Flowers
• Reproductive structures of angiosperms
• Sepals are the outermost layer which
encloses a bud and protects the
de...
Flowers (cont.)
• Stamen - male sex organ

– Anthers produce pollen
– Filaments hold the anther up for
pollinators or wind...
Flower Anatomy
Petal
m
ta Anther
S
Filament

til
Pis

Stigma

en

Style
Ovary

Ovule
Receptacle

Sepal
Pollination

• Pollen transfers from anther to stigma

– Self-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovule
of the same plant
– Cr...
Cross Pollination Methods
• Wind Pollination
– Inefficient, high pollen production
– Flowers (if present) are small and no...
Cross Pollination Methods
• Vector pollination uses animals
• More efficient
• Plants attract pollinators by:
– Color
– Fr...
Coevolution
• Two species evolve in response to
changes in one another
Bee
Pollination
Butterfly
Pollination
Bat
Pollination
Moth
Pollination
Seed Dispersal
• Wind scatters seeds
– Maple trees,
dandelions


Barbs stick to animal fur
– Burdock plant



Animals ea...
Fertilization
1. Pollen lands on
stigma
2. Pollen tube grows
in the style
3. Sperm and egg
form a zygote
Double Fertilization
• 2 sperm enter the ovary
• 1st sperm fertilizes the egg;
results in a zygote (2N)
• 2nd sperm fertil...
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Flowers for moodle 2013 14

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Flowers for moodle 2013 14

  1. 1. Flowers • Reproductive structures of angiosperms • Sepals are the outermost layer which encloses a bud and protects the developing flower • Petals are just inside sepals, fragrance and color attracts pollinators • The receptacle is where sepals, petals, and sex organs attach
  2. 2. Flowers (cont.) • Stamen - male sex organ – Anthers produce pollen – Filaments hold the anther up for pollinators or wind • Pistil (aka carpel) – female sex organ – The stigma is the sticky end where pollen lands – The style is the “neck” which connects the stigma to the ovary – The ovary contains ovules, when mature the ovary becomes a fruit (ovules become seeds)
  3. 3. Flower Anatomy Petal m ta Anther S Filament til Pis Stigma en Style Ovary Ovule Receptacle Sepal
  4. 4. Pollination • Pollen transfers from anther to stigma – Self-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovule of the same plant – Cross-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovules of another plant • thus increasing genetic variation
  5. 5. Cross Pollination Methods • Wind Pollination – Inefficient, high pollen production – Flowers (if present) are small and not colorful
  6. 6. Cross Pollination Methods • Vector pollination uses animals • More efficient • Plants attract pollinators by: – Color – Fragrance – Nectar
  7. 7. Coevolution • Two species evolve in response to changes in one another
  8. 8. Bee Pollination
  9. 9. Butterfly Pollination
  10. 10. Bat Pollination
  11. 11. Moth Pollination
  12. 12. Seed Dispersal • Wind scatters seeds – Maple trees, dandelions  Barbs stick to animal fur – Burdock plant  Animals eat and excrete seeds
  13. 13. Fertilization 1. Pollen lands on stigma 2. Pollen tube grows in the style 3. Sperm and egg form a zygote
  14. 14. Double Fertilization • 2 sperm enter the ovary • 1st sperm fertilizes the egg; results in a zygote (2N) • 2nd sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei; forms endosperm (3N) http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp39 /3902001.html

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