Protestant Reformation

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Protestant Reformation

  1. 1. The Protestant Reformation Through Maps Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  2. 2. R. H. Bainton The Reformation of the 16c Thus, the papacy emerged as something between an Italian city-state and European power, without forgetting at the same time the claim to be the vice-regent of Christ. The Pope often could not make up his mind whether he was the successor of Peter or of Caesar. Such vacillation had much to do with the rise and success of the Protestant Reformation.
  3. 3. Causes of the Reformation? <ul><li>Church corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Avignon Papacy and Babylonian Captivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Schism 1309 - 1414 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Constance 1414 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marsilius of Padua  Defensor Pacis [ Defender of the Faith ] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pope was head of the Church - only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Church’s power belonged with a council of clergy and lay people </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Early Reformers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Wycliffe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priest and Teacher at Oxford University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offended by the power and wealth of the church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted individuals to read and interpret the Bible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted the publication of the Bible in English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accused of heresy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backed by the Royal Court, forced into retirement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan Huss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher at University of Prague </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read Wycliffe’s work - inspired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criticized the church - excommunicated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condemned as a heretic at the Council of Constance (1414) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burned at the stake </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Spread of the Printing Press
  6. 6. <ul><li>Movable Type Printing Press, 1450 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johannes Gutenberg, Mainz Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movable type - technology from China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker printing of all books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible printed around 1450 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Holy Roman Empire in the 16 c
  8. 8. The Spread of Lutheranism
  9. 9. <ul><li>Martin Luther, 1483-1546 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest, Wittenberg, Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Erfurt studies Law & Theology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1505 hit by lightning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renounced his secular life - could not find the balance between ambition and faith </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joined Order of the Hermits of St Augustine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read, fasted and prayed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found his way with reading the Bible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transferred to Wittenberg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tried teaching theology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found preaching more comfort </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Came to believe that faith in God alone would allow salvation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disenchanted with the worldliness of the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hated the practice of selling Indulgences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Johann Tetzel - raising money for St Peter’s Basilica </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protested with the 95 Thesis in 1517 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Peasant Revolt - 1525
  11. 11. Calvin’s World in the 16 c
  12. 12. <ul><li>John Calvin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed the legacy of Huldrych Zwingli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>faith in God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reading and interpreting the Bible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predestination - the elect - dedicated to God’s wishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geneva, Switzerland,1536 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theocracy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict rules designed to show the world that they were the elect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Protestant Reformation
  13. 13. <ul><li>Calvin preached that people should live good, thrifty, temperate lives. These people became the business classes of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Calvinism – based in Geneva, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>-- Huguenots -- French Calvinists </li></ul><ul><li>-- Presbyterians -- Scottish Calvinists </li></ul><ul><li>-- Puritans -- English Calvinists that left </li></ul>Calvinist Sects
  14. 14. Protestant Churches in France (Late 16 c )
  15. 15. Tudor England Before 1529, England was a Catholic country. Henry VIII was not happy in his marriage. He changed the whole system of religion in England. Creating the Church of England also called the Anglican Church. He benefited greatly from the change!
  16. 16. The Anabaptists Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites)
  17. 17. Reformation Europe (Late 16 c )

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