Sci Method Notes

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Sci Method Notes

  1. 1. The Scientific Method<br />Chemistry 1: Unit 1<br />
  2. 2. Stating the Problem<br />Ideas for experiments usually come from making observations.<br />An observation is information collected by using your senses.<br />Fire is hot.<br />Lemons are bitter.<br />Observation: People that watch too much TV don’t do well in school.<br />Let’s turn this observation into a question so that we can figure out how we could study it scientifically.<br />Does watching too much TV rot your brain?<br />This is called making a problem statement.<br />
  3. 3. Take the observations below and turn them into questions.<br />My dog drools at dinner time.<br />The people who do their homework usually do well on the test.<br />Stop and write down your answers before going to the next slide.<br />Stating the Problem<br />
  4. 4. My dog drools at dinner time.<br />Does the smell of food make my dog drool?<br />The people who do their homework usually do well on the test.<br />Does doing your homework help you get good grades?<br />How did you do? Your answers don’t have to match exactly. <br />Stating the Problem<br />
  5. 5. Making a Hypothesis<br />Now that we have decided what we want to study, we have to make a hypothesis.<br />A hypothesis is a prediction about the world that needs to be tested. <br />It should be an: if…then… statement.<br />For example, if you watch too much TV, then your brain rots. <br />
  6. 6. Take the problem statements below and make them into hypotheses.<br />Does eating too much candy make you sick?<br />Does smiling at people make them nicer to you?<br />Stop and write down your answers before going to the next slide.<br />Making a Hypothesis<br />
  7. 7. Does eating too much candy make you sick?<br />If I eat too much candy, then I will get sick.<br />Does smiling at people make them nicer to you?<br />If I smile at people, then they will be nicer to me. <br />How did you do? Your answers don’t have to match exactly. <br />Making a Hypothesis<br />
  8. 8. Sometimes people confuse observations and hypotheses.<br />See if you can identify whether the statements below are observations or hypotheses.<br />If I dye my hair purple, then people will like me more.<br />Samantha has purple hair and is really popular.<br />Making a Hypothesis<br />
  9. 9. If you watch too much TV, then your brain rots<br />The if part of the statement is the Independent Variable.<br />I control the independent variable<br />Amount of TV watched.<br />The then part of the statement is the Dependent Variable.<br />The dependent variable is measured.<br />The amount of rot detected in the brain.<br />Making a Hypothesis<br />
  10. 10. Designing an Experiment<br />Now that we have made a prediction (hypothesis) we can design our experiment.<br />What should our experiment look like?<br />We need to have people watch TV, and see what happens to their brains.<br />Lets vary the amount of TV that they watch and measure their brain activity.<br />
  11. 11. In a good experiment, your goal is to collect data. This determines if our hypothesis is supported or refuted.<br />Data are groups of information. (Datum is one, Data is more than one).<br />Data can be qualitative (descriptions)<br />The older kids jumped farther than the younger kids.<br />Data can be quantitative (numbers)<br />11 year olds long jump an average of 1.6 meters.<br />Designing an Experiment<br />
  12. 12. Your experiment should usually also have a control.<br />A control is atrial that duplicates all conditions except the variable being investigated<br />Example: In our experiment, we should measure the brain activity of people who don’t watch any TV.<br />Designing an Experiment<br />
  13. 13. Designing an Experiment<br />Scientists want their data to be both accurate and precise.<br />Accuracy<br />Close to the true or desired value<br />Precision<br />Reproducible measurements<br />
  14. 14. Analyzing the Data<br />Now that we have collected our data, we need to analyze it, or see what it means.<br />
  15. 15. No experiment is perfect, and our results can be effected by mistakes and errors.<br />Mistakes – Caused by the scientist, can be prevented by being careful.<br />Errors – Caused by experimental design or equipment. Much harder to prevent.<br />Analyzing the Data<br />
  16. 16. What is wrong with our experiment?<br />What type of TV Programs were watched?<br />Does less activity mean your brain is being ‘rotted’?<br />Analyzing the Data<br />
  17. 17. Now, we do the experiment again keeping our errors in mind.<br />What would a new experiment look like?<br />Analyzing the Data<br />

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