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# Earthquakes l10 l14

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• 1. Earthquakes
• 2. Lesson 10: IntroducingEarthquakesObjectives: Brainstorm possible causes and effects of earthquakes and techniques for monitoring and predicting them. Review your group’s Catastrophic Events World Map to update your original thinking about where most earthquakes occur. View a video of actual earthquakes and discuss the destruction that earthquakes can cause.
• 3. What is an Earthquake?1. Earthquakes are __________________________________ __________________________________2. The outermost layer of the earth is called the ___________.3. Displacement is another word for ______________.4. A fault is a __________________________________
• 4. 5. Approximately 90% of all earthquakes are the result of _____________________________.6. Only about 5% of all earthquakes are related to _____________________.
• 5. The Lithosphere1. The lithosphere is the _________________________________.2. It is made up of the __________ and the _____________.3. The lithosphere is broken into many large pieces of earth, called ______________________, that are always moving.4. When two plates move against one another, _____________ builds up between them.
• 6. 5. As the rock within the plate deforms, it stores energy and _________.6. Eventually the rock becomes so deformed that it ______________, releasing energy in the form of a _______________________ that radiate outward in all directions.
• 7. 7. Scientists who study earthquakes are called _________________.8. Seismologists also study precursors, which are _____________________________.9. Examples of precursors include: __________________________________
• 8. Lesson 11: When the Earth ShakesObjectives: Observe the formation and movement of waves in water. Use a spring scale to simulate different kinds of waves. Relate wave movement in a spring to earthquake waves. Use a spring scale to model possible damaging effects of earthquake waves. Design and build a model house that is resistant to shaking.
• 9. Wave Motion1. A wave is _____________________________2. Properties of a wave: a. ________________________________ b. ________________________________3. A focus is _____________________4. Scientists refer to earthquake waves as ___________________.
• 10. 5. Body waves _____________________________6. Surface waves _____________________________7. Types of Body Waves: a. P-waves: ___________________ _____________________________ b. S-waves: ___________________ ____________________________
• 11. 8. Types of Surface Waves: a. __________________ b. __________________9. Ground Motion a. When P-waves reach the surface, they cause ____________ shaking. b. When S-waves reach the surface, they cause _____________ shaking.
• 12.  Fill in the chart below with the different kinds of seismic waves.
• 13. Lesson 12: Recording EarthquakeWavesObjectives: Record vibrations using a model seismograph. Analyze earthquake wave patterns on an actual seismogram. Locate the epicenter of an earthquake using data from three seismograph stations.
• 14. A Brief History of EarthquakeDetection1. The first earthquake detector was invented by a ___________ astronomer in AD 132.2. But it was not until 1880 that instruments could effectively __________ the vibrations from earthquakes.3. Seismologists began using mechanical _______________ to detect, record, and measure the vibrations produced by an earthquake.4. The record made by the seismograph, called a __________, was created on a rotating drum.
• 15. 5. Today, most seismographs are ___________, recording data directly into a computer. A replica of Chang Heng’s earthquake vase
• 16. Define the following terms in the space below.2. Aftershock: _____________________________ _____________________________3. Epicenter: _____________________________ _____________________________
• 17. The Alaska Earthquake of 19641. The seismogram used in Inquiry 12.2 was recorded during which major earthquake in 1964? _____________________________2. How many aftershocks were triggered as a result? ____________3. Describe some of the destruction caused by this earthquake. __________________________________ __________________________________4. Why did only 122 people die during this earthquake? __________________________________
• 18. Finding an Epicenter: the Tortoiseand the Hare1. How can seismograph stations all over the world record the same earthquake? _____________________________2. The point where the earthquake occurs is called the _____________.3. The point on the earth’s surface directly above the focus is called the ______________.4. To pinpoint an earthquake’s epicenter, scientists plot the arrival times of the p- and s-waves on a special graph called a __________________.
• 19. 5. P-waves are (faster / slower) than S-waves.6. An S-wave is like the (tortoise / hare).7. By knowing when each wave arrives at the seismograph station and ___________ the difference, seismologists can determine how far away the earthquake’s epicenter is from their station.
• 20. 8. The greater the difference in time between the P- and S-waves’ arrival, the ____________ the seismograph station is from the epicenter.9. Why is the information from one seismic station not enough to pinpoint the exact location of an earthquake? ______________________________10. How many stations do you need to determine the epicenter of an earthquake? __________
• 21. Lesson 13: Plotting EarthquakesObjectives: Plot on a world map the locations of some of the earthquakes that occurred during the 1990’s. Analyze the locations of earthquakes around the world. Locate three areas of intense earthquake activity on a map. Hypothesize about the reasons for patterns in the locations of earthquakes.
