Lesson 10: IntroducingEarthquakesObjectives: Brainstorm possible causes and effects of earthquakes and techniques for monitoring and predicting them. Review your group’s Catastrophic Events World Map to update your original thinking about where most earthquakes occur. View a video of actual earthquakes and discuss the destruction that earthquakes can cause.
What is an Earthquake?1. Earthquakes are __________________________________ __________________________________2. The outermost layer of the earth is called the ___________.3. Displacement is another word for ______________.4. A fault is a __________________________________
5. Approximately 90% of all earthquakes are the result of _____________________________.6. Only about 5% of all earthquakes are related to _____________________.
The Lithosphere1. The lithosphere is the _________________________________.2. It is made up of the __________ and the _____________.3. The lithosphere is broken into many large pieces of earth, called ______________________, that are always moving.4. When two plates move against one another, _____________ builds up between them.
5. As the rock within the plate deforms, it stores energy and _________.6. Eventually the rock becomes so deformed that it ______________, releasing energy in the form of a _______________________ that radiate outward in all directions.
7. Scientists who study earthquakes are called _________________.8. Seismologists also study precursors, which are _____________________________.9. Examples of precursors include: __________________________________
Lesson 11: When the Earth ShakesObjectives: Observe the formation and movement of waves in water. Use a spring scale to simulate different kinds of waves. Relate wave movement in a spring to earthquake waves. Use a spring scale to model possible damaging effects of earthquake waves. Design and build a model house that is resistant to shaking.
Wave Motion1. A wave is _____________________________2. Properties of a wave: a. ________________________________ b. ________________________________3. A focus is _____________________4. Scientists refer to earthquake waves as ___________________.
5. Body waves _____________________________6. Surface waves _____________________________7. Types of Body Waves: a. P-waves: ___________________ _____________________________ b. S-waves: ___________________ ____________________________
8. Types of Surface Waves: a. __________________ b. __________________9. Ground Motion a. When P-waves reach the surface, they cause ____________ shaking. b. When S-waves reach the surface, they cause _____________ shaking.
Fill in the chart below with the different kinds of seismic waves.
Lesson 12: Recording EarthquakeWavesObjectives: Record vibrations using a model seismograph. Analyze earthquake wave patterns on an actual seismogram. Locate the epicenter of an earthquake using data from three seismograph stations.
A Brief History of EarthquakeDetection1. The first earthquake detector was invented by a ___________ astronomer in AD 132.2. But it was not until 1880 that instruments could effectively __________ the vibrations from earthquakes.3. Seismologists began using mechanical _______________ to detect, record, and measure the vibrations produced by an earthquake.4. The record made by the seismograph, called a __________, was created on a rotating drum.
5. Today, most seismographs are ___________, recording data directly into a computer. A replica of Chang Heng’s earthquake vase
Define the following terms in the space below.2. Aftershock: _____________________________ _____________________________3. Epicenter: _____________________________ _____________________________
The Alaska Earthquake of 19641. The seismogram used in Inquiry 12.2 was recorded during which major earthquake in 1964? _____________________________2. How many aftershocks were triggered as a result? ____________3. Describe some of the destruction caused by this earthquake. __________________________________ __________________________________4. Why did only 122 people die during this earthquake? __________________________________
Finding an Epicenter: the Tortoiseand the Hare1. How can seismograph stations all over the world record the same earthquake? _____________________________2. The point where the earthquake occurs is called the _____________.3. The point on the earth’s surface directly above the focus is called the ______________.4. To pinpoint an earthquake’s epicenter, scientists plot the arrival times of the p- and s-waves on a special graph called a __________________.
5. P-waves are (faster / slower) than S-waves.6. An S-wave is like the (tortoise / hare).7. By knowing when each wave arrives at the seismograph station and ___________ the difference, seismologists can determine how far away the earthquake’s epicenter is from their station.
8. The greater the difference in time between the P- and S-waves’ arrival, the ____________ the seismograph station is from the epicenter.9. Why is the information from one seismic station not enough to pinpoint the exact location of an earthquake? ______________________________10. How many stations do you need to determine the epicenter of an earthquake? __________
Lesson 13: Plotting EarthquakesObjectives: Plot on a world map the locations of some of the earthquakes that occurred during the 1990’s. Analyze the locations of earthquakes around the world. Locate three areas of intense earthquake activity on a map. Hypothesize about the reasons for patterns in the locations of earthquakes.
