Evidence basedlibrarianship in practiceUsing evidence inhealth sciences librariesLorie Kloda, MLIS, PhD, AHIPMcGill Univer...
Introductions1. Your name2. Your title/position3. Your city, institution4. What experience do you have withevidencebased p...
Activity 1identify barriers tousing research findings in your work
What we will cover today
Course objectives• identify the steps in evidence based practice• formulate answerable questions relevant to their ownwork...
Activity 2what are your "burning" questions?
The EBLIP Process
What is EBLIP?“an approach to information science thatpromotes the collection, interpretation andintegration of valid, imp...
Why should you care?“Wisdom means acting with knowledge whiledoubting what you know.”Jeffrey Pfeffer&Robert I. Sutton
A brief history1997 - Hypothesis article by Jon Eldredge2000 - MLA Research Section created anEvidence-Based Librarianship...
The 5 A’s of EBLIP1) Formulate a focused question (Ask)2) Find the best evidence to help answer thatquestion (Acquire)3) C...
5 As processHayward, 2007, http://www.cche.net/info.asp
Is the EBLIP model used?• The ideal vs reality• Criticisms of EBLIP• Barriers to practicing in an evidence basedmanner
Barriers to evidence use• Organizational dynamics• Lack of time/competing demands on time• Personal outlook / lack of conf...
Determinants by level of control
Other considerations• individual vs group decision making• influences / biases• impact of work environment• types of evide...
Widening the modelA revised process:1. Articulate – come to an understanding of the problemand articulate it.2. Assemble –...
Bringing the components togetherResearchEvidenceProfessionalknowledgeLocalevidence
Questions to ask yourselfWhat do I alreadyknow?What local evidenceis available?What does theliterature say?What otherinfor...
Turning theory intopractice: a caseillustration
The case (1/2)A new distributed undergraduatemedical education program hasbegun in the province of BritishColumbia. A libr...
The case (2/2)After learning more aboutundergraduate medical education shewonders if she should try to becomeintegrated in...
How do you think thelibrarian should approachthis decision?
What Fyfe and Payne did1. Looked at the existing literatureo several good studies that provided background re:librarian ro...
What Fyfe and Payne did2. Decided to give it a tryo took a 2 day PBL tutor training courseo engaged in tutor shadowing to ...
What Fyfe and Payne did4. Reflection on the processo reference skills are similar to PBL facilitation skillso time is a ch...
Formulating ananswerable questionAsk
―Questions drive the entire EBL process.[…] The wording and content of thequestions will determine what kindsof research d...
Scenario case study
Burning question case studyDoes library instruction helppublic health professionals in askinggood clinical questions?
SPICE question structureSetting the context (e.g., hospital library, academichealth center)Perspective the stakeholder(s) ...
SPICE case studySetting Department of Health (New Mexico)Perspective LibrariansIntervention 3 hour instruction session on ...
Librarianship domainsReference/Enquiries—providing service and access to information that meetsthe needs of library users....
Librarianship domains• Information access & retrieval• Collections• Management• Education• Reference• Professional issues•...
Activity 3formulate your burning question usingSPICE
Breakplease be back by 10:45 a.m.
What counts asevidence?
Definition of evidence“the available body of facts or informationindicating whether a belief or proposition istrue or vali...
Activity 4What are some possible evidencesources we use to make decisions inhealth sciences libraries?
Evidence SourcesHard evidence Soft evidencePublished literature Input from colleaguesStatistics Tacit knowledgeLocal resea...
Activity 5For your own burning question, what aresome possible sources of evidence that willhelp you make a good decision?
Sources for locating andcreating evidenceAcquire
LocatingPublished research• Databases• Books, bibliographies• Mail lists, blogs, wordof mouth• Conferences• Systematicrevi...
CreatingLocal evidence• Usage data• Transaction data• Evaluation results• Survey, interview, focus group findings• Inputs,...
Locating published evidenceDatabases• Library and information studies• Management• Education• Social sciences• Health scie...
http://libvalue.cci.utk.edu/http://www.informedlibrarian.com/http://eprints.rclis.org/
Locating published evidenceConferences• EBLIP (1-7)• Healthlibrarianship, e.g., MLA, CHLA, EAHIL, ICML• Assessment, e.g., ...
Locating published evidenceSystematic reviewshttp://lis-systematic-reviews.wikispaces.com
Locating published evidenceEvidence summarieshttp://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIPEvidence Based Library an...
