballcro, aud Lucha Cast¡c¡ Rodriguez draw from a typology communitics in legal-empol¡eriììent approachcs.of fcminicidc to dcnorìsrrârc rllc range urd ratc of its occur¡cnce. Likc Wc argue tllât ftar uational iusticc ¡s not lilllircd to the irter.statcMorales, thcil involvcment in legal and humart rights activisn has systcnÌ or legal-jruidical top-dorvn approachcs, In thc fìnal section ofshapccl their unclerctatrcìing of feninicidc fron a critical human rights thc Lnok, "Nev, Citizruship Practiccs," Alicia Schtlidr Canacho, Pas-perspcctive as "crimcs against humaniry." This chapter in ¡rarticular of- cha lìucno-IIansen, and Mclissa W. Wright probc thc gcndering offcrs case examplcs of scapcgoats u4ro werc falscl)¡ accused and tor.tuqed public space through thcir dcfr studics of rhe nerv polirical voiccs, al-inro confcssing to fcrninicirlc, as wcll as thc failufe of.iudiciâl systcms to lianccs, and forms ofscficlariry cmcrging acr.oss regkrnal bc¡unclarics.cnsure rhe ligl.rts of thc accuscd. Ihe audrors explicitly raise the signifi- Schmiclt Camacho bcgits her study of ncw crlcrgcnt forms of citi,a3n-cancc of thc disappeâred in advoc¿cy âr<lund gcncler violence, and likc ship in Chihuahul by l<;oking at how stâÍc practices at thc r.tational andotlìcr corìtribulols they addlcss thc failu¡c of govcrnDent institr]tior.N local lcvcl conspirc to cxdude tlìc D-ìost lnârg¡mliz-cc{ womcn fLom "thero rcmccly tllcsc âttocitics and undcncorc thc ncccl for interventions sphcrc of lights," Shc alerts us ro tlÌc corìrrâdicory ltafltrc of "bor<lcrbcyolì.1 thc lriìf iorl-statc, spaccs" as sitcs for thc ylocluction of clcl t:rtioltìliz,{-d subjcctiviq, , r.r,i.rosc. "ïansnationalizing lustlctfstalts with tlte ¡tcccl to think ¡l¡out ancl o-ìost cxtlerìc epre.ssion is fcnrinicidc -, ancl fbr tltc rlaking and gcndcr.-
  • 20. T 3+ I1egotu øtutBcjvr1llo lnh.qrlu ct¡otr 35 iug o[ ncrv ¡rolitical subjectù^. It is thc vitality ofthc jrrsticc tlovcmcnrs ancl u,iclc mlgc of fìrlclarncn tal lights anchorcd ¡ì intcm¿tìorral lâw, fcrr cxam¡.rlc, thc asscrtion of nen, forms ofagcnry on thc ¡rart ofthe farnily lcrivisrs dìat rcpcatcd doiìrcstic abrÌsc of woûìcn) râpc (as a ncans of rvar, tlìc tcc ¡ccog- arc elgcnderirg aud nansforming Meúcan rvomcns citizrnship. niz¡s it â$ Â crilìlc agâinsr hùiDaûiry), aûd child malucalr¡cnr." lD r992, rhc L.r a colnpar.ativc study of womcns rights N cos in Perri and Guatc- criDAy¡ CoûllDirtcc rlcnncd gc[clcrìascd violc|lcc âs "violcûce that is di- nrala, lìucno-Hanscrì trâccs drc strarcgic use of tbc terût fcnti it¿d.i.o it) tcctcd agàilst â wol¡alì bccausc shc is â womâlì ol that âllccts wolì1cn di$pto- networking ancl building cross-border allianccs. Ëycn a$ tlÌe tcrDt lìâ$ ¡roltiolatcly. It i¡rclrrdc.s acts thât inflicr pl-ìysical, rnental, or scxnal harlr or suffcri[g, thrcats ofsùclÌ âcrs, cocrck)[, ând auy othcr cleprivatiorì ofljbcrq" served feilinist activìsts rvcll iu thcir dcmands for rccclgnitioû ofwom- (llccorDllìc[dàtknl 19, scc Êti|opcaû (ÌrnÌnissio[ 2oo8) z4). As lì:ook Sari eirs legitinracy in tlrc ¡rublic spherc, femlniiid.io is lìrofc linÌirccl in its Moslì¿ur ( 1998, z) aclds, "Ilapc has always bccn a fundamental aûd acccprcd utility for codiô/ing violcncc against womcn in rhc pcnal codc ofPerú, Ínilitâry tâctic. I{istorìcally, soldìcrs considcrcd rapc to be onc ofthc spoils of Miûdful of thc clifììculties fenìiníst acrivisrs facc iD Mexico, wtight ¡af, associâtcd witlì succcss in battlc and scrvil-rg ¡s evidcncc oi complctc cxplores how lcaders of Mujercs dc Ncgro (W<rmcn Wcarìng lìlack) in victory l{apc has functiorìcd as a military tactic, a way to tcrrolizc populations Chihuahua asscrr rlìe rights of womeu to c)iist in thc priblic spl.rcre, durirgwarfarc ald to âsrìcrt colltrol ovcr wâr cncl¡ics.i dcspitc