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Design Is The Problem
 

Design Is The Problem

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    Design Is The Problem Design Is The Problem Presentation Transcript

    • Design is the Problem... Nathan Shedroff 2007 Design is a big part of the sustainability problems in the world. Design has been focused on creating meaningless (often), disposable (though not responsibly so), trend-laden fashion items—all design. Graphic design is particularly bad, though paper materials, at least, have a huge potential to fix this problem.
    • Designer vs. Used Car Saleman Designers are worse than used-car salesmen (at least used cars are reused). Designers are taught (too much) to make “new” when it isn’t really better or when “old” doesn’t need replacing. We are complacent when our engineering and marketing colleagues suggest or insist on low-quality or longevity, cheap materials, or bad usability (features, process, etc.). No, where’ not the only ones or completely responsible but we’re responsible enough to need to change.
    • Designers create Ugly Despite how optimistic, idealistic, and future-oriented most designers are, design has sometimes created big problems in the world. Even where our best intentions have been engaged, our outcomes have often fallen short, even making matters worse, because we didn’t see the whole picture when creating what we envisioned. Where our best intentions haven’t been engaged, design (and marketing and sales and business) has been dismal. We are often responsible for making people feel terribly about themselves, only redeemable by buying this product or that service. We support--and often create--the entire concept of ugly. Design has been too often focused on creating meaningless, disposable (though not responsibly so), trend-laden fashion items—all of design, every last discipline.
    • Designers aren’t the only ones Marketers, Engineers, Politicians, Accountants, Economists, Educators, Business Leaders... That engineers and politicians and marketers and accountants and business leaders and educators and everyone else have been equally bad doesn’t absolve us from this reality—or our responsibility. We are complacent when our engineering and marketing colleagues suggest or insist on low-quality over longevity, cheap materials, or bad usability (features, processes, etc.).
    • ...and the Solution A saying in the Sustainability world goes like this: “You can’t be part of the solution unless you’re part of the problem.”
    • What is Sustainability?
    • What is Sustainability? Use and development that meets today’s needs without preventing those needs from being met by future generations. Brundtland Commission, 1987
    • What is Sustainability? Don’t do things today that make tomorrow worse A simpler definition... No so controversial, or silly, or dumb, or dangerous. It’s actually more conservative than most “conservatives” In fact, it sounds like common sense. Unfortunately, designers have been very bad about this.
    • What is Sustainability? Needs & issues: Capital: • Social • Human • Environmental • Natural • Financial • Financial
    • What is Sustainability? How do you measure it? • A myriad of social issues • Materials and Energy (LCA) • Systems • Actual metrics
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 What is Sustainability? A myriad of social issues: • Alcohol • Animal rights • Board transparency • Biodiversity • Chemical accidents • Child Labor • Cultural Impact • Death penalty • Deforestation This is just the tip of the list. There are more than 50 categories of social issues, each containing from 4 to 50 issues that are important to people. That’s over 500 issues to track, understand, and inform. In addition, everyone has different priorities for these as they reflect our personal values.
    • What is Sustainability? Existing frameworks: • Datschefski’s “Total Beauty” • Cradle to Cradle • Natural Step • Biomimicry • LCAs • Natural Capitalism • Sustainability Helix
    • Sustainability Frameworks Datschefski’s “Total Beauty”: • Cyclic: closed loop, organic, recycled • Solar: only renewable energy, cyclic, safe • Safe: all releases to air, water, land, or space are food for others • Efficient: 90% less materials, energy, and water than 1990 • Social: supports basic human rights and natural justice
    • Sustainability Frameworks Cradle to Cradle: (Eco-effictiveness) • Eliminate hazardous materials • Consider the entire lifecycle • Materials should be upcyclable • Less Bad does not equal Good!
    • Sustainability Frameworks Natural Step™: • Substances from the Earth’s crust shouldn’t accumulate in the environment • Substances produced by society should not increase in the biosphere • We must preserve the productivity and biodiversity of the ecosystem • Resources should be used fairly and efficiently to meet human needs.
