0
1American Government:Roots, Context, and Culture
Video: The Big Picture                            1   http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_   MEDIA_1/polisci/pre...
Learning Objectives                    1       Trace the origins of American 1.1       government       Evaluate the diffe...
Learning Objectives                           1       Explain the functions of American 1.3       government       Describ...
Learning Objectives                            1       Analyze the changing characteristics 1.5       of the American publ...
Learning Objectives                      1       Characterize changes in Americans’ 1.7       attitudes toward and expecta...
Video: The Basics                              1     http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_     SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/pr...
1.1Roots of AmericanGovernment: We the People Earliest Inhabitants of the Americas First Colonists
1.1Earliest Inhabitants of theAmericas Indigenous peoples     30,000 years     Not homogeneous     100 million inhabit...
1.1First Colonists Reasons for immigration Religious tradition takes root   “A city on a hill”   Lack of religious tol...
FIGURE 1.1: What did colonial settlement   1.1look like before 1700?
1.1 In which state did the Puritans   1.1first settle?a. Massachusettsb. Virginiac. New Yorkd. Rhode Island
1.11.1 In which state did the Puritansfirst settle?a. Massachusettsb. Virginiac. New Yorkd. Rhode Island
1.2Types of Government Definitions Devising a National Government in the  American Colonies
1.2Definitions Classification of governments Types of governments:     Monarchy     Aristocracy     Totalitarianism  ...
TABLE 1.1: How did Aristotle classify the   1.2types of governments?
1.2Devising a NationalGovernment in the AmericanColonies   Rejected monarchy/aristocracy   Rejected direct democracy as ...
1.21.2 Which form of government didthe colonists choose for their newnation?a. Direct democracyb. Aristocracyc. Oligarchyd...
1.21.2 Which form of government didthe colonists choose for their newnation?a. Direct democracyb. Aristocracyc. Oligarchyd...
1.3Functions of AmericanGovernment   Establishing Justice   Ensuring Domestic Tranquility   Providing for the Common De...
1.31.3 Freedom to protest and criticizethe government is considered the bestway toa. establish justiceb. insure domestic t...
1.31.3 Freedom to protest and criticizethe government is considered the bestway toa. establish justiceb. insure domestic t...
1.4American Political Cultureand the Basic Tenets ofAmerican Democracy Liberty and Equality Popular Consent, Majority Ru...
1.4Liberty and Equality Which is most important? Freedom from versus freedom to Political equality
1.4Popular Consent, MajorityRule, and Popular Sovereignty Popular consent   Governments derive power by consent of the g...
1.4Individualism Unique to American democracy Traced to Puritans Linked to unalienable rights
1.4Religious Faith and ReligiousFreedom Religious conflict motivation for immigration Colonists sought freedom of religi...
1.41.4 What is the idea that societyshould be governed by certain ethicalprinciples that are part of nature and,as such, c...
1.41.4 What is the idea that societyshould be governed by certain ethicalprinciples that are part of nature and,as such, c...
1.4Explore the Constitution: HowDo You Measure Freedom?      http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/lon      g_oconnor_mpslag_12...
1.4Video: In Context     http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA     _SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg     3_Political...
1.5The Changing AmericanPublic   Racial and Ethnic Composition   Aging   Religious Beliefs   Regional Growth and Expan...
1.5Racial and Ethnic Composition Immigration from Eastern Europe Growth of Hispanic population Minorities now the major...
Figure 1.2 How does population affect   1.5representation?
1.5Aging Strain on Social Security Impact on working Americans
1.5Religious Beliefs No longer mainly Christian Different political and social demands
1.5Regional Growth andExpansion North versus south Anti-government bias of West
1.5Family and Family Size Gender roles Declining marriage rate Same sex marriage
1.51.5 Regional differences in Americainclude:a. North versus Southb. East versus Westc. Urban versus rurald. All of the a...
1.51.5 Regional differences in Americainclude:a. North versus Southb. East versus Westc. Urban versus rurald. All of the a...