• 22. The Plate Tectonic Theory Scientists have realized that most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur _______________________. The Plate Tectonic Theory states ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________
• 23.  Three main belts of earthquake activity on earth are associated with plate boundaries:  ________________________________  ________________________________  ________________________________ More than ______% of all earthquakes occur in these three seismic belts. The remaining earthquakes occur far away from plate boundaries and are considered ______________ (within the plate) earthquakes.
• 24. The Circum-Pacific Belt (aka, TheRing of Fire) Not this kind of “Ring of Fire!” Approximately _____% of all earthquakes occur here. It is an almost continuous chain of ______________ around the edges of the Pacific Ocean. In this area, the Pacific Plate __________ past or ____________ with adjoining plates.
• 25. The Mediterranean-Himalayan Belt(aka, The Alpide Belt) Approximately _____% of all earthquakes occur here. Extends west from _____________ through the Himalayas, across Iran and Turkey, and west through the _________________ region of Europe. Plate movement in this belt also led to the formation of the _______________ Mountains!
• 26. The Mid-Ocean Ridge The earth’s largest chain of volcanoes is actually __________________! The mid-ocean ridge consists of __________________________________ __________________________________ __ These ridges circle the earth like an endless seam of a _____________. Together with intraplate earthquakes, the mid-ocean ridge accounts for the remaining _______% of all earthquakes.
• 27.  They occur here because ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ This action of upwelling material creates ___________________ and accompanying ____________ activity.
• 28. Mid-Ocean Ridge Animation
• 29. Magnitude and Intensity1. The Richter scale measures the magnitude, or _____________________________ _____________________________2. The magnitude is determined by measuring the amplitude, or “swing” of ___________________________3. It is open-ended, meaning _____________________________
• 30. 4. The largest earthquake ever recorded was __________________________5. Each increase in a magnitude number on the Richter scale represents a ____________ increase in the amplitude seen on the seismogram. (This equates to 32-fold increase in energy released!)
• 31. 6. Scientists use the word intensity to describe ______________________________7. Many factors affect intensity, such as: __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ ____8. The most common earthquake intensity scale used in the US is known as the __________________________________ _
• 32. Lesson 14: Using Earthquakes toStudy the Earth’s InteriorObjectives: Examine the interior structure of some common objects. Discuss how scientists study the structure of the earth’s interior. Recognize that an understanding of the motion of earthquake waves can help scientists formulate hypotheses about the earth’s interior. Using computer images, identify and describe the layers of the earth. Plot the locations of volcanoes and compare these locations with those of earthquakes.
• 33. Earth’s Interior Scientists have learned that the earth is made of ______________ (having a common center) shells. Scientists divide and analyze these shells, or __________, in two ways:  ____________________________  ____________________________
• 34. Dividing the Earth’s Interior byComposition Crust Mantle Core
• 35. How do scientists know the outercore is liquid?
• 36. Dividing Earth’s Interior by PhysicalProperties Lithosphere Asthenosphere
• 37. Earth’s Interior1. How long ago was Earth formed? __________________________________2. Ever since its formation, the Earth has been (gaining / losing) heat.3. How does temperature change as you go deeper into the Earth? __________________________________4. How does pressure change as you go deeper into the Earth? __________________________________
• 38. 5. What are the two kinds of crust? __________________________________ _6. Describe the oceanic crust. __________________________________ _7. Describe the continental crust. __________________________________ _8. Describe the mantle. __________________________________ _9. How is the top part of the mantle different from the bottom part?
• 39. 10. The lithosphere is made up of what two parts? __________________________________ _11. How is the density of the lithosphere different from the density of the asthenosphere? __________________________________ _12. How is the outer core different from the inner core? __________________________________
• 40. Using Waves to Explore the Earth’sInterior The deepest that scientists have drilled into the earth is ________. That’s less than _____% of the distance from the surface to the center! Scientists study the ocean floor and the inner earth using ___________. For studying the ocean, they analyze __________ waves, using a technique called ____________. To study the inside of the earth, they analyze earthquake, or ___________ waves.
• 41.  Sonar stands for __________________________________. Explain how a sonar machine works. __________________________________ __________________________________ __ Earthquake waves behave (similarly / differently) depending on what substance they are traveling through. They know that the outer core is ___________, because __________________________________ _
• 42. Draw your own version of the diagram of the Earth on page 169.Pay close attention to where the dotted lines and the solid linesare. Label each layer as well.