Objectives Define matter. Explain the gas, liquid, and solid states of matter in terms of particles. Distinguish between the physical properties and chemical properties ofmatter. Classify Changes of matter as physical or chemical. Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance. Identify the chemical symbols of elements, and name elements, giventheir symbols. Identify important families of elements on the periodic table.TEKS: 2A,2D,2E,3B,3C,3D,3E,4A,4B,4C,4D,5A,11A,11B
Definition of MatterThe two properties of matter are:•Mass – amount of matter•Volume – amount of space occupied•Therefore…matter is anything that hasmass and takes up space.•The study of Matter is Chemistry.•Density = Mass (m)/ Volume (V)•D= m/V or g/mL
Density Density is the mass of an objectdivided by its volume.Density = mass/volumeMass calculated on scale.Measure in SI (SystemeInternational) gramsVolume = l x w x h (regular)Cm3 or CC or mL
Volume of an Irregular shape Volume of sample = final water level− initial water level. 86 mL – 80 mL = 6 mL
Identify Unknown Substances Using density you can identifysubstances Water density is 1.0 g/mL
States of Matter Solid – definite shape and volume ice Liquid – definite volume, and takes the shapeof the container water Gas – takes the shape and volume of thecontainer steam Plasma – a collection of high energy ions andelectrons. Sun• Only place on earth in arc of arc welder
Physical Changes Physical changealters thesubstance withoutchanging itscomposition orchemical identity. From a solid to aliquid, boil, meltcut break, split, grind crush, bend, condensefreeze , dissolveand crack areexamples ofphysical changes.
Physical Properties A physical property is a conditionthat can be measured or observedwithout changing the identity ofthe substance.Examples of physical propertiesincludecolor, solubility, odor, hardness, density, melting point and boiling
Chemical PropertiesThe ability of a substance toundergo a chemical reaction toform a new substance is called achemical property. Chemicalproperties are observed when asubstance undergoes a chemicalchange.
Chemical Change A change in which one or moresubstances are converted into differentsubstances is called a chemical changeor chemical reaction YieldsC + O2 CO2(reactants) (product)Usually light or heat producedBubbles producedForms a percipitant
Look for terms such as . . . burn rot rust decompose ferment explode oxidize corrode grow precipitate gas formation digest
Classifying Properties Both physical and chemicalproperties can be classified asbeing either extensive or intensiveproperties.
Extensive vs. IntensiveExtensive Properties Depend on the amountof matter present Mass, volume, length, height, amount ofenergy, etc.Intensive Properties Do not depend on theamount of matterpresent Density, boiling point,melting point, color,ability to conductelectricity, etc.
Classifying Matter Matter is classified by the number ofphases it contains. Any part of a system with uniformcomposition and properties is called aphase. Matter can be classified as eitherHomogeneous or Heterogeneous.
Homogeneous &HeterogeneousHomo = same Hetero = different•Homogeneousmaterials exist inonly one phase.•Heterogeneousmaterials containmore than one phase.•Includes solutions,compound &elements•Example:milkshake•Separate by filter,magnet, distill,evaproration•Heterogeneousmaterials are allmixtures•Example:Salad•Separate bypicking outdifferent particles
Mixtures Mixtures are a physical blend of 2 or morekinds of matter. Mixtures can be either homogeneous(solutions) or heterogeneous. Separation of mixtures is done by physicalmeans such asmagnets, distillation, chromatography andfiltration.
Pure Substances•A pure substance has a fixed composition .Elements and compounds are puresubstances.•Unlike mixtures, every sample of a puresubstance has exactly the samecharacteristic properties and composition.
Elements and CompoundsAn element is a collection of the same typeof atom. They are the simplest form ofmatter that can exist under normal labconditions.Atoms are the smallest particle of an elementCompounds consist of two or more elementsthat are chemically combined. They can beseparated only by a chemical change.Reactants ProductsNa + Cl(g) NaClSodium + Chlorine Yeilds Sodium Chloride (table Salt)
Law of Conservation of Mass “What you start with you have to end with” Matter is neither created or destroyed butchanged from one form to another.Chemical FormulaCoefficient(Reactants)2H2 + O2 2H2O (Product)Subscript
Forms of EnergyThermal is Heat EnergyTemperature is the measure of average energy.Endotherimic Taking in heat Example: icetakes in heat andmeltsExothermic Release energy Example: Woodfire
Forms of Energy Kinetic (motion) Potential (stored) Chemical (battery Li) Electromagnetic (light waves) Electrical (electrically charged particles) Thermal (heat)You can change from one form to another.
Classification of MatterMatterMixtures PureSubstancesHeterogeneousMixturesSolutions Compounds ElementsHomogeneous Matter