long-standing prohibitions around womclts accös to tltc public z. As Nicolc Ërb ( r 998, 4o2) writcs, "Nazi soldiers lapcd Jcwish al1d Sovict sphcre ofpolitics iì thc rcgion. Wriglrts case study of Mujeres dc Ncgro womcrì; aiìd Jâpalcsc soldicrs fotccd Korcan woûrcrl into scxuâl scrvitudc âud âlerts us to thc challcugcs of navigating drc <langcrous politìcal terrain lapcd Chilìcsc woiùc|r durìrrg thc Japancsc invasion ofNankiûg China; duli¡g of Cl.thuahua but also tcascs oLl t sor¡rc ofthc invcntivc movcs craftcd by thc haqi iûvasioD of Kuwaìt, lraqi soldiels rapcd Kuwairi woûlcn; dulilrg the woDrcns lights activists ãs thcy build fìuid atrd r¡obilc r)crworts altd lDilitâly coup iD Flaiti, arûrcd forccs lapcd fcrlalc supportcrs of thc over- tlìrown Prcsidc[r Jcan-Iìcrtr-and Aristìde; duril)g thc civil wâr ill l{walìdâ, allianccs ac¡ oss n¡tioral bourrdaric¡. Hutu lDilitialncD rapcd Tirtsi woû]co âDd Tutsi rììcn rapcd l{utu rcfugees; Filrall¡ wc include fow tesr,imoniat by relatives of nlurdered and dis- dìJrirlg the ctlìDìc cor)flict iD the foflrÌcl Yugoslaviâ, lnilitary oficers frorn allappcarcd worncn urd girls. Eva Alcc, Julia Hun.taírahui, I{<;sa lìrar.rco, sidcs lapcd wourcu from targctcd gror.rps."aud Non¡a l-edczma Onega docunent thcir lirsthand cxperieitces as 3. Durirg the civil war in lvory Coâst, frglrters "gang ra¡rcd" wolÌìeiì a¡dwitness surrivors ofthcat¡ocities wediscuss tlloughoutthis book, Thc forced thcln ilrto sexual slavcry; duriug thc Libcriau civil war; arincd militiastestùrunios spr-akmosr directlyand publicly for thc womcD and girls who raped thlee out of fou¡ wollÌen; io Sicrra I-cone, rnilitias fiom all sides com-carulot voice their rcsistance to terror ol. expÍcss their owlr claims to mittcd couDtlcss sexual at¡ ocitics.hurnan dghts and justice. As witncss-surwiyors, thc ¡clatives clajm thcir 4. -b-or a discu$siorì of thc del¡atcs al¡out thc dclìlition of "gcndcr" aucl tlrcrightsþr livirg aDd comprchcnsive justicc, for a D.roclcl ofjustice drat is at cnunrcLâtiorr of gcDder crilìrcs during thc Prcparatory für¡lrrittcc ¡ic$siollsonce trar)sfonnative aDd hcaling, cm¡rowcring and rehurna[izing, rlìat lcaclirg up to thc llorrrc Coûfcrclrcc, which cstablished drc rcc, scc Moshanaffiuls dre dignity and ethical rcsponse ability of all membc¡s ofhuman r998; Oostc¡rclcl 2o05,corìrnìruritics ir righting human wrongs .Ihc tcrtimLnias and activisn of 5,Moslrarruscstlrctctltsst1.!øøeatdbtlttt,I{owcverigivcnthccololialist history of thc tenn søaø¿ras appliccl to irdigenous ârd Tlìird World cornmu-the relatives of dre lrr rdered and disappcared womeil teach us lxtw to lrc uitics, we have sutrstitLìted tlÌe tcrtrr ¿Jrh?rrl e for ¡u,øga.etlìicâl ând respolse-able human beings, "[lcir ] resistance to ¡error," 6. In an analysis of political violencc, ø¡úlrrøry can trtcalì eìtlìcl depcndirgas Carolyn Ëorché (1993, 46) rcninds us, "is what l¡akes thc world on individt¡al cliscretion or narkcd by ol rcsr ting fion thc unlcstrâil-ìcd alrdhabitable: thc protcst against violcncc will not be forgotren and this often tyrannical use ofpowcr (sec Koonings and Kruijt r999).irsistcnt n.ìcmory rendcls life possible in courmuual sitnations." 7. According to Ellcn l-urz and Kadrryn Sikkink (zooo, ó4o), T-atir Amer- ica lrclpcd introducc tlrc rcrol disâppearance (d¿tø[øticií ) inro thc ilrtcnla- tiorìal hunan rights vocaLrulary due to thc wiclcspread and systeinâtic basis ofNotes clisappcaraûccs irr drc 197os."l]l-ìc Lìter--A.rlcrìcall C¡nvcDtion or-ì Forccd Dis- appcaraûcc of PcrsoÍìs, adoptcci by thc Orgâniz¡tion of Anìcticalì Stâtcs ilt r. Gcnder-b¡scd vioicncc makes visilrlc violcocc rootcd iû â gcnclcr p<lwcr r994., "dcfincs disap ¡rcârâncc âs thc acr ofdcprivìng â pcrsoiì or pcrsr¡rrs c¡fhisstflrctrrrcr as dclìncd h Enropcarr Cornmissiot (zao8, z4)t "To rhc exterìr or tlÌcir frccdoûr, iû wlÌatcvc¡ way, pcrpcuatcd by agc|rts of d1c statc or bythat violcrìcc is foùndcd on a gcndcr powcr stLncmLc ancl scrvcs to rcirrf<¡r.cc pcr$ons or grorps of pclsorr actirìg with thc âì.ìthorizatioll, sLìpporL, or âc:tlrât stnrctirrc, its^ cxcrcisc systclllâticilly r¡ndeÌ-llliltes thc vìctilìì,s access to â qrricsccrcc of the stetc, lollowcd Lry thc alrscnce of tnlìrnì1âtitrrr ol rcfu$al to