1.5Explore the Simulation: YouAre a City Council Member      http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long      _longman_media_1/2...
1.6Political Ideology What Is a Political Ideology? Finding Your Political Ideology Problems with Ideological Labels
1.6What Is a Political Ideology? Four functions of ideologies:   Explanation   Evaluation   Orientation   Political p...
1.6What Is a Political Ideology? Four functions of ideologies:   Explanation   Evaluation   Orientation   Political p...
1.6Finding Your Political Ideology Conservatives   Social conservatives Liberals Moderates
FIGURE 1.3: What are Americans’   1.6political ideologies?
1.6Problems with IdeologicalLabels   Is left-to-right the only direction?   Economic versus personal liberties   Statis...
1.61.6 Which ideology seeks to changethe political, economic, and socialstatus quo to foster the developmentof equality an...
1.61.6 Which ideology seeks to changethe political, economic, and socialstatus quo to foster the developmentof equality an...
1.6Video: Thinking Like aPolitical Scientist    http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_    SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presiden...
1.7Toward Reform: People andPolitics What Is Politics American Dream Redefining Our Expectations   Loss of faith in Am...
FIGURE 1.4: Do Americans have           1.7confidence in political institutions?
1.71.7 What has happened to faith inpublic institutions over the last halfcentury?a. It has stayed the same.b. It has rise...
1.71.7 What has happened to faith inpublic institutions over the last halfcentury?a. It has stayed the same.b. It has rise...
1.7Video: In the Real World      http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA      _SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg      5...
1.7Discussion QuestionIn what ways has America changed sincethe first permanent settlement of Europeanimmigrants at Jamest...
1.7Video: So What?   http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_   MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/OConner_Ch01_American   _...
Further Review:                         1On My PoliSciLab Listen to the Chapter Study and Review the Flashcards Study a...
O connor essentials.chapter1-179505
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

O connor essentials.chapter1-179505

785

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
785
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Conditions in the Jamestown, Virginia, settlement of 1607 were harsh. While eventually life in the settlement improved, it is important to remember the sacrifices of early colonists and the trials other waves of immigrants have faced to be part of the American dream. Much has changed since the days of the Jamestown Colony, and the people who live in America today differ greatly from those early settlers. The experiences and values of those settlers, however, continue to influence politics. This chapter explores the political process, placing people at its center.
  • Is it really possible for anyone born in the United States to become president? Author Karen O’Connor describes how the political landscape in America has radically changed over time due to shifting demographics, and explains why these changes are going to affect policy decisions in the future. TO THE INSTRUCTOR: To access the videos in this chapter, please enter your Pearson or MyPoliSciLab username and password after clicking on the link on the slide.
  • We’ll learn in this chapter about the beginnings of our government and how our government compares to other types of government. Keep these learning objectives in mind as we begin our exploration of American government.
  • As you can see, we’ll learn about the functions of government and the meaning of democracy in America.
  • We will continue to explore political identity and ideology in America.
  • Americans expect a lot from the government. We’ll learn how attitudes about the function of government have changed.
  • Before we begin, let’s learn what function government serves. In this video, you will analyze this question and explore the core values that shape our political system and how the growing diversity of our population is changing—and reaffirming—the definition of what it means to be American.
  • American government is rooted in the cultures and experiences of early European colonists as well as interactions with the indigenous populations of the New World. The first colonists sought wealth. Later pilgrims came for religious freedom. The colonies set up systems of government that differed widely in terms of form, role, and function. As they developed, they sought more independence from the British monarchy.
  • By the time the first colonists arrived in what is now known as the United States, indigenous peoples had been living in the area for more than 30,000 years. The indigenous peoples were not a homogeneous group; their cultures, customs, and values varied widely, as did their political systems. It’s impossible to know for certain the numbers of these indigenous peoples. Estimates have ranged as high as 100 million. Their numbers quickly diminished when European colonists arrived and brought with them to the New World a range of diseases to which the indigenous peoples had not been exposed. Those who were not killed by disease died in warfare or were displaced as the settlers pushed westward.