Creating evidenceData and findings• Usage data• Transaction data• Evaluation results• Survey, interview, focus group findi...
Creating evidenceSources for local evidence already available• Library assessment department• University planning and inst...
Creating evidence
Evidence for case studyLocating evidence• Databases: LibValue, LISA• Systematic review wiki• Journals: JMLA, HILJ, etc.• C...
Activity 61. identify 2-3 sources for locating evidenceto answer your question2. consider 1 potential source of localevide...
Lunch break
Critical appraisalAppraise
Critical appraisalWeigh up the evidence• Reliable• Valid• ApplicableChecklists help with critical appraisal processLanguag...
Reliability1. Results clearly explained2. Response rate3. Useful analysis4. appropriate analysis5. Results address researc...
Validity1. Focused issue/question2. Conflict of interest3. Appropriate and replicable method4. Population and representati...
Applicability1. Implications reported in original study2. Applicability to other populations3. More information required
ReLIANTFor appraising research on information skillsinstructionFocuses on:• Study design• Educational context• Results• Re...
Activity 7critically appraise Eldredge study using theReLIANT checklist
Critical appraisal: the shortcut
Applying evidence inpracticeApply
Ways to apply evidence1)The evidence is directly applicable2)The evidence needs to be locally validated3)The evidence impr...
Dealing with the barriers
Enablers of evidence use• Positive organizational dynamics• Ongoing education• Positive personal outlook• Time
Activity 8Reflection on applying evidence to yourpractice question
Wrap upAssess
Activity 93 things you will take home and act upon
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Evidence based librarianship in practice: Using evidence in health sciences libraries

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6-hour workshop (6 MLA credits) offered at the Medical Library Association Annual Meeting, May 2013

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Evidence based librarianship in practice: Using evidence in health sciences libraries

  1. 1. Evidence basedlibrarianship in practiceUsing evidence inhealth sciences librariesLorie Kloda, MLIS, PhD, AHIPMcGill UniversityDenise Koufogiannakis,MA, MLIS, PhDUniversity of AlbertaMedical Library Association Annual Meeting, Boston, May 2013
  2. 2. Introductions1. Your name2. Your title/position3. Your city, institution4. What experience do you have withevidencebased practice?
  3. 3. Activity 1identify barriers tousing research findings in your work
  4. 4. What we will cover today
  5. 5. Course objectives• identify the steps in evidence based practice• formulate answerable questions relevant to their ownwork setting• define what constitutes evidence in their own worksetting• identify strategies for locating local or external evidenceto answer their questions• make use of tools for critically appraising publishedresearch• provide examples of how evidence can be applied byhealth librarians in the real world
  6. 6. Activity 2what are your "burning" questions?
  7. 7. The EBLIP Process
  8. 8. What is EBLIP?“an approach to information science thatpromotes the collection, interpretation andintegration of valid, important and applicableuser-reported, librarian observed, andresearch-derived evidence. The bestavailable evidence, moderated by user needsand preferences, is applied to improve thequality of professional judgements.”(Booth, 2000)
  9. 9. Why should you care?“Wisdom means acting with knowledge whiledoubting what you know.”Jeffrey Pfeffer&Robert I. Sutton
  10. 10. A brief history1997 - Hypothesis article by Jon Eldredge2000 - MLA Research Section created anEvidence-Based LibrarianshipImplementation Committee2000 - Eldredge publishes papers that providethe framework for EBL2001 - first Evidence Based Librarianshipconference held in Sheffield, UK2004 - Booth and Brice book on EBIP2006 - EBLIP journal launches
  11. 11. The 5 A’s of EBLIP1) Formulate a focused question (Ask)2) Find the best evidence to help answer thatquestion (Acquire)3) Critically appraise what you have found toensure the quality of the evidence (Appraise)4) Apply what you have learned to yourpractice (Apply)5) Evaluate your performance (Assess)
  12. 12. 5 As processHayward, 2007, http://www.cche.net/info.asp
  13. 13. Is the EBLIP model used?• The ideal vs reality• Criticisms of EBLIP• Barriers to practicing in an evidence basedmanner
  14. 14. Barriers to evidence use• Organizational dynamics• Lack of time/competing demands on time• Personal outlook / lack of confidence• Education and training gaps• Information needs not being met• Financial limits
  15. 15. Determinants by level of control
  16. 16. Other considerations• individual vs group decision making• influences / biases• impact of work environment• types of evidence• enablers
  17. 17. Widening the modelA revised process:1. Articulate – come to an understanding of the problemand articulate it.2. Assemble – assemble evidence from multiple sourcesthat are most appropriate to the problem at hand.3. Assess – place the evidence against all components ofthe wider overarching problem. Assess the evidence forits quantity and quality.4. Agree – determine the best way forward and if workingwith a group, try to achieve consensus based on theevidence and organisational goals.5. Adapt –revisit goals and needs. Reflect on the successof the implementation.
