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ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration
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ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

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    ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration Presentation Transcript

    • Unit 4: Energy Flow ATP, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration
    • Energy – What is it?  The ability to do work  Energy can not be created or destroyed – Energy is TRANSFORMED  Forms of energy – Light, electric, chemical  Chemical energy is stored in the electrons of chemical bonds
    • Biochemical Energy  Cells store and release energy using the chemical ATP – Adenosine triphosphate  ATP is the “energy currency” of the cell – MANY cellular processes use ATP  Cells release energy by breaking a phosphate bond
    • Photosynthesis   Plants convert light energy into chemical energy Energy is stored in the bonds of carbohydrates
    • Light and Pigments     Light travels in waves Colors have different wavelengths “White” light is a mixture of all colors in the visible spectrum Red – longest wavelength, lowest energy
    • Light and Pigments   Plant pigments absorb sunlight Chlorophyll – green pigment needed for photosynthesis – Reflects green light – Absorbs other light
    • Photosynthesis Overview    Reactants: CO2, H2O, (light energy) Products: O2, C6H12O6 (glucose) Two reactions – Light-dependent reaction – Calvin Cycle (light-independent reaction)
    • Electron Carriers  Light energy “excites” electrons in chlorophyll  High energy electrons need special carriers – ie: NADP+ and NAD+
    • Light-Dependent Rxn  Chlorophyll absorbs light, and electrons become energized Water splits to produce H+ and O2  Electron loses energy to form ATP  – ATP goes to Calvin Cycle  H+ and NADP forms NADPH – Carries energy to Calvin Cycle (Light Independent Rxn)
    • Light Reaction – Electron Transport
    • Light-Independent Rxn (Calvin Cycle)  CO2 is added to a 5 carbon sugar  Energy from NADPH & ATP are used to carry out reactions  Produces sugar (glucose)
    • Photosynthesis Overview
    • Chloroplast Structure   Thylakoid sacs contain chlorophyll Granum – stacks of thylakoids – Light rxn  Stroma – open space – Calvin cycle
    • Light Reaction
    • Calvin Cycle
    • ATP Revisited  How do living things use ATP for energy?  Where does ATP come from?
    • Biochemical Energy  Cells store and release energy using ATP – Adenosine triphosphate   ATP is the “energy currency” of the cell Cells release energy by breaking a phosphate bond
    • Overview of Cellular Respiration
    • Cellular Respiration  Energy from glucose is released – In the presence of O2 – Energy is stored in ATP – CO2 is a byproduct 6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP oxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + ATP
    • Overview of Cellular Respiration  3 Stages – Glycolysis – Krebs Cycle – Electron Transport Chain
    • Glycolysis In the cytoplasm  Glucose breaks into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3C)  Uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP  – Net gain of 2 ATP 2 NADH produced  Pyruvic acid is used for respiration OR fermentation 
    • Krebs Cycle    In the mitochondria Pyruvic acid breaks down Series of 9 rxns which produce: – CO2 – FADH2 and NADH – 2 ATP  FADH2 and NADH go on to the ETC to…. – MAKE MORE ATP!!!!
    • Electron Transport Chain    Occurs in mitochondria Uses high energy electrons from FADH2 and NADH to make ATP O2 accepts the final electron forming H2O
    • Page 229 The Totals Electron carriers which go on the electron transport chain to generate ATP!
    • 2 2 32
    • Fermentation  Releases energy from food in the absence of O2  2 Types – Alcoholic – produces ethanol and CO2 • Yeast, bacteria – Lactic Acid – produces lactic acid • Muscle cells, bacteria