  • We’re well familiar with the Puritans coming to the New World in search of religious freedom. But the majority of colonists came seeking to enhance their fortunes, not their faith. The earliest settlers came not just from Britain but also from The Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Sweden, and included free blacks. The Puritans initially settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts, and believed the Old Testament charged them to create “a city on a hill” that would shine as an example of righteousness. To help achieve this goal, they enforced a strict code of authority and obedience, while simultaneously stressing the importance of individualism. Colonists with religious views that the Puritans considered heretical were thrown out of the colony and forced to settle elsewhere, founding places such as Providence, Rhode Island; Hartford, Connecticut; and Pennsylvania.
  • Prior to 1700, pockets of colonial settlement existed along the east coast of what became the United States, from present-day Virginia to what is now Maine. These settlements were divided among a number of colonial powers, including the English in the Northeast and around the Chesapeake Bay, the Dutch in what is present-day New York, and the Swedes, largely in present-day Delaware.
  • Now let’s answer this brief question about the early settlement.
  • Puritans arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620.
  • Aristotle classifies types of governments according to who rules, and in whose interest. Types of governments include monarchy, totalitarianism, aristocracy, oligarchy, polity, and democracy. Fears about mob rule and the vast size of the United States led the Framers to create a republican democracy that relies on the role of representatives to filter citizens’ viewpoints.
  • We classify governments according to who participates, who governs, and how much authority those who govern enjoy. Monarchy is defined by the rule of one hereditary king or queen in the interest of all of his or her subjects. An aristocracy is government by the few in the service of the many. In totalitarian systems, the leader exercises unlimited power, and individuals have no personal rights or liberties. An oligarchy occurs when a few people rule in their own interest. In an oligarchy, wealth, social status, military position, or achievement dictates participation in government. The term democracy applies to a system of government that gives power to the people, either directly, or indirectly through elected representatives.
  • Aristotle classified types of governments by who ruled, in whose interest they ruled, and how much power they enjoyed.
  • American colonists rejected a system with a strong ruler, such as the British monarchy, when they declared their independence. The colonists also feared replicating the landed and titled system of the British aristocracy. Due to the vast size of the new nation, direct democracy was unworkable. They viewed a republican form of government as most in keeping with their values and situation, with an indirect democracy in which people vote for representatives who work on their behalf. Activity: The idea of direct democracy has gained increasing traction as the Internet expands the possibility of expanding the role of citizens in the development of public policy. But the framers explicitly rejected the idea of direct democracy, even when the United States was a much smaller country. Ask students if recent technological innovations make the idea of direct democracy more attractive and feasible. Assume, for example, that millions of American televisions could be hooked up to a centralized computer system that in turn could instantly register the public’s view on issues (yes or no responses). Would this be an improvement to the American political system? Why or why not?
  • Can you answer this brief question about what we’ve covered?
  • The colonists decided on a form of indirect, or representative, democracy. They used the term republic.
  • One of the first tasks expected of any government is the creation of a system of laws. Societies must abide by the rule of law so that justice can be dispensed fairly to the citizens. The Constitution authorized Congress to create a federal judicial system to dispense justice. The role of governments in ensuring domestic tranquility is a subject of much debate. In crises, such as the terrorist attacks of 9/11, government can take extraordinary measures to contain the threat. In normal times, local governments have police forces, states have national guards, and the federal government can always call up troops to quell any threats to order. The Framers recognized that a major purpose of government is to provide defense for its citizens against threats of foreign aggression. Thus, the Constitution calls for the president to be commander in chief of the armed forces, and Congress has the authority to raise an army. Promoting the general welfare was more of an ideal than a mandate for the new national government. Over time, though, our notions of what governments should do have expanded along with governmental size. Americans enjoy a wide range of liberties and opportunities to prosper. These freedoms to criticize the government and to petition it are perhaps the best way to “secure the Blessings of Liberty.”
