Sci Method Notes
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Sci Method Notes Sci Method Notes Presentation Transcript

  • The Scientific Method
    Chemistry 1: Unit 1
  • Stating the Problem
    Ideas for experiments usually come from making observations.
    An observation is information collected by using your senses.
    Fire is hot.
    Lemons are bitter.
    Observation: People that watch too much TV don’t do well in school.
    Let’s turn this observation into a question so that we can figure out how we could study it scientifically.
    Does watching too much TV rot your brain?
    This is called making a problem statement.
  • Take the observations below and turn them into questions.
    My dog drools at dinner time.
    The people who do their homework usually do well on the test.
    Stop and write down your answers before going to the next slide.
    Stating the Problem
  • My dog drools at dinner time.
    Does the smell of food make my dog drool?
    The people who do their homework usually do well on the test.
    Does doing your homework help you get good grades?
    How did you do? Your answers don’t have to match exactly.
    Stating the Problem
  • Making a Hypothesis
    Now that we have decided what we want to study, we have to make a hypothesis.
    A hypothesis is a prediction about the world that needs to be tested.
    It should be an: if…then… statement.
    For example, if you watch too much TV, then your brain rots.
  • Take the problem statements below and make them into hypotheses.
    Does eating too much candy make you sick?
    Does smiling at people make them nicer to you?
    Stop and write down your answers before going to the next slide.
    Making a Hypothesis
  • Does eating too much candy make you sick?
    If I eat too much candy, then I will get sick.
    Does smiling at people make them nicer to you?
    If I smile at people, then they will be nicer to me.
    How did you do? Your answers don’t have to match exactly.
    Making a Hypothesis
  • Sometimes people confuse observations and hypotheses.
    See if you can identify whether the statements below are observations or hypotheses.
    If I dye my hair purple, then people will like me more.
    Samantha has purple hair and is really popular.
    Making a Hypothesis
  • If you watch too much TV, then your brain rots
    The if part of the statement is the Independent Variable.
    I control the independent variable
    Amount of TV watched.
    The then part of the statement is the Dependent Variable.
    The dependent variable is measured.
    The amount of rot detected in the brain.
    Making a Hypothesis
  • Designing an Experiment
    Now that we have made a prediction (hypothesis) we can design our experiment.
    What should our experiment look like?
    We need to have people watch TV, and see what happens to their brains.
    Lets vary the amount of TV that they watch and measure their brain activity.
  • In a good experiment, your goal is to collect data. This determines if our hypothesis is supported or refuted.
    Data are groups of information. (Datum is one, Data is more than one).
    Data can be qualitative (descriptions)
    The older kids jumped farther than the younger kids.
    Data can be quantitative (numbers)
    11 year olds long jump an average of 1.6 meters.
    Designing an Experiment
  • Your experiment should usually also have a control.
    A control is atrial that duplicates all conditions except the variable being investigated
    Example: In our experiment, we should measure the brain activity of people who don’t watch any TV.
    Designing an Experiment
  • Designing an Experiment
    Scientists want their data to be both accurate and precise.
    Accuracy
    Close to the true or desired value
    Precision
    Reproducible measurements
  • Analyzing the Data
    Now that we have collected our data, we need to analyze it, or see what it means.
  • No experiment is perfect, and our results can be effected by mistakes and errors.
    Mistakes – Caused by the scientist, can be prevented by being careful.
    Errors – Caused by experimental design or equipment. Much harder to prevent.
    Analyzing the Data
  • What is wrong with our experiment?
    What type of TV Programs were watched?
    Does less activity mean your brain is being ‘rotted’?
    Analyzing the Data
  • Now, we do the experiment again keeping our errors in mind.
    What would a new experiment look like?
    Analyzing the Data