The Plate Tectonic Theory Scientists have realized that most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur _______________________. The Plate Tectonic Theory states ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________
Three main belts of earthquake activity on earth are associated with plate boundaries: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ More than ______% of all earthquakes occur in these three seismic belts. The remaining earthquakes occur far away from plate boundaries and are considered ______________ (within the plate) earthquakes.
The Circum-Pacific Belt (aka, TheRing of Fire) Not this kind of “Ring of Fire!” Approximately _____% of all earthquakes occur here. It is an almost continuous chain of ______________ around the edges of the Pacific Ocean. In this area, the Pacific Plate __________ past or ____________ with adjoining plates.
The Mediterranean-Himalayan Belt(aka, The Alpide Belt) Approximately _____% of all earthquakes occur here. Extends west from _____________ through the Himalayas, across Iran and Turkey, and west through the _________________ region of Europe. Plate movement in this belt also led to the formation of the _______________ Mountains!
The Mid-Ocean Ridge The earth’s largest chain of volcanoes is actually __________________! The mid-ocean ridge consists of __________________________________ __________________________________ __ These ridges circle the earth like an endless seam of a _____________. Together with intraplate earthquakes, the mid-ocean ridge accounts for the remaining _______% of all earthquakes.
They occur here because ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ This action of upwelling material creates ___________________ and accompanying ____________ activity.
Magnitude and Intensity1. The Richter scale measures the magnitude, or _____________________________ _____________________________2. The magnitude is determined by measuring the amplitude, or “swing” of ___________________________3. It is open-ended, meaning _____________________________
4. The largest earthquake ever recorded was __________________________5. Each increase in a magnitude number on the Richter scale represents a ____________ increase in the amplitude seen on the seismogram. (This equates to 32-fold increase in energy released!)
6. Scientists use the word intensity to describe ______________________________7. Many factors affect intensity, such as: __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ ____8. The most common earthquake intensity scale used in the US is known as the __________________________________ _
Lesson 14: Using Earthquakes toStudy the Earth’s InteriorObjectives: Examine the interior structure of some common objects. Discuss how scientists study the structure of the earth’s interior. Recognize that an understanding of the motion of earthquake waves can help scientists formulate hypotheses about the earth’s interior. Using computer images, identify and describe the layers of the earth. Plot the locations of volcanoes and compare these locations with those of earthquakes.
Earth’s Interior Scientists have learned that the earth is made of ______________ (having a common center) shells. Scientists divide and analyze these shells, or __________, in two ways: ____________________________ ____________________________
Dividing the Earth’s Interior byComposition Crust Mantle Core
How do scientists know the outercore is liquid?
Dividing Earth’s Interior by PhysicalProperties Lithosphere Asthenosphere
Earth’s Interior1. How long ago was Earth formed? __________________________________2. Ever since its formation, the Earth has been (gaining / losing) heat.3. How does temperature change as you go deeper into the Earth? __________________________________4. How does pressure change as you go deeper into the Earth? __________________________________
5. What are the two kinds of crust? __________________________________ _6. Describe the oceanic crust. __________________________________ _7. Describe the continental crust. __________________________________ _8. Describe the mantle. __________________________________ _9. How is the top part of the mantle different from the bottom part?
10. The lithosphere is made up of what two parts? __________________________________ _11. How is the density of the lithosphere different from the density of the asthenosphere? __________________________________ _12. How is the outer core different from the inner core? __________________________________
Using Waves to Explore the Earth’sInterior The deepest that scientists have drilled into the earth is ________. That’s less than _____% of the distance from the surface to the center! Scientists study the ocean floor and the inner earth using ___________. For studying the ocean, they analyze __________ waves, using a technique called ____________. To study the inside of the earth, they analyze earthquake, or ___________ waves.
Sonar stands for __________________________________. Explain how a sonar machine works. __________________________________ __________________________________ __ Earthquake waves behave (similarly / differently) depending on what substance they are traveling through. They know that the outer core is ___________, because __________________________________ _
Draw your own version of the diagram of the Earth on page 169.Pay close attention to where the dotted lines and the solid linesare. Label each layer as well.
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