  • Let’s see how well you understand the Preamble to the Constitution. Can you determine what protest represents?
  • Exercising freedoms reflects how Americans can secure the blessings of liberty
  • Political culture is a group’s commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate. Key tenets of Americans’ shared political culture are: • liberty and equality • popular consent, majority rule and popular sovereignty • individualism • and religious freedom.
  • Liberty and equality are the most important characteristics of the American republican form of government, with liberty being valued over equality. The Framers wrote the Constitution itself to ensure liberty. Over the years, however, our concepts of personal liberty have changed and evolved from freedom from to freedom to. The Framers intended Americans to be free from governmental infringements on freedom of religion and speech, from unreasonable searches and seizures, and so on. But subsequent laws have expanded Americans’ concept of liberty to include freedom to work or go to school free from discrimination. Another key feature of our democracy is political equality, the principle that all citizens are the same in the eyes of the law. Notions of political equality have changed dramatically from the founding time. Activity: Although there is widespread support for the basic concepts of freedom and liberty in the United States, there have been many intrusions on basic rights in American history. From the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II to proposals to establish a constitutional amendment prohibiting flag burning, to the indefinite detention of enemy combatants without trial, Americans sometimes seem to turn a blind eye to encroachments on freedom and liberty in the country. Ask students why we find such discrepancies in an area where we also find complete public support for the basic principles. How might we reconcile such competing perspectives?
  • Popular consent is the principle that governments must draw their powers from the consent of the governed. Derived from political philosopher John Locke’s social contract theory, the notion of popular consent was central to the Declaration of Independence. Majority rule means that election of officials and transformation of policies into law will take place only if the majority of citizens support such changes. The American system also stresses preservation of minority rights, as evidenced by protections of individual liberties found in the Bill of Rights. Popular sovereignty is the notion that ultimate authority in society rests with the people. It has its basis in natural law, a doctrine that certain ethical principles are part of nature and can be understood by reason, so they should govern society.
  • American democracy places heavy importance on the individual, an idea that may be traced back to the Puritans. This emphasis on individualism makes Americans quite different from citizens of other wealthy democracies. Community-focused societies reject the American emphasis on individuals and try to improve the lives of their citizens by making services and rights available on a universal basis. In contrast, individuals in the U.S. are deemed endowed, as Thomas Jefferson proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence, “with certain unalienable rights.”
  • Religious conflicts in Europe brought many settlers to the New World. Seeking an opportunity to practice their religious faith, colonists initially settled large sections of the East Coast. However, that faith did not always imply religious tolerance. The clashes that occurred within settlements led the Framers to agree that notions of religious freedom must form the foundation of the new nation. Religious tolerance, however, has often proved to be more of an ideal than a reality.
  • Now I want to test your comprehension by asking you to answer this question.
  • Natural laws cannot be taken away from people.
  • Before we consider the contexts in which we will be studying American government this semester, let’s conduct a short exercise on measuring the freedom of citizens.
  • Let’s consider the values that are part of our identity as Americans. In this video, University of Oklahoma political scientist Allyson Shortle examines the core values that make up American political culture. She also discusses how these values gave rise to the American Dream.
  • Changing demographics have had a significant effect on American political culture. Diversity in race and ethnicity, generational differences, and regional differences impact the way Americans see themselves and how they view the role of the government.
  • The American population has changed constantly with the arrival of immigrants. Immigration to the United States peaked in the first decade of the 1900s, when nearly 9 million people, many from Eastern Europe, entered the country. Today, nearly 40 million people in the United States can be classified as immigrants, and most of them are Hispanic. Immigration has led to significant alterations in American racial and ethnic composition. The majority of babies born in the United States are now members of a minority group. By 2050, minorities will be the majority in America. While many people still view the United States as a Christian nation, a great variety of religious groups have established roots in the country and with this growth have come different political and social demands. Regional sectionalism emerged immediately in the colonies and sectional differences continued as the United States developed into a major industrial nation and waves of immigrants with various traditions arrived. All brought unique views about the role of government. Subsequent generations handed down these political views, and many regional differences continue to affect public opinion. One of the most long-standing and dramatic is between the South and the North. The South continues to lag behind the rest of the nation in supporting civil rights. The West was populated by those seeking free land and chasing dreams of gold. Some people have moved there to avoid city life and have an anti-government bias. Other Westerners are interested in water rights and seek governmental solutions to their problems. Significant differences in attitude also arise in rural versus urban areas. Those in rural areas are more conservative than those in cities. The American family has also changed. Gender roles have become less defined, family size has shrunk, and marriage rates have declined. These changes affect the demands citizens place on government.