  • 21. $ ;rq so ta11d lJei.îttno Int -orlr$.t¡on 3Z ¿ctr:o4cdfle thardeprivatior offrccdom or to givc irìfoüìlâti()lì ou the whcrc- r7.l"hc Nationnl IusrinÌtc olSt¡tislcs, (ìcc¡gr-aph) and Info¡ttârion lcch- ùbolts ofthat pcßon, tlìcrcb), impcdirìg lris or hcr rccoursc to thc npplic¡blc nologl (INDcr ) ilt Mcxico l)orcs thar irì 2oo4 iìloltc, eiglìr hultdrccl w<urclr lcg¡ rcmcclics ¡ncl proccdural gu¡rantccs" (I¡tz and Sìkkitk, órsluo ). v,cr-c killccl ìn Mcxico City (Cámala dc Diputados clcl I{. (Ìrngrcso cìc la 8, lìcm¡uicicl¡] r,i<¡lc[cc ìlì thc AlÌ]ericrs is lìot r-cstrictcd to l,¿tin -Alncricrì. Uri<ír zoo6). Sec Aùllcsty l¡tcnratir¡ral zoo7, which focusc$ on scxuâl violcllce âgâillst r8, Scc Jouarhan lìox (zoo5), u4ro makcs a silnilar algrorel.ìt for thc corl- j¡clilcrrous rvomcn in rÌÌc Ulìited St¡Ìtcs. cept t¡ Lntlldfioa cìtlzc1lltil, g. Julia M<¡rár rcz Fngoso ( zoo5a ) citcs thc lirìguist Mal tíu GouzdÌe z clc l¡ r9. E-lnâil cor)loìuûic¡rion witlì thc cditor.s, Jùnc 2, 2oo8, Vara of thc Grlcgkr cle la lìrontcr¿ Nortc, who cnplaitts thc cq/lnobe,y nocl zo. In intc¡¡aric¡¡lal lau,, thc sratcl brcâchir)g of irs obligation to prcvcr.rt, proltr tmrìslation <tf fcmtniø,tlia in this way. Also, thc Spalishfi ictdil, ac plotcct agâirìst, ilvcstrgatc, and punish human righrs violations is rcfcrrcd to cor<iLng to Mârccla l,agârde (2ooó, 20), is insufiìcicltt bccausc it is a s4ronynr as føih.øc to ercrcise rûø diligeucc.In elaboratrng this human righrs h amcwork, for lroniciclc ancl iu this scirsc "litcrally mcans thc Dìurdcr of (¡r1cn." Lagaldc draws from thc Convcn¡ion ofllclén do Pará. r c. Although in thc book wc do rìot cxplicjtly cxaninc the structurcs of zr. Whilc the English{anguagc usc <tf føticldt clatcs back rwo cerlrùries, l-ror-¡ophol¡i¡, it iri importalrt ro Drake tlìe col)ccp¡.ul link bcnveen ¡¡ettdcr- lÌ.usscll ( 1977, z) first uscd the concept in tcstimony Lrcforc tlìc lìrst lDtcrna- basc,l violeucc and violcncc tâlgeting woûrcn bccâusc ofthcir sextÌal oricntû- tiollal :lrìb L¡l)al olt Crimc$ agail)st Wolllcn iltì]Nsscl{i il.t t97ó, whcre she d¡ew tion¡ud idclrtiry frorrr tlrc Oxforcl Ìlnglish l)ictionary dclìr:rLtrott <>î fenicid.e as,"rhc rì1ùrclcr of r ). ll¡scd on ¡ ) iDtcrvicu, co|rductcd by Iulia MoDárrcz Fragoso. Ìhc ycrr rvomcn and girls by ncn." r99iis an ârbitlary stâr riog poirr, accorcling to Mor)árrc7-, gìvclì thât tlìcrc ls zz. According to Lutz and Sikkìnk ( zooo, 634 ), ,,Ncârly âll l-ãrirì Ancrìcalrcvidcncc olkilliugs bcforc tLrc sigDing ofNAFTA iD I994. Lr dc local âcadcnic nâtiolls hâvc loiìg p(thibitcd torturc as a rnattc¡ of domcstic law . . . Tor.rurccontcxt, Mooducz first ùscd thc tcrrÌ itr â talk titled, "FcDìinicidi<t] dclivcrcd is onc of a hanclftrl of righrs ìn thc Irrcl-Dariolìâl Covcllârìt olì Civil andat rle Univcrsidâd AutoDoma dc Ciu<lad Juárcz ill ¡ç98. Shc dlcw froit] Political lùghts for which no dcrogation is pcrmissiblc. ftc custonaly iûrcr-l,agar:dc y de los l{íos (Monánr:z liragoso zooz). ¡r:rrirÌr¡l law pr¡¡lribiriorr sinrilarly lra. a ¡rrr..,,gcrrs. or ûorr <ìc,.ogablc charac- r z. Scc l¡sscll zoorb, 9, $4ìcrc shc al$o notcs tlìat Catherinc MacKinrìorl tcr Thus, ulrcìcr no circurìÌstâltccs nlây stattcs takc r¡casures to an[ul tlìcrrscd tlìc coDccpt of ferninicidøl ptacticcs along wirh genocidøl prâctices ¡1 â prohil)itioû agaiNt tolrurc." Also, "FonnulatioDs