    • Sustainability Frameworks Biomimicry: • Not really a framework • An inspirational approach • Be inspired by nature • Learn from natural processes
    • Sustainability Frameworks Natural Capitalism: (Eco-efficiency) • Natural Capital: materials, energy, stability, diversity • Human Capital: people & society • Manufactured Capital: materials, energy, and IP • Financial Capital: money
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Sustainability Frameworks Natural Capitalism: (Eco-efficiency) • Radical resource productivity • Ecological re-design • Service and flow economy • Investment in Natural Capital > but it’s still “Cradle to Grave” • Radical resource productivity – dramatically increase the productivity of natural resources w/ technology that exists now • Ecological re-design – shift to biologically inspired models like closed-loop systems • Service and flow economy – move to solutions-based business models • Investment in natural capital – to restore, sustain and expand the planet’s ecosystems
    • Sustainability Frameworks Life-Cycle Analysis: • Materials and Energy throughout the lifecycle • Raw Materials/Acquisition • Manufacturing & Transportation • Use (sometimes) • Disposal (sometimes) • Costly, rare (people) • Difficult for concepts
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Sustainability Frameworks Typical Focus Materials Materials Materials Materials Materials & Energy & Energy & Energy & Energy & Energy Outputs: Products Materials Energy Eric Masanet, 2003 + IDEO, 2006
    • Sustainability Frameworks Sustainability Helix: • Five stages: Exploration, Experimentation, Leadership, Restoration • Six Categories: Governance/Management, Operations/Facilities, HR/Corporate Culture, Design/Process Innovation, Marketing/ Communications, Partnerships/Stakeholders
    • Sustainability Frameworks Sustainability Helix:
    • Which is better?
    • What does “better” mean? There are no “bests”, perfect scores or absolutes. There is only a direction to turn (no location of “great sustainability). > Get Moving!
    • How about no bag?
    • Which is better for the environment? Toyota Prius Hummer H2
    • Which is better for the environment? Toyota Prius Hummer H2 Manufacturing Transportation Use Disposal From a life-cycle analysis perspective, it’s not clear.
    • Which is better for the environment? Toyota Prius Hummer H2 Manufacturing Transportation Use Disposal ~100K miles? Lifetime? 200K-300K miles? The point of this example is: How should we calculate it or communicate it? How would anyone know? How is a customer supposed to figure this out? We don’t know! We don’t have access to the necessary data!
    • Which is better for the environment? Paper Cup Ceramic Mug
    • Which is better for the environment? Paper Cup Ceramic Mug 1-69 uses 70 uses 71+ uses This is the value of reuse paper cup vs. 70 uses ceramic, 36 for glass
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Design for Environment (DFE) Designing to minimize the environmental impacts associated with a product (or service) Doesn’t include social issues
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Design for Environment (DFE) While Sustainability is more than just DfE, DfE strategies include: • Design for Disassemby (DFD) • Design for Recycling (DFR) • Modular Design • Designing Products as Services • Dematerialization
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Design for Environment (DFE) End-of-Life Strategies Design Strategies • Reuse • Robust design • Service • Modular Architecture • Remanufacture • Design for disassembly (DFD)/ Design for • Recycling with recycling (DFR) Disassembly • Designing products as • Recycling without services Disassembly • Dematerialization and material selection • Disposal • “Timeless Design”  Reduce or speed disassembly by: – Minimizing number of parts – Creating multi-functional parts – Avoiding springs, pulleys, harnesses – Locating un-recyclable parts in one subsystem – Locating valuable parts in an easily accessible place – Designing parts for stability during disassembly  Allow for service, upgrade and reuse by: – Making designs as modular as possible – Designing reusable platforms and modules  Encourage more remanufacturing by – Using remanufactured parts – Specify reusable shipping or consumables containers
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Design for Environment (DFE) Material Selection Guidelines: Simplify the recycling process Minimize the number of different types of materials For attached parts, standardize on the same or a compatible material Mark the material type on all parts Avoid composite materials Use low alloy metals If same metal can’t be used, fasten parts together Clearly mark hazardous parts Encourage more recycling Avoid regulated and restricted materials Use recycled materials Use materials that can be recycled Wood and Otto