  • As the population increases, the number of representatives in the House has not kept pace. The increase in Hispanic Americans and other immigrants may change the face of Congress.
  • Just as the racial and ethnic composition of the American population is shifting, so, too, is the average age. An aging America imposes a great financial burden on working Americans, whose proportion in the population is rapidly declining.
  • While many people still view the United States as a Christian nation, a great variety of religious groups have established roots in the country and with this growth have come different political and social demands. For example, evangelical Christians have requested school textbooks with particular views on evolution. American Jews want policies that favor Israel, while Muslims want policies that support a Palestinian state.
  • Regional sectionalism emerged immediately in the colonies. Sectional differences continued as the United States developed into a major industrial nation and as waves of immigrants with various traditions arrived. All brought unique views about the role of government. Subsequent generations handed down these political views, and many regional differences continue to affect public opinion. One of the most long-standing and dramatic is between the South and the North. The South continues to lag behind the rest of the nation in supporting civil rights. The West was populated by those seeking free land and chasing dreams of gold. Some people have moved there to avoid city life and have an anti-government bias. Other Westerners are interested in water rights and seek governmental solutions to their problems. Significant differences in attitude also arise in rural versus urban areas. Those in rural areas are more conservative than those in cities.
  • The American family has also changed. Gender roles have become less defined, family size has shrunk, and marriage rates have declined. These changes affect the demands citizens place on government.
  • Now let’s test your understanding about regional differences in America. What is the answer to this question?
  • Regions across the United States have different traditions, which can affect the inhabitants ’ views on government. In addition to regions, urban areas differ from rural areas; people in rural areas tend to be more conservative than people in urban areas.
  • Most scholars agree that American political culture is shaped by the ideas of individualism, community responsibility, liberty, equality, free market principles, and populism. In this simulation, you will explore these shared political values as you play the role of a city council member in Columbus, Ohio.
  • Ideologies, the belief systems that shape the thinking of individuals and how they view the world, affect people’s ideas about government. The major categories of political ideology in America are conservative, liberal, and moderate.
  • Ideologies are sets or systems of beliefs that shape the thinking of individuals and how they view the world, especially in regard to issues of “race, nationality, the role and function of government, the relations between men and women, human responsibility for the natural environment, and many other matters.” A political ideology, specifically, is the coherent set of values and beliefs people hold about the purpose and scope of government. Ideologies are a potent political force, due to the four functions they fulfill. Ideologies can offer explanations for why social and political conditions are the way they are, especially in time of crisis. Ideologies can also provide standards for evaluating social conditions and political institutions and events. Americans’ belief in the importance of individual ability and personal responsibility helps explain the opposition of some people to the Obama administration’s health care reforms.
  • And, much like a compass, ideologies provide individuals with an orientation toward issues and a position within the world. When many African American women decided to campaign for Barack Obama and not Hillary Rodham Clinton in the 2008 Democratic presidential primary, their identity as African Americans may have trumped their identity as women. Finally, ideologies help people make political choices and guide their political actions. Thus, since the Republican Party is identified with a steadfast opposition to abortion, anyone with strong anti-abortion views would find the party’s stance on this issue a helpful guide in voting.