rlìar cxPlicitly deal wid)la$,sLrit âgairìst war crincs that she filed on l¡chalf ofsurwivors of ¡rass fclìl- violcnce rcfcr <ltlly to tor¡u¡c a¡d crucl atrcl utrusual puDishorcnts; thcsc areI IiciJc ir ßos¡ri¡-llcrz,cgovinaÌ c¡vil w¡r. strccific.rti(r)s wllich lcd sonrrfcrììiDisr lì lnalyzr d,rrncsric vi¡rlcntc, fo¡ r 3. lìel¡icidc wâs cclìtrâl to AI¡nc.sry Intcr¡ratio¡als global calnpaign iu itrstlncc as tortulc" (Enropcan Comurissiol.t 2oo8, 22).2oo3 aBâiûst violcDcc toward womcn. |lÌc lcport Fcmiricidio cn A¡ìéric¡ za. lrr tlrc case of,Itø4acl À4ørul de Mejlø t. Pe?,ø, rhe lr.ìrcr-¡üììcricatr (Ì)urrLatina 2ooó), ¡rrc¡rarcd for tlìc lnrer-Anìerican Colnmission orr llumarl of Hùnìan Rights fouud scxual violcltcc iltflitcd by sccurity forccs (putrlicl{iglrts of thc Olganizâtion of AmcricâIl Statcs by a consortiulì of woûìcûl ¿rtthorities to "satisS elcmcnts of toltLlrc" altd rhus a violatiou of ..Mejíasrigh8 âctivists, cxcûrplifies thc productivc usc offclnioicidc âs â conccPt for hnmau rights" (Scllcrs zooz, 3or ), Ra¡rc is tl.rus ,.recogûiz4d as â collrpo[cutdocuncnting thc alâr¡rilìg increascs in thc ratcs of ùlurdels aucl clisappcar- ofjus cogens obligatio¡s" fo¡which no dcrogârion is possiblc.ãrcc , rf wuûlcrì and girls throrrghorrr tlrc rcgiort. 24. Tlìc divisiou of socicty iuto s¡rhcrcs of "public, aud .,¡l.ivatc,, lifc has r+, As of úis writiûg, thrce cascs hâvc bcer prcsctttcd bcfolc thc Intcr- loug bccD a vcxcd collcern for fcminists, siucc such a dcnarcatioll is based oltAl!rcricaû Coùrt of llumaD lliglrts: Laura Bcrclicc Rantos, Claudi¡ Ivctc â lìicmrclìy that Icilìforccs gcndcr itcqualities. In l¡Âûy socictics, rhe rcallr ofGonzálcz, ancì Èslncralda llrcncla Herreia, âll found brutally Drutdercd in thc thc public is privilegcd as thc sphc|c ofproductio[) govcü.tâncc, and polìtics;infar¡ous "cotton fìcld" casc in Ciudad ]uárcz, whcrc eìght womcns boclics tlìc privatc is dcvaluccl ati tlìc rcâlm of rcprocluctiou, the fan-rìl¡ arxl childwcrc fouûd.Itc casc$ drâr hâ,c been sublDittcd to thc l1ìtcr"llnclicâD Hu- lcaring. Ëvcn though rhc dclincârioll of thcsc two clomains can valy acrossnran Righrs (lc¡m¡rission arc those ofSylviâ Arce (fol dìsappcarancc ), ,Pal- Datio[al alìd cultulal scttings, "across clâsscs) at]loDg cliffcrctìt ¡acial ancj cth-i rni Jc/rll.ì, ¿Dd M irrcrr l lirrrcs. l.^ nìc groups, arnong dìffcrcut rcgrons withirr the couutq,, l¡ccwccn url¡a¡r and r j, Cirdad J[árcz is ã ca$c irl poinr. l]ctween Ì985 aDd 1992, thirty-scvclt rarral cnvi¡olrnenrsj ¡s Donla Sullivau (1995, rz8) explail$, ,.Ilhe sharcdwollco lìâd l¡ccn violcntly murlercd) whcrcâs in thc suc scvclì-yc¿l tilrlc fe¡trù c oftitc Pùblic/ plivarc disrjllctioD it cliffc[cltt co¡tcxts is rhc aftr.ìbutionhirnre (r993-zoor), womeDs r-igllts glotìps doctìlDcllcd âu i1lclcâsc of 7oo oflcìsscr ccolìotùic, social, o| pcfitical valrrcx t() tlìc âctivittcs of wontcn ,ithillpcrccDt, or 269 ¡iolcDt mnrdcß. what is dcfìrìcd âs privatc lifc." Ìó. Monáncz l.ragoso (zoosb) lras dcvclopc<1 tle Ieüù .fcttxilticidû îr.1t4l 25. In clescribing lcrìlicidc âs â "phallic crìntc" tolcrarcd [r1 tbc srarc i]dtisîntutti& îo| tlcsc lypcs of rllu Ì-dcrs. ,,l1lcr h(Ë.nìo,ri. l-ri,r¡fL. lill lt¿Jjôrrl .rrrl l¡rì(.(.rpuli .r¡rJ l)j¡n.r lìrrsscll
