World War I. - "The War to End all Wars" Why did The Great War Happen ?
1815- Battle of Waterloo 1914 - W.W.I. The Napoleonic Wars left 3 million dead W.W.I. would kill 8.5 million “ The Long Peace ” 1815-1914 No major European war
Causes NATIONALISM Powerful nation-states form in Europe after The French Revolution IMPERIALISM European states engage in a “ scramble for empire” - frequently threaten war MILITARISM Glorification of war and military influence spreads in all countries PROTECTIONISM Tariff wars strangle free trade and threaten global economy
Europe 1890 Balance of power prevails Great Britain pleased France fears Germany Russia isolated, seeks allies Germany & Austria fear Russia Italy & Ottoman Empire weak but strategically located
The Alliance System The Triple Entente The Triple Alliance The Allies France Russian Empire Great Britain WAR! German Empire Austria-Hungary Italy German Empire Italy Austria-Hungary France Russian Empire Great Britain Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Serbia Romania
All that was needed was a spark... Gavrillo Princip Serbian terrorist of The Black Hand moments after killing Archduke Franz-Ferdinand Princip Archduke Franz-Ferdinand greets the Mayor of Sarajevo
Ultimatum Emperor Franz-Josef of Austria Hungary Serbia Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany Gives Austria 100 % support Gives Austria-Hungary “blank check” -100% support Tsar Nicholas II of Russia Supports Serbia, threatens Austria with war France Supports Russia, threatens war with Germany Threatens France & Russia War !
Nations greet WWI with joy ! A 25 year old Adolf Hitler cheers the start of war in 1914