Course objectives• identify the steps in evidence based practice• formulate answerable questions relevant to their ownwork setting• define what constitutes evidence in their own worksetting• identify strategies for locating local or external evidenceto answer their questions• make use of tools for critically appraising publishedresearch• provide examples of how evidence can be applied byhealth librarians in the real world
What is EBLIP?“an approach to information science thatpromotes the collection, interpretation andintegration of valid, important and applicableuser-reported, librarian observed, andresearch-derived evidence. The bestavailable evidence, moderated by user needsand preferences, is applied to improve thequality of professional judgements.”(Booth, 2000)
Why should you care?“Wisdom means acting with knowledge whiledoubting what you know.”Jeffrey Pfeffer&Robert I. Sutton
A brief history1997 - Hypothesis article by Jon Eldredge2000 - MLA Research Section created anEvidence-Based LibrarianshipImplementation Committee2000 - Eldredge publishes papers that providethe framework for EBL2001 - first Evidence Based Librarianshipconference held in Sheffield, UK2004 - Booth and Brice book on EBIP2006 - EBLIP journal launches
The 5 A’s of EBLIP1) Formulate a focused question (Ask)2) Find the best evidence to help answer thatquestion (Acquire)3) Critically appraise what you have found toensure the quality of the evidence (Appraise)4) Apply what you have learned to yourpractice (Apply)5) Evaluate your performance (Assess)
5 As processHayward, 2007, http://www.cche.net/info.asp
Is the EBLIP model used?• The ideal vs reality• Criticisms of EBLIP• Barriers to practicing in an evidence basedmanner
Barriers to evidence use• Organizational dynamics• Lack of time/competing demands on time• Personal outlook / lack of confidence• Education and training gaps• Information needs not being met• Financial limits
Other considerations• individual vs group decision making• influences / biases• impact of work environment• types of evidence• enablers
Widening the modelA revised process:1. Articulate – come to an understanding of the problemand articulate it.2. Assemble – assemble evidence from multiple sourcesthat are most appropriate to the problem at hand.3. Assess – place the evidence against all components ofthe wider overarching problem. Assess the evidence forits quantity and quality.4. Agree – determine the best way forward and if workingwith a group, try to achieve consensus based on theevidence and organisational goals.5. Adapt –revisit goals and needs. Reflect on the successof the implementation.
Bringing the components togetherResearchEvidenceProfessionalknowledgeLocalevidence
Questions to ask yourselfWhat do I alreadyknow?What local evidenceis available?What does theliterature say?What otherinformation do I needto gather?How does theinformation I haveapply to my context?Make a decisionWhat worked? Whatdidn’t? What did Ilearn?PRACTITIONER
Turning theory intopractice: a caseillustration
The case (1/2)A new distributed undergraduatemedical education program hasbegun in the province of BritishColumbia. A librarian at the newlocation in the northern part of theprovince is wondering the best way tobecome involved in the medicalcurriculum, specifically with theteaching of EBM skills.
The case (2/2)After learning more aboutundergraduate medical education shewonders if she should try to becomeintegrated in the UGME teaching as aPBL tutor? She wonders if doing sowould have a positive effect on themedical students, and whether shecan be effective in the role.
How do you think thelibrarian should approachthis decision?
What Fyfe and Payne did1. Looked at the existing literatureo several good studies that provided background re:librarian role, but nothing that was directly relevant.Read and examined studies, taking applicableinformation.o research indicated that a librarian can have an effecton student engagement in EBM training; PBLinvolvement can increase respect for the librarian;PBL involvement can lead to other connections withstudents who otherwise wouldnt come to library;and, such involvement builds good relationships.
What Fyfe and Payne did2. Decided to give it a tryo took a 2 day PBL tutor training courseo engaged in tutor shadowing to increase confidenceo became a PBL tutor3. Following the PBL session, was evaluated bythe students, alongside all the tutorso received comparable ratings to other tutorso qualitative comments from students were positive
What Fyfe and Payne did4. Reflection on the processo reference skills are similar to PBL facilitation skillso time is a challenge was able to negotiate reduced reference hours inorder to continue in PBL roleo The involvement outside a traditional librarian roleled to increased relationships with other tutors andstudentso Led to ideas for possible future research: impact on relationship building changes in student perceptions of librarians impact on future scope of medical practice andpatient interaction
Burning question case studyDoes library instruction helppublic health professionals in askinggood clinical questions?
SPICE question structureSetting the context (e.g., hospital library, academichealth center)Perspective the stakeholder(s) (e.g., graduate students,managers, reference librarians)Intervention the service being offered (e.g., chat reference,RefWorks workshops)Comparison the service to which it is being compared(optional)Evaluation the measure used to determinechange/success/impact (e.g., usage statistics,course grade)
SPICE case studySetting Department of Health (New Mexico)Perspective LibrariansIntervention 3 hour instruction session on evidence-basedpublic health informationComparison NothingEvaluation Number of work-related questions asked;Sophistication of questions (background vsforeground)
Librarianship domainsReference/Enquiries—providing service and access to information that meetsthe needs of library users.Education— Incorporating teaching methods and strategies to educate usersabout library resources and how to improve research skills.LIS Education subset – Specifically pertaining to the professional education oflibrarians.Collections—Building a high-quality collection of print and electronic materialsthat is useful, cost-effective and meets the users’ needs.Management—managing people and resources within an organization. Thisincludes marketing and promotion as well as human resources.Information access and retrieval—creating better systems and methods forinformation retrieval and access.Professional Issues—exploring issues that affect librarians as a profession.(Koufogiannakis, Crumley, and Slater, 2004)
Librarianship domains• Information access & retrieval• Collections• Management• Education• Reference• Professional issues• [Scholarly communications]
Activity 3formulate your burning question usingSPICE
Definition of evidence“the available body of facts or informationindicating whether a belief or proposition istrue or valid”(Oxford English Dictionary, 2011)
Activity 4What are some possible evidencesources we use to make decisions inhealth sciences libraries?
Evidence SourcesHard evidence Soft evidencePublished literature Input from colleaguesStatistics Tacit knowledgeLocal research andevaluationFeedback from usersOther documents Anecdotal evidenceFacts
Activity 5For your own burning question, what aresome possible sources of evidence that willhelp you make a good decision?
Sources for locating andcreating evidenceAcquire
Critical appraisalWeigh up the evidence• Reliable• Valid• ApplicableChecklists help with critical appraisal processLanguage is different for interpretive(qualitative) research
Reliability1. Results clearly explained2. Response rate3. Useful analysis4. appropriate analysis5. Results address research question(s)6. Limitations7. Conclusions based on actual results
Validity1. Focused issue/question2. Conflict of interest3. Appropriate and replicable method4. Population and representative sample5. Validated instrument
Applicability1. Implications reported in original study2. Applicability to other populations3. More information required
ReLIANTFor appraising research on information skillsinstructionFocuses on:• Study design• Educational context• Results• RelevanceKoufogiannakis, D., Booth, A., & Brettle, A. (2006) Reliant: Readers Guide to the Literature onInterventions Addressing the Need for Education and Training. Library & Information Research30(94), 44-51.
Activity 7critically appraise Eldredge study using theReLIANT checklist