  • 22. 38 balNfl .ãnd lhi.t:n:txkt lttttod üiorl. ?g iÌil1ì(d to clinìinatc "thc obsçuriltg vcil of ¡olt-gcrìdcrcd tcrnN such ¡s lìorììi, plivîtizing statc cnterpriscs, arrcl implcrnclting clastic cutl¡acks i¡ì llovcln- ciclc ¡ûd lÌruldclj âs cvideltt jn tlìc casc of rhc $crial Dlrudctel Jâck L,cpiDc, nlcnt spcrìdirìg. Witlì s,A.ps maDdarcd during thc ¡9tlos ancl r99os-what (ltc who ìrì thc r98os hâd cor)fcsscd hâtcd woûrcn, pårticulal.ly fclDiltisrs," ycr carDe to bc knowlÌ ilr I-âtilr Americe ¿ølrbctølistr-Ltrtctnplctl,mcDt soalccl, as U.S. nedia ancl crìurinologisrs contirtually rcfcrrccl ro tùc pathological mthcf ancl rcalw:rgcs plumr¡rctcd. Iltc social ancl ccorìotrric infrasrructur.c of mjdcllc-tlìarì rhc "politicâl rlaturc of l.Æpitcs crirncs." Þ-or Oaputi aud Russcll, lr¡r- cla$s, but espccially of poor, commùniric$ rhroughour dtc Ìcgion was clcvas- i¡csc¡irncs had linle to clo rvith Pathology and dcrucutia, given thÂthis stâtcd tatcd by risi|rg uûcnploylnc,tt râtcs âDd forcccl wagc ctlts, thc cliûìirÌatroD ofhatftd "ol womcû, particularly fcmillisrs) coûrrâdìc¡ccl this simplc assunr¡)- pricc cortrols on food aud fucl, aud ar cscalatiug cost oflivi[g, couplcd witlltiol-r ¡nd suggcstcd ìrT tcad that his mr¡rdcrs of womcn could bc considcrcd ill shârp clrts irì public cx¡lcld itu res thar hacl bcnclìtcd poorer gfoups. ryrrhoùt a dìc F)litical larlguâge ol "hatc cliurcs" âs â forrn ol "scxist tctrotistìì, moti, mininal social safety nct, nuclr lcss "t¡¡rivcrsal forors oi social sccuriry ol lÌvâtcd by hat[cd, contcrnpt, plcasure ot sctìljc of owterslÌip over womcrr" systcm of social protcction," the poor ancl low-incoDtc gtoups sr.rflcrcd thc (lladlord r99z; Caputi and lìusscll r992, 14-r 5), ¡lost. llìc ncoliberâl agcuda failed to dclivct thc ptoDÌis(]d ccoDo¡[ic gtowrh. 26.ïr develop thistnalc backlash" thcsis, Caputi ard Russcll csral¡lishcd a (ecolìol¡ic Instcad of crcating stability aDcl prcvclttiltg futnrc economiccorrclation betwcerr rates ofi¡creasc in lcthal acts ofviolcnce against woûlcû, criscsjthe sals engenclercd lnâ$$ivc $oci¡l instability alìd irìsccuriry ($ccon thc onc haud, and lising lcvcls of womcns activisln aDd challciìgcrì ro Elsou 2oo2, 99).lrrale suprcrnacy and cntitlcmclt," oD thc othcr. Insofar as rlìe "dtâÍlìâtic 3r. In ilrtcrnatioual law, gønocidÌ is dclìncd as thc "lrìrclìr to wipc our .tcscal¡tion" in rnurdcrs ofwomcn and girls coincided with thc cltìclgclìcc of group simply bccausc ofwho it is (or pcr ccivcd as ), ro crasc â group of pcoplcfeûrioist activisrn in tbc Unitcd Statcs during the r9óos, fcrììicidc coùld bc as sÙch. . . . Ittargcrs ûorju$t thc i[dividual lrut thc tvholc socialfabric," S¡.rainir-ìtc¡rp¡eted âs â lorm of1lale backlash against woncn" (Caputi aud lì.usscll has thc ûrost cxpansivc dcfutition of geuocidct "as a criûlc againsr gÌolrps,)9g2, t6 7).fhis"rnalc backlash" thesis would iûform subscqucnt studics whaccvcr thcir uaturc" (Rolrt-Arr.iaza zoo5,47 48).offcuillicidc i¡ l¡ti¡ Amcric¡. 32. Evcn among thc lcftist rcvohrtiolary aro]y, rhcrcwâs cornplicity.uDolu 27. As Ca1:ru ti and lusscll ( t 992, r I ) add, "Most pcoplc today understand r¡crÌ, according to Nonna Vásqucz (r9g7, rÆ), wlìo wrircs tlnr "violerìccthat lynchings and pogrours are fonns of politically motivâtcd violeûcc, rlìc agâilrst woûcû alrd rape wcre not ultcorrrìlolì ìn thc raltk of thc ¡¡lr,Nobjcctivc ofwhich arc to prcseir,c lihitc and gcntilc suprcmacy lFarabundo MartíNâtiorral Libcration -F*ront ] jadding that tlrclc w¡s a lack 28. Ll soûrc rcgions of Mcxico (c.g., Chihuahua), sexual violcnce is aincd of rcsponsc fr<ln drc leadership.ât tlìc dcstnlctioD of ¡ conìlDurÌity; howevcr, iÍ docs rrot r.esult frorn war; 33. Vctoria Sanford (2oo8, lÌo) dcfincs social clealsing as " a mcchanisrn.