  • Conservatives tend to believe that a government is best when it governs least. They want less government, especially in terms of regulating the economy. Conservatives favor local and state action over federal intervention. Conservatives are also likely to believe that the private sector is better equipped than the government to address domestic problems such as homelessness, poverty, and discrimination. A growing percentage of voters can be classified as social conservatives, who believe that moral decay must be stemmed and that government should support and further traditional moral teachings. These voters favor government intervention to regulate sexual and social behavior and have mounted effective efforts to restrict contraceptives, abortion, and same-sex marriage. Liberals seek to change the political, economic, and social status quo to foster the development of equality and the well-being of individuals. Modern liberals generally value equality over other aspects of shared political culture. They support well-funded government social welfare programs that seek to protect individuals from economic disadvantages or to correct past injustices, and they generally oppose government efforts to regulate private behavior or infringe on civil rights and liberties. Moderates take a relatively centrist view on most political issues. Aristotle actually favored moderate politics, believing that domination in the center was better than any extremes. Approximately 35 percent of the population today consider themselves political moderates.
  • Americans’ political ideologies have shifted dramatically over time. What was once a largely moderate nation has today become much more closely divided between liberals, conservatives, and moderates. These divisions can make governing particularly challenging and lead to gridlock in our political institutions.
  • Some critics charge that a simple left-to-right continuum cannot capture the full complexity of most citizens’ political ideologies. People can be liberal on social issues and conservative on economic issues or vice versa. Statists tend to be in favor of government intervention but may not hold policy views that align with liberals or conservatives. Libertarians tend to oppose government intervention in all areas, regardless of how liberal or conservative their personal views are.
  • Let’s review what we’ve learned about ideologies by answering this question.
  • Liberals look to the government for social welfare programs to protect individuals from economic disadvantages. They oppose government regulations on private behavior.
  • How do political scientists study politics? In this clip, Boston University political scientist Neta Crawford discusses how scholars who once focused on voters and institutions are now looking at deliberation as the primary indicator of the health of a democratic system. Throughout the semester, we will reference how political scientists study politics.
  • Politics is the study of who gets what, when, and how; in other words, the process by which policy decisions are made. Diversity and political ideology have a great impact on politics. In politics, there are always winners and losers. The American Dream is an ideal of a happy and successful life, predicated on economic freedom, political equality, and civil liberties. The myth of the achievability of the American Dream defines American political culture. As the nation and its economy grew in size and complexity, the federal government took on more responsibilities. Americans’ demands upon government increased, as did their dissatisfaction. Today, many Americans lack faith in the country’s institutions. We want government to do both more and less, and do it with fewer resources. For example, many Americans say they want less government, but as they get older, they don’t want less Social Security and Medicare. They want lower taxes and better roads, but they don’t want to pay road tolls. They want better education for their children, but lower expenditures on schools. They want greater security at airports, but low fares and quick boarding.
  • This graph shows the percentages of Americans declaring they had a “great deal” of confidence in American institutions. Note the declining trend of trust in all political institutions, as well as Americans’ record low levels of trust in institutions such as Congress and the presidency. Activity : Today’s Americans often question the “American Dream.” Yet the American Dream still reaches around the world. In a short (five minute) writing activity, ask your students to define the American Dream and outline a process by which they could prove it was still alive or is dying. What types of evidence could be used to defend their position?
  • Can you answer this brief question about content we have just covered?
  • Distrust of government and its institutions has been steadily increasing.
  • What is the government’s function in everyday life? Real people share their opinions on how involved the federal government should be in education by evaluating the effectiveness of the No Child Left Behind Act, which encourages standardized testing.
  • What is your government doing for you? Author Karen O'Connor lays out the most pressing issues that America faces today—including student loans and Social Security—and argues that students must understand how the government works in order to be taken care of later on.
