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Flowers for moodle 2013 14

Flowers for moodle 2013 14






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    Flowers for moodle 2013 14 Flowers for moodle 2013 14 Presentation Transcript

    • Flowers • Reproductive structures of angiosperms • Sepals are the outermost layer which encloses a bud and protects the developing flower • Petals are just inside sepals, fragrance and color attracts pollinators • The receptacle is where sepals, petals, and sex organs attach
    • Flowers (cont.) • Stamen - male sex organ – Anthers produce pollen – Filaments hold the anther up for pollinators or wind • Pistil (aka carpel) – female sex organ – The stigma is the sticky end where pollen lands – The style is the “neck” which connects the stigma to the ovary – The ovary contains ovules, when mature the ovary becomes a fruit (ovules become seeds)
    • Flower Anatomy Petal m ta Anther S Filament til Pis Stigma en Style Ovary Ovule Receptacle Sepal
    • Pollination • Pollen transfers from anther to stigma – Self-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovule of the same plant – Cross-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovules of another plant • thus increasing genetic variation
    • Cross Pollination Methods • Wind Pollination – Inefficient, high pollen production – Flowers (if present) are small and not colorful
    • Cross Pollination Methods • Vector pollination uses animals • More efficient • Plants attract pollinators by: – Color – Fragrance – Nectar
    • Coevolution • Two species evolve in response to changes in one another
    • Bee Pollination
    • Butterfly Pollination
    • Bat Pollination
    • Moth Pollination
    • Seed Dispersal • Wind scatters seeds – Maple trees, dandelions  Barbs stick to animal fur – Burdock plant  Animals eat and excrete seeds
    • Fertilization 1. Pollen lands on stigma 2. Pollen tube grows in the style 3. Sperm and egg form a zygote
    • Double Fertilization • 2 sperm enter the ovary • 1st sperm fertilizes the egg; results in a zygote (2N) • 2nd sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei; forms endosperm (3N) http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp39 /3902001.html