ìr Inecl conffict, or â dircct aftack by statc actors. Fcmillici<1e in orher instanccs c¡f sclcctivc or arbit¡¿tly lcprcssitrtt rhâr is systctnàfically ploduccd by cirlìcr coDllicC situation, as thc cxamples of(ìuatc-is largc-scale and occurc il1 "posr- arncd actors widr tics to thc statc or by ¡rrivâtc âctors wlÌo câlty out rcprcs-mala, Argcntina, El Salvador, and Pcrú make cvidcnt, and involvc$ nolt-stâtc sio[ widl drc acquicsccûcc, complicit¡ suppo¡t or rolcrâtioD (whethcr dclib-or corpontc actors târgctilìg i[dividuâl wouren as wcll as woncD as a group. cratc or iuvoluntary) oftlìc statc."Thcrc a¡e also exa¡rplcs of fcrninicidc (c.g., irì füsta llicâ) that, similar. to 34, AlisoD ìlrysk (t9ç9, z+t) rcfers to "dcath squacl activity as a fotrn oftrost geudcr violencc, takc place in thc contcxr of ìntinatc ¡clationslìips and s{bcontracting sratc coercion."According to ll4¡sk,States subcottrâct wirheveryday life but d-nr, currrulativcly and becausc of drc impuniry involvecl, arc tlìc ilrfornÌal scctor whcn thcy facc unusual drrcats or seck to cltgirìccr âalso ofa large-scalc naturc. fttuda¡nental policy transforuration, bur for $olrc rcason rcquirc þlausiblc 29, llrc colrccpt ofþninicidøl ùnlcncc applics to dÌose lrtisogyl-tist actioDs Jcr jrLrjliry."aiinccl against woûrcns security and that placc womcns phyeìcal and ncûtal 35, Hector 1)ornúrgucz-lnvalcaba has rnore recelltly exanÌincd rlÌis colr-irìtcgrity at tisk: scc fuy Gcnelal dc.Acccso dc las Mujercs a u¡aVida Librc dc ccptlal link betwcen geodcr-bascd violclcc ând s)stcDlatic discrirìlinarionViolcDcia zoo7. against pcople [:ecausc of their $cxual oricntation or.gclÌdcr idel]rity. Wririltg 1lìc dcrc¡iotiìtiltg ccorìotìtic situattioû ilt I-âtin AùÌerica cân bc tl âccd to 3o. atnut culcural productioû in Mcxico, I)oNúìguez-I{uvâlcâba (zoo7, 6) cx-tÌtc iDtcriìâtioDâl dcbt cr isis of rlrc r 98os ( r 98 3 -88 ), whc[ ma[y dcvclopiug plorcs thc fatal rclation betwccu patriarchal l¿.w and.r,iolc¡cc ilt turn-of-thc-countrics âpproâchcd rhe Lrtcr¡arioûal Monctary Funcl and thc Vg<rrld Bank celìtury Mcxico, in whar hc calls "thc ¡ccent coll-tpulsìûì for. imoolatingscekmg crncrgcncy loârìs aûd dcbt rclicl In exchange for financial l-railouts, womcn and hornoscxuals,"cconornists froln thc rvorlcls fìrlaDcial institutioûs mandatcd str.uclrrr.al- ?ó. A nâtiolwide stucly conctrctccì iD Àrgcltrila in zooó co¡rcluclccl thatad.iüstrDcrìt polìcìcs (sal s) thar thcy allcged would crcatc ccolornic stabiliqr stâtc agents werc respoDsiblc fbr more than 80 pcrccltt of tlÌe violcncc ilr^and ¡:revcnt finrrc crises. Thcsc structrtral-âdjustnclìt lncâsu¡cs ilrchrclcd dc- fìictc<l orr tralrsgcndc¡ a¡cl transscxu¡l pcoplc (llclkins zoo7, t z7-28.1harrcgulating tr-;rdc (lrcc tlarlc) and clinlillâfir1g bârltcrs to forcigl) invcs{llleur) sa|rrc ycar-, Hurlan l{igl)ts 4¡Âtch (2ooó) issrÌcd à rcpoft rhât iurplicatccl Gua
  • 23. 4ú l.-L ¿Ão$ flird Bciøtltrn Illtroduct¡on. 4t tcrììaliìs statc pd icc ir) lhc rnr¡rdcl wjth impuDin, of tr-ll(gcrìdcr ,oDrcrì âlld Crìrnìualliburml lor the l-ìolncr Yug<>slavia] and tlrc I I[rc|Darional (l¡:ir¡ìDal g¡y nìcn ir) Cìuatcmala Ciqr lìansgen<lcl rights clcfcnclos from Argcr-rtina, Iìibunal fol lìr,r,aDd¡] ro corìchrdc th¡t cúurcs agaiust hurnaniry hacì a spccial (ìuate,rralâ, Mcxicrr, (ìolombia, PcrLl, and ]arraica facc dcadly thrcats oftcn stâtus ilì cllstoDìâly ir)tcrna¡lo[aI larv, s4ich madc thcrn imprcscliptalrlc." frour statc autlr<¡rities. ¡s cvidcr¡t durllg thc lcccrt lùllìtar-iz,atiorr ofnortl]crn 42. Scc CÌ)llvcntiolì ofììclém do Pará, Ar:ricle r: "liol rlrc purpc¡scs ofthis Mcxicos bordcr rcgion. Sl)cc thc arrival ofnìilitarJ for ccs in (liùdad itú¡cz il ConvcrrtioD, violcDcc agatûst rvorrcn shall be unclcrstood as arìy act or coLl, carl1, 2669, as pl|t of Plcsidcnt Felipc (lalclc¡óDs var- ãgair$t thc Caltcl duct, bascd o¡ gcnder, qhich car.rses dcrth ol ph¡slcal, scxual or ps),chobgicrl )uárcz, r,iolcncc agairrt transgcndcr worucn has incrcasccl. L(ilrr åcti¡ist$ in hantt or suffcring to wouìcn, u4rethcl in thc public or rhc pr.ivatc s^phcrc" thc tT oxlel regiou lcgularly facc dcadly thlcãts, "arbitrarJ dctcntiolts, physicål (availaL)lc orÌliue ât http://wwwsllulllit-amclicas.