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Design for Environment (DFE) Fastening Guidelines: Make disassembly as efficient as possible by: • Minimizing the number of fasteners • Minimizing the number of fastener types • Making fasteners easy to remove • Making fastening points easy to access • Using fasteners of material compatible with parts connected (to avoid disassembly) • Minimizing number and length of interconnections • Designing connections to be easy to break Make the product more recyclable by: • Making incompatible parts separable • Eliminating adhesives Wood and Otto
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Design for Environment (DFE) Energy Efficiency Guidelines: Guideline Reason Specify best-in-class energy efficiency Reduces energy usage and societal fossil fuel component consumption Have subsystems power down when not in use Ditto Permit users to turn off systems in part or Ditto whole Make parts whose movement is powered as Less mass to move requires less energy light as possible Insulate heated systems Less heat loss requires less energy Solar powered electronics are better Does not create harmful by-products Choose the least harmful source of energy Reduce harmful by-products Avoid non-rechargeable batteries Reduce waste streams Encourage use of clean energy sources Reduce harmful by-products Wood and Otto
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Modular Design Natural Raw Product End of Resource Materials Use Manufacturing Life Extraction Production Can be built into wall with external exposure to utilize cool outdoor air Modular compartment design allows for selective, “as needed” cooling Convex shape minimizes surface-to-volume ratio to minimize housing losses (up to 80% in current refrigerators) Advanced, non-CFC containing insulation is used to maximize insulating ability Reduced compressor loads lead to long product life (up to the lifetime of house) Up to 50% more energy efficient than current refrigerators Fact: Refrigerators consume 10-15% of all household energy FRIA Refrigerator in the United States [DOE] Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Modular Design Natural Raw Product End of Resource Materials Use Manufacturing Life Extraction Production Front-loading design uses up to 40% less water per cycle than top-loading designs Polymer-based barrel and reduced water requirements led to improved energy efficiency and longer component – and hence product - lifetimes Fact: The average American household consumes more than 500 gallons of water per day! [Pacific Northwest National Lab] Whirlpool Front Load Washer Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Modular Design Natural Raw Product End of Resource Materials Use Manufacturing Life Extraction Production Use of 100% recycled plastics reduces demand on virgin polymers and diverts plastic waste from landfills and incinerators Seamlessly met existing customer needs and market demands using a green approach to ensure economic viability (e.g., not a green technology “push”) Fact: 333,500 tons of plastic soft drink bottles are landfilled each year in the United States [American Plastics Council] Patagonia Synchilla Jacket Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Reduce
    • Reduce Dematerialization: • Weight and mass of materials • Detoxification of materials • Energy of production • Energy of transportation
    • Reduce Dematerialization: Apple iPod
    • Reduce Substitution: Less expensive and more sustainable: • Raw materials • Components • Energy sources
    • Reduce Eco-efficiency: Leveraging technological and process changes generate solutions with more value and greater efficiency. (efficiency now)
    • Reduce Eco-efficiency: Herman Miller Mirra Chair
    • Reduce Localization: • Reduce transportation energy and emissions Localization may not always be better (it depends on the resources and abilities of different locales)
    • Reduce Transmaterialization: • Transform products into services • Whole system solution to needs • More meaningful offerings
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Reduce Transmaterialization: Fact: 2.5 million tons of carpet are landfilled each Interface Carpets year in the United States! [Minnesota EPA] Though it’s been a failed approach, Interface, after detoxifying its production process, tried to sell carpet as a service, rather than merely a process. Their proposal was to sell floor covering and its upkeep, rather than the product itself. They would service the carpeting, keeping it in good condition for the term of the service contract. When the carpet (or parts of it) needed replacing, they would replace the portion and recycle it.
