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Grow Your Own Food A
 

Grow Your Own Food A

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  • Observe shading patterns What is a potential hazard? Black WAlnut tree Lead paint- old building site What do you think of this site? shade, low area
  • First and foremost, get a soil test: pH, P, K, lime, Mg Should be done in fall if possible to apply lime in fall. $6 kit from Extension office, results mailed to homeowner Need a representative sample: several cores at same depth: stratification of soil especially top 1 inch. pH is probably single most important factor. N is not tested for because N is rapidly transformed in soils
  • nutrients according to soil test types of organic matter: compost, manure
  • How do you decide if you plant seeds or transplants? Days to harvest
  • Critical watering period chart in manual example melons- flowering fruit development

Grow Your Own Food A Grow Your Own Food A Presentation Transcript

  • Grow Your Own Food? Of Course You Can! (Part 1) Lee Young, Extension Educator, and Deb Andrus, Master Gardener Site Soils Planting Watering Techniques
  • in-ground vs. containers
  • GARDEN SITE NEEDS
    • Sunlight, 8-10 hours
    • Level land
    • Good drainage
    • Avoid low areas
    • Avoid windy sites
    • Near water source
    • Distance from trees
    • Protect from wildlife
  • Soil: a mixture of weathered minerals and decaying organic matter , covering the earth in a thin layer. When combined with air and water , soil provides mechanical support and nutrients for plants.
  • Soil Pie Solids 50 % Pore Space 50 % Minerals 45 % Sand, silt, clay Air 25 % Water 25 % O.M.
  • Organic Matter Matters!
    • Biological activity=healthy soil
    • Water and nutrient retention and release
    • Buffers pH
    • Improved soil tilth=better root growth
  • Soil texture
    • Relative proportion of:
      • Sand = large particles
      • Silt = medium particles
      • Clay = very, very small particles
    Which type do we have?
  • Testing the Soil
  •  
  • Effect of pH on availability of plant nutrients
  • pH can be changed
    • Lime will raise pH (reduce acidity)
  • Fertilizer Basics
  • Why fertilize?
  • Calcium deficiency
  • Fertilizer not Food
  • Fertilizer basics
    • A fertilizer supplies one or more “essential nutrients”.
    • Not “Plant Food”
    • Plants make their own food…
  • Essential nutrients
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Sulfur
    • Iron
    • Manganese
    • Zinc
    • Boron
    • Copper
    • Molybdenum
    • Chlorine
    • Cobalt
  • Macro - nutrients
    • Primary
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Potassium (K)
    • Secondary
    • Calcium (Ca)
    • Magnesium (Mg)
    • Sulfur (S)
    Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
  • How do we provide them to plants ?
    • Complete fertilizer - N - P - K
    • Lime - Ca, Mg
    • Air/Water - C, H, O, S
  • “ Complete” fertilizers contain:
    • N itrogen
    • P hosphorus
    • Potash (K)
  • What’s in the bag?
  • Nitrogen - N
    • Shoot growth
    • Green color
    • Vegetative vs. reproductive
    • Ex. 31 - 0 - 0
        • 10 - 10 - 10
  • Phosphorus - P
    • Seedling development
    • Root growth
    • Ex. 0 - 46 - 0
        • 10 - 10 - 10
  • Potassium - K
    • Regulates water movement
    • Affects drought, disease, cold hardiness
    • Ex. 0 - 0 - 50
    • 10 - 10 - 10
  • Manure (fresh is not best!)
  • Nutrient value of manures Cow manure analysis 0.5 - 0.3 - 0.5 Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium dairy cow 0.5 % 0.3 % 0.5% steer 0.7 % 0.5 % 0.5 % poultry 2.0 % 2.0 % 1.0 % hog 0.5 % 0.3 % 0.5%
  • Careful: low analysis but high rate!
  • Ball Park recommendations
  • Vegetable gardens
    • 1 - 2 lbs 10-10-10 per 100 square feet
    • 5 lbs lime per 100 square feet, based on soil test results
  • Composting Short Course
  • Recipe for compost
    • Mix equal proportions of green stuff and brown stuff
    • Add a shovel full of black stuff
    • Mix well
    • Wait
    • Stir occasionally
  • Green Stuff
    • Stuff that decomposes quickly
    • Will rot and get slimy
    • Low C: N ratio
      • Grass clippings
      • Kitchen waste
      • Weeds
  • Brown Stuff
    • Stuff that decomposes slowly
    • Will remain intact for months or years
    • High C: N ratio
      • dry leaves
      • wood chips
      • paper
  • PREPARING THE SOIL
    • Test soil
    • Deal with sod
    • Add organic matter
    • Add nutrients
    • Till (or alternatives)
    Goal: a great environment for roots .
  • PLANTING
  • IRRIGATION
    • Why?
      • Aids in seed emergence
      • Reduces soil crusting
      • Improves germination and plant stand
      • Reduces wilting
      • Increase fruit size
      • Prevents premature ripening of peas, beans and sweet corn
      • Improves quality of yield
  • IRRIGATION, cont.
    • What should you know?
      • 1 inch of rain per week
      • 65-130 gallons of water per 100 square feet or 2-3 gallons per foot square
      • A.M. watering preferred
      • Know critical watering period
  • Putting It All Together
    • Raised bed gardening
    • Lasagna gardening
    • Continued in Part B:
    • Container gardening
    • Tips for small spaces
  • Raised Bed Gardening
  • Reasons to Used Raised Beds
    • Ease of use
    • Higher yields
    • Improved soil conditions
    • Warms up quicker in spring
    • Better drainage
    • Soil does not compact
    • Less maintenance once established
  •  
  • Lasagna Gardening
  • Lasagna Gardening
    • A time-saving organic method of gardening first developed by Patricia Lanza. It requires no digging, no tilling and no sod removal.
  • Lasagna Gardening
    • Select site.
    • Put down a layer of cardboard or newspaper; wet thoroughly.
    • More layers: shredded leaves, kitchen waste (no fat, bones or oil), straw, composted manure, grass clippings
    • Water each layer
    • Build to height of 18-24 inches
    • Let cook for 6-8 months.