ûg/lJclcrndo¡rara.hrn,assaults ancl thrcars of disâppeâralcc by agcuts of thc Milipd lrrrilitaÌy po- âccc$scd NovcrÌber 3, 2oo8 ).lìcc]" (ComLrnicación c lnformaciórì dc la Mujcr or cIMÀc, zoo8. In Jrútcz, 43. In [act, "patriarchy" ili not cvclÌ lrclìtioncd in thc Univcnal l)eclar¡¡iorríu1 l,cBT hurììal1 rights cclrtcr is namccl aftcr "FaDyja tmnsgcnclcr wo¡lens of Iftllìrâlì lìights ¿s a "violcnt structurc" ( Cubilié zoo5 ) .rights activist who was killcd by policc u,hilc shc was viclco rccordiLrg policc 44. Accoldilg to Méudcz and MariczcuncDa (1999, 8S), if the hur¡anviolcncc against transgcnclcr pcoplc clrr thc strccts" (scc "Agudizal aLrusos rigllts violatiolì is of thc magnitude of "gcnocidc, wal crilììcs, ancl crillcscoltra Dujcrcs transgéncrcl cr Ciucìad Juárcz" zoo8). The cditors acknowl- âgâinst hunmDity; rhcr thc obligatio¡ìs of thc iìtcrûârioDal c<ltÌ-ìllìuDiry "trraycdgc input fron Dana (ìrccne, R cÌiDtjDologist at Ncu, Mcxico State Ullivel- bc satisficcl b), crcati[g ¡lt ilttentatiorìal crilìlillâl coult, or ¡llolvir.rg othcrsity, ând frorrr tllc âttorucy Aclcla l-oyoza, u4rc spokc pcrsuasivcly atnut conrts of othcr naticlr$ to cxcrcise the/,,r¡¿¿ipl¿ 0firrtü. øtion.Lljørìrdicfitn:Àcrivisnl âÍìcl violcDcc agaiust l-cn:r pcopÌc, 45. Unclcr intcrnati<¡nal law, thc statc has thrcc t1,pcs of obligations: to 37. In al c-trrîil col)vcrsãtion with thc cditds, olìc of our co[tributors, rcspcct lÌullaD rights, to plotect lluinaû riglrts, a¡d to fulfìll hunan riglrtsHéctor l)clrníugucz-Ruvalc¡ba comnmlricatcd thc lvolk hc ancl othcr col- (Harnilton zoo4, 4).lcagucs iu Mexico ac culrcltly rìndcrt¡king that cx¡rlorcs the conccptual lilìk 46. I|is fãihare t0 exercisc tlue diligcfit¿ is outliltcd in Colìvcrìtion of ìlclénrtrctwccn gcnder-basccl and scxuality-t:ascd ûrurdcrswithio a fctrriricidc frâûìc do Pará, Arriclc r.work. +7. Móndcz and Mariczcurrcna rclcr to this as "de faffo impuniq,i 38. ClÌilìuâhua became thc 1ìrst statc ìn Mcxico to approvc thc l-cy Gcncral 48. Accol.(iirg to Méndcz aod Mariez¡urreira (1999, {ìj), thc srarc is iDdc Acccso clc las Mujcrcs a una Vida I-ìbrc dc Vi(tcllciâ irì Jânuary 2oo7. violatioLr of intcú1âtronal law when it allows "impunity for the nìosr cgrc- 3q. Ârticlc 7 ofthc Romc Statutc ol Lhc I<tc defilrcs "crime à!!âilNt llu¡nan- gious human ri¡Jhts crilnes suclì âs exrrajudicial cxccuriorì, to ture alìd disap,iry" as"an) of thc followìng acts whel coumittcd as ¡rart of a widesprcad or pcarrDcc,lr4rc|r corÌrrnìttcd systcrnically or <¡û a wiclc scalc." systcûìâric âttâck dircctcd âgâi¡rst ãlry civiliâ) population, witlÌ lurowledgc of 49. Ncsiah makcs this comnrenr itr d1c coutcxt of a feorinist cririque ofthc thc âtfack," iDcludìlìg, but not lilììitcd, to lnurdcr; cxterminâtiolì; erìslave- , tmnsitional justìcc ¡lodel as discusscd bclow (Scc Ncsiah 20ó ). r¡crìt; depoüatioll or forcitrle transfcr of poprllâtioD; imprisor]r¡crlt or othcr 5o. Ou r approach draws fiom thc 1cstorativc justice" model dìar ¡ cdc6ncssevcrc deprivâtion of physical liberty in violatioù of fi¡nclamcnral rulcs of cr imeîot sc¡ lrruch as offcndrng against thc stâte , . . b(Ìt as ân ìiìiury or wrorrg intcrnational larv; tolturc; râpe) scxr.râl slavery clforccd prostitution, forcccl donc to aûothcr pcrsoû or pc¡sorN" (Law Commission ofCanada 1999, z8).prcgnancy, cnforccd stcrilization) or âiìy othcr form of scxual violeircc <¡f 5r. The conccpt of sccuriry that is dcvcloped ltcrc is âlìâlogorls to the Unìrcdcoml:rarablc graviry; cnforcecl disappcalancc of pc$ons; ctimc$ of aparthcid; N atioDs corrs ( ruct of lìunan sccurity. Thc t eú71 hafi.,tn $üüiht was firs ¡ intr o -and odrcr ilìhulìlaDc âcts of similar châr-âctcr caùsiLlg grcat sùffcring or serious duccd in thc uN u r,s I-It¡ruan f)evclopnc¡t Rcport for 1994 (Unitcd Nâtionsinlury to body or to meûtal or physical hcahh. I)cvclopÌncûr Progm¡rì 2oo5 ). 