Male female for moodle 2013-14

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Male female for moodle 2013-14

  1. 1. Male and Female Reproductive Structures, Menstrual Cycle, and Development
  2. 2. Male Reproductive Structures
  3. 3. Male Reproductive Structures • Testis – site of sperm production – produces hormone testosterone • Scrotum – sac containing testes – maintains testis at 1-3°C below body temperature • Epididymus – site of sperm maturation • Vas deferens – carries sperm from testes to urethra
  4. 4. Male Reproductive Structures • Fluid from 3 glands combine with sperm to make semen • Seminal vesicle, prostate gland, and bulbourethral (Cowper’s) gland – Adds sugar, lubricants, and neutralizing fluid – Sperm + fluids = semen
  5. 5. Male Reproductive Structures • Urethra – carries urine and semen out of the body • Penis – external reproductive organ
  6. 6. Bladder Vas Deferens Prostate Urethra Seminal Vesicle Penis Epididymus Bulbourethral Gland Scrotum Testis
  7. 7. Female Reproductive Structures
  8. 8. Female Reproductive Structures • Ovaries – contains follicles where eggs (ova) mature – produces estrogen and progesterone • Egg travels down the fallopian tube (oviduct) to the uterus
  9. 9. Female Reproductive Structures • Cilia lining fallopian tubes - sweeps egg into the uterus – Fertilization is usually here • Uterus (womb) – Muscular organ where fetus develops – Contracts during birth • The cervix connects the uterus/vagina • Vagina – birth canal
  10. 10. Fallopian Tube Uterus Bladder Ovary Urethra Clitoris Labia Major Cervix Anus Vagina Labia Minor
  11. 11. Ovary Fallopian Tube Uterus Cervix Vagina
  12. 12. Menstrual Cycle Summary • Regulated by negative feedback • Follicular phase – Pituitary responds to low estrogen levels  releases FSH & LH – Follicle (egg) develops, and releases estrogen • Ovulation – Shortest phase – FSH/LH peak, follicle ruptures, egg releases
  13. 13. Menstrual Cycle Summary • Luteal Phase – corpus luteum releases estrogen and progesterone – Uterine lining builds up – Fertilization may occur • Menstruation occurs if egg isn’t fertilized – Corpus luteum breaks down – Estrogen and progesterone decrease – Blood, tissue, and egg leave thru the vagina • Low estrogen levels cause pituitary to release FSH & LH… the cycle repeats
  14. 14. Fertilization and Implantation • Fertilization occurs in the oviduct – Zygote – a fertilized egg, diploid cell • Cell division begins – Embryo - > 1 cell – Morula – solid ball of 64 cells – Blastocyst – hollow ball of cells • Blastocyst takes ~7 days to implant in the uterine lining • Differentiation begins, cells specialize Oviduct 4 cells 2 cells Morula Fertilization Zygote Blastocyst Implantation Uterine wall Ovary Egg
  15. 15. Embryonic Development • Gastrulation is the formation of 3 embryonic germ layers • Endoderm – lining of digestive, reproductive, respiratory systems • Mesoderm – muscles, blood, and bones • Ectoderm – skin and nervous system
  16. 16. Human Development Video clip Link • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UgT5rUQ9EmQ
  17. 17. Placental Mammals For complete internal development to occur, there must be a continuous food supply, gas exchange, and waste removal. Placental mammals supply these needs with a placenta. Examples: humans, dogs, rats, horses, and deer.
  18. 18.  The Placenta
  19. 19. Pregnancy and Development • Specialized embryonic membranes develop to protect and nourish the embryo • Chorion – develops into the placenta • Placenta and umbilical cord connect fetus to mother – Provides energy and O2, removes wastes and CO2
  20. 20. Pregnancy and Development • Amnion develops into the amniotic sac which cushions the fetus
  21. 21. Placenta and Umbilical Cord The embryo is connected to the placenta by an umbilical cord which contains large blood vessels that transport food, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes between the mother and fetus. Embryo = 0-8 weeks Fetus = after 8 weeks
  22. 22. Stages of Pregnancy – 3 Trimesters
  23. 23. Fetal Growth and Development • 1 st Trimester – all organ systems formed by 7th week • 2 nd Trimester – organs mature, heart can be heard • 3 rd Trimester – greatest size and mass increase
  24. 24. 5 Weeks 9 Weeks 14 Weeks 20 Weeks
  25. 25. Birth The hormone oxytocin causes a series of uterine contractions to begin (labor.) The amniotic sac breaks, the cervix dilates, and as the contractions become more intense the fetus is pushed head first and face down through the birth canal. The birth is followed by afterbirth or expulsion of the placenta. The umbilical cord is cut and tied immediately after birth.

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