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Final california-p2[1]


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  • 1. The Waterworks The Panama Canal and The Los Angeles Aqueduct
  • 2. The Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • 1880 he laid the first iron water pipeline in Los Angeles and also assisted in the making of the Panama Canal.
    • The Los Angeles aqueduct was 233 miles and was completed in November 1913.
    • William Mulholland was responsible for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power.
    • He was responsible for building aqueducts and dams and allowed the city to be one of the largest in the world.
  • 3. The Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • The Los Angeles aqueduct project required over 5,000 workers and 164 tunnels.
    • Los Angeles lacked water– it was a place of drought and quakes.
    • Supplying water for the growing population was crucial.
  • 4. The Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • Muholland taught himself how to keep a water system in his mind and was an engineer in hydraulics.
    • The Los Angeles aqueduct took water from Owens Valley, the only source of water in the city.
    • 1928 the Los Angeles aqueduct drained Owens Lake dry.
  • 5. The Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • Farmers reacted angrily and raised their asking price for land which forced the city administrators to negotiate.
    • Mulholand’s career ended March 12, 1928 when the St. Francis Dam collapsed just hours after he personally inspected the site.
    • His methods eventually led to the California Water Wars. 1905 “through aggressive purchases” Los Angeles City Water Company had acquired enough acreage to begin building.
    • All water rights of the land was held with farmers. Agriculture was thriving at that time.
  • 6. The Panama Canal
    • The Panama Canal was a 400 year dream and the largest project engineered.
    • It provides a 50 mile shortcut to the Pacific Ocean.
    • 1880s Panama was the most difficult and deadliest terrains on Earth and was a highly utilized area.
    • The Panama Canal was built to save 8,000 miles by following the little Panama railroad. This made a canal at sea level possible.
  • 7. The Panama Canal
    • Panama was known as a death trap. It had a three out of four mortality rate of French workers.
    • Yellow Fever was prevalent in the area. A French hospital near the Panama Canal had plants that supplied fresh water for growth. The mosquito that created yellow fever thrived on fresh water in the tropical environment.
  • 8. The Panama Canal
    • John Wallace quit as chief engineer and John Stevens took over.
    • Men were caught underneath tracks or blown up by dynamite. 23 were killed in a premature explosion. Rain caused avalanches of mud slides that fell on top of all digging progress of the canal.
    • $10 million dollars was granted to the United States so that they could build the Panama Canal.
    • Due to the spread of Yellow Fever, the first year of building was chaotic. Workers fled for their lives.
  • 9. The Panama Canal
    • Rain ended up being the best thing for the canal because it provided an endless supply of water from the rainforest.
    • Construction sites were highly stratified and had high salaries for engineers.
    • 50,000 people were in the workforce. African Americans received silver in payment and whites received gold.
    • The Economy was doing well and people were happy.
    • The Panama Canal takes nine hours to cross to the Pacific and there are around 2,000 ships that can fit through the canal.
    • For Queen Elizabeth, the toll to cross The Panama Canal was reported $99,000.
    • The Panama Canal is one of the busiest canals in the world and ships carry a variety of goods such as oil, food, etc. Today there are about 8,000 in the workforce, primarily Panamanian, to help with the upkeep.