4o. Lì dre IlltcÌ--AncricâD û)nvcnti(xr oD Forcccl l)isap¡rcaranccs, "forced 52. As Patricia Mohaormcd ( 2ooó, 29j ) adds, "I:lurnaLr sccurity rcl{ ies ] ondisappealanccs coDstitùtc a dilnc âgairNt lÌrma[iql (Roht-Arriaza zoo5, thc fun<lameDtal charactct istic il lc[cDt iì tlrc conccpt of genclcr . . . its ad apt-9s). Accordirìg to tlìc Naomi lloht-Arriaza (zoo5, 74, r r 3 ), "l)isappcâr¿¡.es, abiliry convcnicncc, r cspollsivclìcss, capaciry for lrrolding ând relroclelin¡¡,a$ a $pccics ofcrinìc$ ågainst hunrãoity, wc¡c not subject to statute oflinìita- rcspcctful of r1ìffcrcrÌt lìistorics and climatcs and raking olt âs rllarì) colors,tio¡s undcr ct$tolr)aÐ, intcl¡aìtiollal lâw," iu ¡rart because "drsappeârancc is a truanccs, ancl shapcs as there ârc pcoplc,s âl)d socicties."cortìDuiug ctilDc, so lìcithcr âDllìc$ty l v Dortbc staftrtc ofliDritatio¡ls could 5¡. lnternational Ccntc| for lÌaûsitioDal lùstice, hftpì //wu,w.ictj.or/ e¡ /apply until thc bodyu,as for.rncl." tj /lprintcr-îr:ìcnclly = r ( ¿rcccsscd Mârch r o, 2oo8 ). +r, As Roht-Aui¡z¡ (zoo5, róI ) cxplaius, "Nurcmberg liibulals, thc iUli- s4. lhc IoTI lists thc fbllowi[g rncclraDisrns as availat¡le in rlìc rrârìsiriollâlvcrs¡l I)ccl¡r¡tion ofllunan lìightsl, thc C-r),cnàntolì tllc Noll-Applicâbilityof justìcc apploach: "clorncstic. hybrid, aud iDtemationâl ploljccntio)s of pcr.,,Sütutcs olìLir)lihtiors, and drc rrolc rcccrltjurìsp¡.rdcr1cc ol dìc LLrttflìâtionâl pctr-ators of hr.rmnn ligirrs abuscs; dcterminirg thc lìJJ cxteut ancl n¡turc of
  • 24. 4L Fr¿¿1oso øxd Bcjt.tølto past âbùscs throu!!h tluth-tcllirìg il)iriitivcs, inchldiDpi nâtiol¡l ând iDtcflr¡- fiollâl corÌ),llissktìs; Ptovidiug rcpârâtior.rs to victinú: coûtpcrsâtotJ¡, rcstitlr- rorìâry, rchâbilifâtivc) ¡uld syDlbolic rcprr¡riorìs; providiltg iDsrituriolral rc- fuln r irrclrrJittg tlrc vcnjng .ì[ ¡lìr¡ivc. Lr ¡rrupl. ¡ ¡r inc, ¡oìl)crt.¡ r¡ , rlììt i.¡ls fr.ul¡rh( folicc ar)d ccLr¡iry scrvi(cs. lhc nliliÌ¿ry and oll)cr pltl)li( insrinttiôo{i.lcluding thc jrüiciary; p¡:olrorirlg !cco[cili¡tk¡n with diviclccl co¡nìùlritics,ilcludilg u<lrking wirb victi¡ns on traditiooâl justicc l)lcchar)isn, and forg-ittg social rcconsrructiol; cor*tructing mclltorialÍ alìd lDnseuDls to ptcseFrcr:[e nìcrnory of rlÌc past, a|ttl [fiually an<1 pclhaps iìrosr ilùportar]dy fol thisLrookl, takirg ìnto acco!ìnt gcûdcrcd pâttcllls ofabrìsc ro cDhnl¡cc jrÌ$ticc forfcDralc victirr, "r rc1J wcbsitc, availablc oDliDc at htrp://www.icrj.org/cnrj f¡rintcr-fiierxlly= r (acccsscd March ro, zoo8). PART I 55, Wc thank Jonarhan lìox for this obscrvation. só. Lr his discussio¡t of tlìc TRC proccs$, lùchard Wilson argucs that thcrc Localizing Feminicidearc four rypes of rruth lmrrowcd into tw<¡ lrasic ,,rrrth paradigms., ll.rcscparadigms are drc forcnsic rrurh atÌd rhc nar.rativc trurh.t(Ihc forclìsictuuth ìsa lcgal alìd scicDtific ltotiotr of ùncovclcd facts aûd co¡:rol¡orating Õ,idencc,ilTlud¡tg irìvcsrigatiolìs of rlìc causes âDd pattctl.ìs ofviolcflcc as wcll as iDdì-virlual ircidcnts of gross vìolatiorìs of ltumart rìghts. fhc narrativc tlurll i¡-d[dcd thc dlrcc câtegorìc$ ofpcrsoual, social and hcaling or rcsto[ativc rrudìand cllÌphasizccl lurrarivcr subjccivityj and thc cxpcrieutial dimcl¡sìuìs oftruth tellillg" (as citcd iD lìorcr zoo6, zz). 57. For a dctailcd accotx-ìt ofdrc linitcd success ofrhc pet.t]viàlt Tiuth ar.ìdRcconciliatiou fül¡u¡rìssiorrs incorporariolt of a gurder.cd pcrspcctivc, scethc dissctation by Pascba ßucno-Halsen ( zoog ). s8. ,Aútotlìcr aspcct ofdtc gcnder. <{intcDsioû oftraDsitiolÌal jLrsticc, such âsdrc diffcrelltial cffects of cnforcelììcûr of lcgal rxrrrns, is bcyond the scopc ofrhis clÌaptcr. Llor alr exccllcnt ovcr"vicw) sec NíAoláin and Roolcy zoo7. 59. Sce thc Acâdcmia Mexicana dc l)ctcchos Flumanos websjtc, availableonlinc at htrp: //www.atùdlì.conì.rux ( âcccsscd July 7, zoog ) .