Unit 5 genetic engineering for moodle 2013
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  • 1. Genetic Engineering Biology 163 Unit 5 DNA and Genetic Engineering
  • 2. What is Genetic Engineering? Manipulating DNA for practical purposes: – DNA sequencing and the Human Genome – Transgenic organisms have many applications in agriculture – DNA fingerprinting used in forensics
  • 3. Genetic Engineering Tools: PCR Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) uses DNA polymerase to make many copies of DNA Gives scientists enough DNA to work with!
  • 4. Genetic Engineering Tools: Restriction Enzymes Proteins which recognize and cut specific base sequences in DNA Results in fragments of DNA with “sticky ends” First step in many DNA manipulations
  • 5. Plasmids Plasmids – circular DNA molecules in many bacteria
  • 6. Plasmid use in genetic engineering
  • 7. Recombinant DNA and Plasmids Genes are “spliced” into plasmids Recombinant DNA –contains DNA from different sources Plasmids containing the target gene are reproduced (cloned) inside bacteria Used to make various proteins: – insulin, human growth hormone, pest resistance proteins in plants
  • 8. Gel Electrophoresis DNA digested by restriction enzymes Power source Longer DNA fragments Shorter DNA fragments DNA fragments are placed in wells of the gel Gel DNA is negatively charged so it will migrate to the positive size
  • 9. DNA Fingerprinting Analysis of gel electrophoresis to compare the genomes of organisms Used in crime investigations and paternity tests
  • 10. Whose kids are these??? Using the gel, determine: – Which child/children are the offspring of both mom and dad? – Which child/children are the dad’s child from another marriage? – Which child/children are the dad’s child from another marriage? – Which child/children are adopted?
  • 11. Transgenic Organisms Organisms containing genes from other species Transgenic bacteria produce growth hormone Transgenic plants and animals improving agriculture
  • 12. Cloning Making a genetically identical organism Potential to use cloning to treat a variety of disease
  • 13. How was Dolly the sheep made? Donor Nucleus Cells are fused Fused Cell Egg Cell Nucleus is removed from the egg cell Embryo Cloned Lamb Foster Mother