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Anth 316 Presentation



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  • 1. The Evolution, Structure, and Impact of the Chipko Movement Authors: Vandana Shiva and J. Bandyopadhyay Presentation By: Lauren Richey
  • 2. Satyagraha or Forest Satyagraha
    • A political strategy started by Mahatma Gandhi.
    • Started between 1930-31 as a result of the Forest Act of 1927.
      • Resisting new oppressive forest laws.
    • Non-cooperative, non-violent, passive resistance movements, activities, and protests.
    • Use of non-violent resistance as a political weapon instead of using firearms.
  • 3. Colonial Impacts
    • Changes in land tenure were introduced, thus transforming common village resources into private properties.
    • Large-scale deforestation was occurring for non-local needs like expanding the railway network in India.
    • Colonizers wanted to ensure control of commercial forest exploitation as a means to maintain revenue.
  • 4. Chipko or Embrace-the-Tree Movement
    • Started in the early 1970’s.
    • Taking place in post-Independence India.
    • First practiced in Garhwal Himalaya.
    • Has now spread throughout most of India, especially in the hilly regions.
    • Movement to protect forests from commercial felling.
  • 5. Hug A Tree!
    • Based on the 1960’s destruction of Himalayan forests through commercial exploitation carried out by private contractors.
      • Which became the major cause of ecological instability in the Himalayas, an already vulnerable ecosystem.
    • Survival of local populations and forest dwelling communities is directly linked with access to the forests.
    • The movement attempted to stop the auctioning of forests for felling by contractors.
  • 6. Justice, Ecological Stability & Women Power
    • Historically, philosophically, and organizationally, an extension of the traditional Gandhian Satyagraha .
    • Equipped with the Gandhian world-view of development which was based on justice and ecological stability.
    • Growth of women-power and ecological consciousness.
  • 7. Satyagraha & The Chipko Movement
    • The Chipko Movement is an expression of an old social consciousness in a new context.
    • Satyagraha and the Chipko Movement have both aimed to protect forests, preserve cultures, and maintain livelihoods.
    • Forest Satyagrahas and the Chipko Movement have both arisen from conflicts over forest resources.
  • 8. What differentiates Chipko from Satyagraha is its ecological basis…
    • Arose from rapid ecological destabilization in the hills.
    • Villages that were self-sufficient in food had to resort to food imports as a result of declining food productivity.
    • Reduction of soil fertility in the forests.
    • Water sources dried up as forests disappeared.
    • Floods and landslides.
  • 9. “ What do the forests bear? Soil, water, and pure air”
    • The Chipko Movement has become a national campaign.
    • It is the result of conflicts over forest resources at the scientific, technical, economic, and ecological levels.
    • Slogan of the Chipko Movement claims that the main products of the forests are not timber and resin but soil and water.
  • 10. Forms of Development
    • Dichotomy between ecologically sound development and unsustainable and ecologically destructive economic growth.
    • Genuine development can only be based on ecological stability which ensures sustainable supplies of vital resources.
    • Rethink forest management and protection.
    • Himalayan forests as protected forests instead of production forests for commercial exploitation.
  • 11. “ Ecology is permanent economy”
    • The threat to survival from ecological disruption is becoming a major concern for the future in resource use.
    • And human survival in sensitive ecosystems, such as the Himalayas, is more severely threatened than other places.
  • 12. Establish a new economy of permanence based on ecological principles…
    • Chipko’s search for a strategy for survival has global implications.
    • What Chipko is trying to conserve is not merely local forest resources but the entire life support system, and with it the option for human survival.
    • Gandhi’s mobilization for a new society, where neither man nor nature is exploited and destroyed, was the beginning of this civilizational response to a threat to human survival.
  • 13. Local and Global
    • “ The spread of the message of an alternative world view is crucial to the creation of a sustainable world, particularly in the context of a highly integrated global economic system. The ecological world view of Chipko provides a strategy for survival not only for tiny villages in the Garhwal Himalaya, but for all human societies threatened by environmental disasters.”