  • Transcript of "O connor essentials.chapter1-179505"

    1. 1. 1American Government:Roots, Context, and Culture
    2. 2. Video: The Big Picture 1 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_ MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/OConner_Ch01_American _Government_Seg1_v2.html
    3. 3. Learning Objectives 1 Trace the origins of American 1.1 government Evaluate the different types of 1.2 governments countries may employ
    4. 4. Learning Objectives 1 Explain the functions of American 1.3 government Describe American political culture, 1.4 and identify the basic tenets of American democracy
    5. 5. Learning Objectives 1 Analyze the changing characteristics 1.5 of the American public Assess the role of political ideology 1.6 in shaping American politics
    6. 6. Learning Objectives 1 Characterize changes in Americans’ 1.7 attitudes toward and expectations of government
    7. 7. Video: The Basics 1 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_ SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_ IntroAmrGov_v2.html
    8. 8. 1.1Roots of AmericanGovernment: We the People Earliest Inhabitants of the Americas First Colonists
    9. 9. 1.1Earliest Inhabitants of theAmericas Indigenous peoples  30,000 years  Not homogeneous  100 million inhabitants  European diseases  Warfare
    10. 10. 1.1First Colonists Reasons for immigration Religious tradition takes root  “A city on a hill”  Lack of religious tolerance
    11. 11. FIGURE 1.1: What did colonial settlement 1.1look like before 1700?
    12. 12. 1.1 In which state did the Puritans 1.1first settle?a. Massachusettsb. Virginiac. New Yorkd. Rhode Island
    13. 13. 1.11.1 In which state did the Puritansfirst settle?a. Massachusettsb. Virginiac. New Yorkd. Rhode Island
    14. 14. 1.2Types of Government Definitions Devising a National Government in the American Colonies
    15. 15. 1.2Definitions Classification of governments Types of governments:  Monarchy  Aristocracy  Totalitarianism  Oligarchy  Democracy  Direct democracy  Representative democracy
    16. 16. TABLE 1.1: How did Aristotle classify the 1.2types of governments?
    17. 17. 1.2Devising a NationalGovernment in the AmericanColonies Rejected monarchy/aristocracy Rejected direct democracy as unworkable Chose republic Indirect democracy
    18. 18. 1.21.2 Which form of government didthe colonists choose for their newnation?a. Direct democracyb. Aristocracyc. Oligarchyd. Republic
    19. 19. 1.21.2 Which form of government didthe colonists choose for their newnation?a. Direct democracyb. Aristocracyc. Oligarchyd. Republic
    20. 20. 1.3Functions of AmericanGovernment Establishing Justice Ensuring Domestic Tranquility Providing for the Common Defense Promoting the General Welfare Securing the Blessings of Liberty
    21. 21. 1.31.3 Freedom to protest and criticizethe government is considered the bestway toa. establish justiceb. insure domestic tranquilityc. provide for the common defensed. secure the blessings of liberty
    22. 22. 1.31.3 Freedom to protest and criticizethe government is considered the bestway toa. establish justiceb. insure domestic tranquilityc. provide for the common defensed. secure the blessings of liberty
    23. 23. 1.4American Political Cultureand the Basic Tenets ofAmerican Democracy Liberty and Equality Popular Consent, Majority Rule, and Popular Sovereignty Individualism Religious Faith and Religious Freedom
    24. 24. 1.4Liberty and Equality Which is most important? Freedom from versus freedom to Political equality
    25. 25. 1.4Popular Consent, MajorityRule, and Popular Sovereignty Popular consent  Governments derive power by consent of the governed Majority rule  Bill of Rights protects minority rights Popular sovereignty  Natural law
    26. 26. 1.4Individualism Unique to American democracy Traced to Puritans Linked to unalienable rights
    27. 27. 1.4Religious Faith and ReligiousFreedom Religious conflict motivation for immigration Colonists sought freedom of religion  Did not want to grant it to others Religious freedom enshrined in Constitution  Tolerance still more of an ideal
    28. 28. 1.41.4 What is the idea that societyshould be governed by certain ethicalprinciples that are part of nature and,as such, can be understood byreason?a. Biblical lawb. Natural lawc. Majority ruled. Oligarchy
    29. 29. 1.41.4 What is the idea that societyshould be governed by certain ethicalprinciples that are part of nature and,as such, can be understood byreason?a. Biblical lawb. Natural lawc. Majority ruled. Oligarchy
    30. 30. 1.4Explore the Constitution: HowDo You Measure Freedom? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/lon g_oconnor_mpslag_12/pex/pex1.html
    31. 31. 1.4Video: In Context http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA _SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg 3_PoliticalCulture_v2.html
    32. 32. 1.5The Changing AmericanPublic Racial and Ethnic Composition Aging Religious Beliefs Regional Growth and Expansion Family and Family Size
    33. 33. 1.5Racial and Ethnic Composition Immigration from Eastern Europe Growth of Hispanic population Minorities now the majority
    34. 34. Figure 1.2 How does population affect 1.5representation?
