ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

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ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

  1. 1. Unit 4: Energy Flow ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration
  2. 2. Energy – What is it?  The ability to do work  Energy can not be created or destroyed – Energy is TRANSFORMED  Forms of energy – Light, electric, chemical  Chemical energy is stored in the electrons of chemical bonds
  3. 3. Biochemical Energy  Cells store and release energy using the chemical ATP – Adenosine triphosphate  ATP is the “energy currency” of the cell – MANY cellular processes use ATP  Cells release energy by breaking a phosphate bond
  4. 4. Photosynthesis   Plants convert light energy into chemical energy Energy is stored in the bonds of carbohydrates
  5. 5. Light and Pigments     Light travels in waves Colors have different wavelengths “White” light is a mixture of all colors in the visible spectrum Red – longest wavelength, lowest energy
  6. 6. Light and Pigments   Plant pigments absorb sunlight Chlorophyll – green pigment needed for photosynthesis – Reflects green light – Absorbs other light
  7. 7. Photosynthesis Overview    Reactants: CO2, H2O, (light energy) Products: O2, C6H12O6 (glucose) Two reactions – Light-dependent reaction – Calvin Cycle (light-independent reaction)
  8. 8. Electron Carriers  Light energy “excites” electrons in chlorophyll  High energy electrons need special carriers – ie: NADP+ and NAD+
  9. 9. Light-Dependent Rxn  Chlorophyll absorbs light, and electrons become energized Water splits to produce H+ and O2  Electron loses energy to form ATP  – ATP goes to Calvin Cycle  H+ and NADP forms NADPH – Carries energy to Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Rxn)
  10. 10. Light Reaction – Electron Transport
  11. 11. Light-Independent Rxn (Calvin Cycle)  CO2 is added to a 5 carbon sugar  Energy from NADPH & ATP are used to carry out reactions  Produces sugar (glucose)
  12. 12. Photosynthesis Overview
  13. 13. Chloroplast Structure   Thylakoid sacs contain chlorophyll Granum – stacks of thylakoids – Light rxn  Stroma – open space – Calvin cycle
  14. 14. Light Reaction
  15. 15. Calvin Cycle
  16. 16. ATP Revisited  How do living things use ATP for energy?  Where does ATP come from?
  17. 17. Biochemical Energy  Cells store and release energy using ATP – Adenosine triphosphate   ATP is the “energy currency” of the cell Cells release energy by breaking a phosphate bond
  18. 18. Overview of Cellular Respiration
  19. 19. Cellular Respiration  Energy from glucose is released – In the presence of O2 – Energy is stored in ATP – CO2 is a byproduct 6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + ATP
  20. 20. Overview of Cellular Respiration  3 Stages – Glycolysis – Krebs Cycle – Electron Transport Chain
  21. 21. Glycolysis In the cytoplasm  Glucose breaks into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3C)  Uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP  – Net gain of 2 ATP 2 NADH produced  Pyruvic acid is used for respiration OR fermentation 
  22. 22. Krebs Cycle    In the mitochondria Pyruvic acid breaks down Series of 9 rxns which produce: – CO2 – FADH2 and NADH – 2 ATP  FADH2 and NADH go on to the ETC to…. – MAKE MORE ATP!!!!
  23. 23. Electron Transport Chain    Occurs in mitochondria Uses high energy electrons from FADH2 and NADH to make ATP O2 accepts the final electron forming H2O
  24. 24. Page 229 The Totals Electron carriers which go on the electron transport chain to generate ATP!
  25. 25. 2 2 32
  26. 26. Fermentation  Releases energy from food in the absence of O2  2 Types – Alcoholic – produces ethanol and CO2 • Yeast, bacteria – Lactic Acid – produces lactic acid • Muscle cells, bacteria

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