  18. 18. Bringing the components togetherResearchEvidenceProfessionalknowledgeLocalevidence
  19. 19. Questions to ask yourselfWhat do I alreadyknow?What local evidenceis available?What does theliterature say?What otherinformation do I needto gather?How does theinformation I haveapply to my context?Make a decisionWhat worked? Whatdidn’t? What did Ilearn?PRACTITIONER
  20. 20. Turning theory intopractice: a caseillustration
  21. 21. The case (1/2)A new distributed undergraduatemedical education program hasbegun in the province of BritishColumbia. A librarian at the newlocation in the northern part of theprovince is wondering the best way tobecome involved in the medicalcurriculum, specifically with theteaching of EBM skills.
  22. 22. The case (2/2)After learning more aboutundergraduate medical education shewonders if she should try to becomeintegrated in the UGME teaching as aPBL tutor? She wonders if doing sowould have a positive effect on themedical students, and whether shecan be effective in the role.
  23. 23. How do you think thelibrarian should approachthis decision?
  24. 24. What Fyfe and Payne did1. Looked at the existing literatureo several good studies that provided background re:librarian role, but nothing that was directly relevant.Read and examined studies, taking applicableinformation.o research indicated that a librarian can have an effecton student engagement in EBM training; PBLinvolvement can increase respect for the librarian;PBL involvement can lead to other connections withstudents who otherwise wouldnt come to library;and, such involvement builds good relationships.
  25. 25. What Fyfe and Payne did2. Decided to give it a tryo took a 2 day PBL tutor training courseo engaged in tutor shadowing to increase confidenceo became a PBL tutor3. Following the PBL session, was evaluated bythe students, alongside all the tutorso received comparable ratings to other tutorso qualitative comments from students were positive
  26. 26. What Fyfe and Payne did4. Reflection on the processo reference skills are similar to PBL facilitation skillso time is a challenge was able to negotiate reduced reference hours inorder to continue in PBL roleo The involvement outside a traditional librarian roleled to increased relationships with other tutors andstudentso Led to ideas for possible future research: impact on relationship building changes in student perceptions of librarians impact on future scope of medical practice andpatient interaction
  27. 27. Formulating ananswerable questionAsk
  28. 28. ―Questions drive the entire EBL process.[…] The wording and content of thequestions will determine what kindsof research designs are neededto secure answers.”(J. Eldredge, 2000)
  29. 29. Scenario case study
  30. 30. Burning question case studyDoes library instruction helppublic health professionals in askinggood clinical questions?
  31. 31. SPICE question structureSetting the context (e.g., hospital library, academichealth center)Perspective the stakeholder(s) (e.g., graduate students,managers, reference librarians)Intervention the service being offered (e.g., chat reference,RefWorks workshops)Comparison the service to which it is being compared(optional)Evaluation the measure used to determinechange/success/impact (e.g., usage statistics,course grade)
  32. 32. SPICE case studySetting Department of Health (New Mexico)Perspective LibrariansIntervention 3 hour instruction session on evidence-basedpublic health informationComparison NothingEvaluation Number of work-related questions asked;Sophistication of questions (background vsforeground)
  33. 33. Librarianship domainsReference/Enquiries—providing service and access to information that meetsthe needs of library users.Education— Incorporating teaching methods and strategies to educate usersabout library resources and how to improve research skills.LIS Education subset – Specifically pertaining to the professional education oflibrarians.Collections—Building a high-quality collection of print and electronic materialsthat is useful, cost-effective and meets the users’ needs.Management—managing people and resources within an organization. Thisincludes marketing and promotion as well as human resources.Information access and retrieval—creating better systems and methods forinformation retrieval and access.Professional Issues—exploring issues that affect librarians as a profession.(Koufogiannakis, Crumley, and Slater, 2004)
  34. 34. Librarianship domains• Information access & retrieval• Collections• Management• Education• Reference• Professional issues• [Scholarly communications]
  35. 35. Activity 3formulate your burning question usingSPICE
  36. 36. Breakplease be back by 10:45 a.m.
