• Breathing is aninvoluntary action,controlled by themedulla oblongata • High levels of carbondioxide in theblood trigger thebreathing response 2The Process of Breathing
Gas Exchange in the Lungs• Gas exchange takesplace in the alveoli3
Diffusion of Gases• Oxygen diffuses into the blood, the oxygen moleculeattaches to the hemoglobin forming a molecule calledoxyhemoglobin• Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into thelungs, the carbon dioxide is a waste product that isexhaled4
8BronchitisInflammation of the bronchiUsually caused by infectionAlso caused by irritants suchas exposure to smoke,chemicals, or air pollutionSymptoms include throatpain, fever, coughing, andcoughing up mucusTreatment includes coughmedicine and antibiotics
9Emphysema• Destruction of alveoli sogas exchange is reduced• Almost always caused bysmoking, but in rare casesmay be due to a geneticdisorder• Symptoms include shortnessof breath and chronic cough• No cure, not reversible• Patients must be on oxygen
10Pneumonia• Inflammation or swelling in the lungs in which air sacs fill with pusand other fluids, making it difficult for oxygen to reach the blood.Caused by bacteria or viruses.• Symptoms include pain in chest, fever, chills, spitting up bloodymucus, and coughing. Treatment: antibiotics and rest
11Lung Cancer• Cancer that originates in thelung, often caused by smoking• Occurs when cells in the lungsstart to grow rapidly in anuncontrolled manner• No symptoms in early stages;in later stages symptomsinclude coughing, wheezing,and loss of weightTreatment includes removing part oflung with cancer and usingchemotherapy and/or radiation if cancerhas spread to other parts of the body
12Asthma• A disease of the bronchial tubesin which airways constrictand mucus secretion increases,making breathing difficult• May be caused by allergies,infection, exertion, emotions,and weather changes• Common symptoms includeshortness of breath, coughing,tightening in the chest, andwheezing• Is a chronic disease; peoplewith asthma live with it everyday and very often for theirwhole livesTreatment: inhalers,antihistamines, steroids
Extreme Respiration:Carbon Monoxide Poisoning• CO, poisonous gasreleased by cars andcigarettes• Binds to hemoglobinpreventing O2 frombinding as well• Symptoms: flushing,nausea, and pain
• Occurs under cold water• Breathing and pulse slows• Blood shunts away from skin, stomach,and muscles and is sent to the brain,heart, and lungs• Conserves O2 improving chances ofsurvival• See UP 78-81Extreme Respiration:Mammalian Diving Reflex
Extreme Respiration: Diving• High pressure deeper in theocean• Tanks release pressurizedair containing O2Extreme Respiration: High Altitudes• Low atmospheric pressure, less O2• Hypoxia – body is deprived of O2• Body compensates by hyperventilation• Pulmonary Edema may result
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