    35. 35. 1.5Aging Strain on Social Security Impact on working Americans
    36. 36. 1.5Religious Beliefs No longer mainly Christian Different political and social demands
    37. 37. 1.5Regional Growth andExpansion North versus south Anti-government bias of West
    38. 38. 1.5Family and Family Size Gender roles Declining marriage rate Same sex marriage
    39. 39. 1.51.5 Regional differences in Americainclude:a. North versus Southb. East versus Westc. Urban versus rurald. All of the above
    40. 40. 1.51.5 Regional differences in Americainclude:a. North versus Southb. East versus Westc. Urban versus rurald. All of the above
    41. 41. 1.5Explore the Simulation: YouAre a City Council Member http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long _longman_media_1/2013_mpsl_sim/sim ulation.html?simulaURL=4
    42. 42. 1.6Political Ideology What Is a Political Ideology? Finding Your Political Ideology Problems with Ideological Labels
    43. 43. 1.6What Is a Political Ideology? Four functions of ideologies:  Explanation  Evaluation  Orientation  Political program
    44. 44. 1.6What Is a Political Ideology? Four functions of ideologies:  Explanation  Evaluation  Orientation  Political program
    45. 45. 1.6Finding Your Political Ideology Conservatives  Social conservatives Liberals Moderates
    46. 46. FIGURE 1.3: What are Americans’ 1.6political ideologies?
    47. 47. 1.6Problems with IdeologicalLabels Is left-to-right the only direction? Economic versus personal liberties Statists Libertarians
    48. 48. 1.61.6 Which ideology seeks to changethe political, economic, and socialstatus quo to foster the developmentof equality and the well-being ofindividuals?a. Conservativeb. Liberalc. Libertariand. Social conservative
    49. 49. 1.61.6 Which ideology seeks to changethe political, economic, and socialstatus quo to foster the developmentof equality and the well-being ofindividuals?a. Conservativeb. Liberalc. Libertariand. Social conservative
    50. 50. 1.6Video: Thinking Like aPolitical Scientist http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_ SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_ Constitution_v2.html
    51. 51. 1.7Toward Reform: People andPolitics What Is Politics American Dream Redefining Our Expectations  Loss of faith in American institutions
    52. 52. FIGURE 1.4: Do Americans have 1.7confidence in political institutions?
    53. 53. 1.71.7 What has happened to faith inpublic institutions over the last halfcentury?a. It has stayed the same.b. It has risen.c. It has declined.d. It has ceased to exist.
    54. 54. 1.71.7 What has happened to faith inpublic institutions over the last halfcentury?a. It has stayed the same.b. It has risen.c. It has declined.d. It has ceased to exist.
    55. 55. 1.7Video: In the Real World http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA _SHARED_MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg 5_IntroAmrGov_v2.html
    56. 56. 1.7Discussion QuestionIn what ways has America changed sincethe first permanent settlement of Europeanimmigrants at Jamestown? Consider ethnic,racial, religious, geographic, economic,political, and other changes.
    57. 57. 1.7Video: So What? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_ MEDIA_1/polisci/presidency/OConner_Ch01_American _Government_Seg6_v2.html
    58. 58. Further Review: 1On My PoliSciLab Listen to the Chapter Study and Review the Flashcards Study and Review the Practice Tests
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×