    • Reduce Transmaterialization: Apple iTunes Music Store
    • Reuse
    • Reuse Extending product life: • Higher quality/longer lasting • Servicable • Upgradable • Component service • Rental system (components and/or offering)
    • Reuse Extending product life: City Car Share
    • Reuse Design for Reuse: Reuse of: • Materials • Energy • Components • Function
    • Reuse Design for Reuse: Artecnica Bottles
    • Recycle
    • Recycle Design for Disassembly: • Product redesign • Labeled components • Uni-material components
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Recycle Incoming Batch Disassemble Sort Recycle Plastics Computer Plastics Recycling Process Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Recycle Incoming Batch Disassembly Manual Sort Recycle Mechanical Processing Technology Options: Manual Disassembly Mechanical Disassembly Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Recycle Incoming Batch Disassembly Sorting Manual Manual Shred Recycle Automati Mechanical Ship c Processing Technology Options: Manual Manual Disassembly Sorting Automatic Mechanical Sorting Disassembly Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Recycle Incoming Batch Disassembly Sorting Disposition Manual Manual Shred Incinerate Shred or Landfill Automati Ship Mechanical Ship Recycle c Processing Technology Options: Scrap Purchase Specifications Manual Manual Disassembly Sorting Acceptable Polymer(s) Acceptable Grade(s) Acceptable Color(s) Minimum Purity % Maximum % Paints Maximum % Metals Purchase Price/kg Automatic Mechanical Sorting Disassembly MTM Purity = 100 MTM + MNTM Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Recycle • Use materials identification labels • Avoid permanently attached, dissimilar materials • Design for ease of disassembly (snap fits vs. screws) • Use only one polymer type per product • Use only one polymer-color combination per product • If necessary, use compatible combinations of polymers • Avoid paints and lacquers • Avoid labels or use compatible labels • Choose high-value plastics • Avoid density overlaps between different polymers Eric Masanet, 2003
    • Recycle Closed-loop Systems: • Process redesign • Take-back programs • Eco-industrial parks/ industrial estates
    • Recycle Eco-effectiveness: • Cradle-to-Cradle • Upcycling • Packaging Cradle to Cradle Reusability and Recyclability doesn’t matter, actually reusing and recycling does. Therefore, even solutions don’t matter unless they is, at least, a system to make that solution happen, including a service ecology, education, awareness, and examples. > Cradle to Cradle book
    • Sustainable Development Process • User-centric (design and user research) • Strategic/whole-systems perspective • Integrating frameworks into the process • Innovation • Iterative/prototyping (experience, paper, working, etc.)
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007 Sustainable Development Process What business should we be in? How should we make it best? What should we make/offer?
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007
    • Sustainable Product Development Fall 2007
    • Breadth Product Service Brand Name(s) Channel/Environment (Space) Promotion Price
    • Intensity Reflex Habit Engagement
    • Duration Initiation Immersion Conclusion Continuation
    • Triggers Senses: Sight Sound Smell Taste Touch Cognitive: Concepts Symbols
    • Interaction Passive Active Interactive
    • Significance Meaning Status/Identity Emotion/Lifestyle makingmeaning.org Price Function
    • More Meaningful Offerings Do people who buy more meaningful offerings (products, services, experiences, etc.) tend to buy fewer things?
    • Measuring Results • Testing • Labeling and Rating Systems • Molecular-based LCA • Tools • Regulation (a tool)
    • Measuring Results Reveal Rating System Others in the works: Taoit, Alonovo.com, BetterWorldShopper.com, Ethiscore.org, Wiser Business, SBAR (Natural Logic), Cradle-to-Cradle Certification. NGO ratings: corporatecrritic.org, buyblue.org, responsibleshopper.org, Hrc.org
    • Measuring Results www.revealinfo.com In the future, consumers may have access to this information in a variety of places--but not for awhile.
    • Declaring Results • Green washing • Does your brand reflect these values? • Does your company reflect these values? • Don’t spend more declaring your results than the results themselves are worth • It may be easier to “sell” efficiency or health than sustainability
    • Basic check list: Less (Material) More (Meaning) Local No PVC Slow Healthy
    • Resources Natural Capitalism, Hawken, Lovins, Lovins Design + Environment, Gertsakis, et al Cradle To Cradle, McDonough, Braungart The Total Beauty of Sustainable Products, Datschefski Design for the Real World, Papanek Worldchanging, Steffen Design for Environment, Fiksel www.sustainabilitydictionary.com www.mcdonough.com www.biothinking.com www.soka.ch/lca.htm www.o2.org www.ce.cmu.edu/GreenDesign cgdm.berkeley.edu www.engineeringpathway.com