  37. 37. What counts asevidence?
  38. 38. Definition of evidence“the available body of facts or informationindicating whether a belief or proposition istrue or valid”(Oxford English Dictionary, 2011)
  39. 39. Activity 4What are some possible evidencesources we use to make decisions inhealth sciences libraries?
  40. 40. Evidence SourcesHard evidence Soft evidencePublished literature Input from colleaguesStatistics Tacit knowledgeLocal research andevaluationFeedback from usersOther documents Anecdotal evidenceFacts
  41. 41. Activity 5For your own burning question, what aresome possible sources of evidence that willhelp you make a good decision?
  42. 42. Sources for locating andcreating evidenceAcquire
  43. 43. LocatingPublished research• Databases• Books, bibliographies• Mail lists, blogs, wordof mouth• Conferences• Systematicreviews, Evidencesummaries
  44. 44. CreatingLocal evidence• Usage data• Transaction data• Evaluation results• Survey, interview, focus group findings• Inputs, outputs, outcomes, impact
  45. 45. Locating published evidenceDatabases• Library and information studies• Management• Education• Social sciences• Health sciences, psychology
  46. 46. http://libvalue.cci.utk.edu/http://www.informedlibrarian.com/http://eprints.rclis.org/
  47. 47. Locating published evidenceConferences• EBLIP (1-7)• Healthlibrarianship, e.g., MLA, CHLA, EAHIL, ICML• Assessment, e.g., NorthumbriaConference, Library AssessmentConference• Academic, e.g., ACRL• Informationliteracy, e.g., LOEX, WILU, LILAC
  48. 48. Locating published evidenceSystematic reviewshttp://lis-systematic-reviews.wikispaces.com
  49. 49. Locating published evidenceEvidence summarieshttp://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIPEvidence Based Library and InformationPractice journal, 2006->250 evidence summaries
  50. 50. Creating evidenceData and findings• Usage data• Transaction data• Evaluation results• Survey, interview, focus group findings
  51. 51. Creating evidenceSources for local evidence already available• Library assessment department• University planning and institutional analysis• Annual reports• Internal reports• "Stats"
  52. 52. Creating evidence
  53. 53. Evidence for case studyLocating evidence• Databases: LibValue, LISA• Systematic review wiki• Journals: JMLA, HILJ, etc.• Conferences: MLA• EBLIP Evidence SummaryCreating evidence
  54. 54. Activity 61. identify 2-3 sources for locating evidenceto answer your question2. consider 1 potential source of localevidence to look into
  55. 55. Lunch break
  56. 56. Critical appraisalAppraise
  57. 57. Critical appraisalWeigh up the evidence• Reliable• Valid• ApplicableChecklists help with critical appraisal processLanguage is different for interpretive(qualitative) research
  58. 58. Reliability1. Results clearly explained2. Response rate3. Useful analysis4. appropriate analysis5. Results address research question(s)6. Limitations7. Conclusions based on actual results
  59. 59. Validity1. Focused issue/question2. Conflict of interest3. Appropriate and replicable method4. Population and representative sample5. Validated instrument
  60. 60. Applicability1. Implications reported in original study2. Applicability to other populations3. More information required
  61. 61. ReLIANTFor appraising research on information skillsinstructionFocuses on:• Study design• Educational context• Results• RelevanceKoufogiannakis, D., Booth, A., & Brettle, A. (2006) Reliant: Readers Guide to the Literature onInterventions Addressing the Need for Education and Training. Library & Information Research30(94), 44-51.
  62. 62. Activity 7critically appraise Eldredge study using theReLIANT checklist
  63. 63. Critical appraisal: the shortcut
  64. 64. Applying evidence inpracticeApply
  65. 65. Ways to apply evidence1)The evidence is directly applicable2)The evidence needs to be locally validated3)The evidence improves understandingReflection
  66. 66. Dealing with the barriers
  67. 67. Enablers of evidence use• Positive organizational dynamics• Ongoing education• Positive personal outlook• Time
  68. 68. Activity 8Reflection on applying evidence to yourpractice question
  69. 69. Wrap upAssess
  70. 70. Activity 93 things you will take home and act upon

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